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Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level research presentation given at ICDE in Hong Kong February 2004

Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level research presentation given at ICDE in Hong Kong February 2004

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  • 1. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level Presented at International Council on Distance and Open Education World Conference Hong Kong - February 2004 Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 2. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • PURPOSE OF STUDY
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA New Mexico State University’s Office of Distance Education ( www. nmsu . edu /distance ), in alignment with University-wide goals, is currently planning the international expansion of their distance education programs. As part of the feasibility and development process, administrators conducted research in an effort to inform their practice beforehand. This presentation reviews the findings of a qualitative action research study that focused upon the knowledge and experiences of four practitioners from established distance education institutions in Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and the United States . Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 3. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • DISTANCE EDUCATION AT NMSU
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA As New Mexico’s Land Grant institution, New Mexico State University has historically played a major role in making distance for students in the state as well as regionally, nationally, and education accessible at a internationally. Programs The University’s six Colleges (Agricultural & Home Economics, Arts & Sciences, Business Administration & Economics, Education, Engineering, Health & Social Services) are eager to further develop their Distance Education programs and course offerings. Bachelor-degree completion programs in education and nursing and graduate level programs in criminal justice, education, engineering, and health are our most popular distance education offerings at this time. Modes of Delivery: Web-based instruction using WebCT and Centra; Interactive Television; CD/DVD-Rom; Satellite; Face-to-face, technology-enhanced instruction at branch campuses and through the Cooperative Extension Service. http://www.likeglue-sw.com/ Dominant Distance Education Market: presently within New Mexico and the neighboring Southwestern United States regions serving a culturally diverse population including critical need immigrant, rural/agricultural and tribal groups. Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 4. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • INTERNATIONALIZATION EFFORTS
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 5. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • PROBLEM STATEMENT
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Although there exists some knowledge on topics related to international distance education, such as the design of distance education courses or inter-institutional collaboration, we have found little that directly discusses the procedures that a university should follow to internationalize their programs with optimal success. This led us to the question: What issues should distance education program administrators focus on when planning for internationalization? Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 6. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA
    • What are the barriers and challenges to internationalizing a web-based distance education program?
    • Which barriers have been successfully overcome and what were the strategies used to do so?
    • Which barriers continue to prevent the top international web-based distance education programs from fully delivering distance education to an international student audience and what current strategies are being tested as solutions?
    Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 7. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESEARCH DESIGN: OBJECTIVES & GOAL
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University OBJECTIVE 1: To report on the criterion that must be successfully accommodated in order to, to the best of our current abilities, provide accessible, appropriate, culturally respectful, and relevant educational experiences via distance learning to an international student body. OBJECTIVE 2: To learn about the foundational strategies that are recommended in order to successfully internationalize a web-based distance education program. GOAL To provide a summary of “best practices” and “lessons learned” from the world’s leading international distance education program administrators that may be used by program administrators to develop an organizational model in order to better plan for and serve our international students.
  • 8. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESEARCH DESIGN: DATA COLLECTION TOOL
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University The data collection method used to achieve research objectives was a chatroom interview. Two interviews were planned, with the first one constructed as an open-ended inquiry and the second interview designed following the first for clarification and extension.
  • 9. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESEARCH DESIGN: PARTICIPANTS
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA AUSTRALIA HONG KONG UNITED STATES CANADA Copyright © New Mexico State University www.traveladdicts.connectfree..../ China/last.htm www.multinet.no/~trojen/australia/ www.joe-englander-photography.com/ canada/canada.htm www-ttp.physik.uni-karlsruhe.de/.../ Statue_of_Liberty.jpg.html
  • 10. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: What are the barriers and challenges to internationalizing a web-based distance education program? Equitable access: “ Wealth is a restrictive element for the majority of the world's population, and often it equates directly to access to technology.” AU “ Also, as an open university it is our mission to be as open as possible. This means not building barriers to access.” AU
  • 11. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: What are the barriers and challenges to internationalizing a web-based distance education program? Cultural norms: “ Let me take the cultural aspects first …When [Institution HK] first started up we obtained much of our course material from outside of Hong Kong. This was essential as we were in a rapid start-up mode and did not have time to develop all ourselves. We obtained much material from the UK and Australia and some from Canada. Much was fine but much was loaded with cultural references which were not appropriate for local learners. … Often examples used in the materials were unknown to HK learners, for instance one example in some UK material referred to "milkmen" (i.e. people who deliver milk door to door.) No such beast in HK so it is difficult for students to contextualize the learning points.” HK
  • 12. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: What are the barriers and challenges to internationalizing a web-based distance education program? Student services and support : “ The 2 key issues are 1) operational, in terms of providing the full range of services and support anywhere in the world to support the learner.” CA Institution CA went on the give specific examples that compose some of this sizeable challenge:  Library materials shipping  Student credentials evaluation  Secure assessment/exam invigilation  Costly 24 hour technical support
  • 13. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: What are the barriers and challenges to internationalizing a web-based distance education program? Noteworthy Commentary- Imperialism : “ [For 2] On the other side of this issue is some discomfort about fostering a "new imperialism" in knowledge and education, and of imposing Canadian, euro-centric curriculum on the third world especially.” CA
  • 14. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: Which barriers have been successfully overcome to some extent by your institution and what were the strategies used to do so? Student Services and Support: “ Anyway, the up shot of this was that, for the individual foreign students we re-thought our fee structure, we insisted that they be online to communicate with us (no phone calls) and developed a set of "International Service Standards" to guide our learning support units……Finally, as we have put more and more teaching and services on the Web, this has enabled international delivery of our courses and programs: what seemed at one time to be a big operational issue is now routine.” CA
  • 15. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: Which barriers have been successfully overcome to some extent by your institution and what were the strategies used to do so? Collaboration to provide student services and support abroad : tutors, exam invigilation, study (learning) centers, and culturally-related solutions Noteworthy Commentary - Marketing: “… In fact, over the last 5 years, as the Web became the foremost means of communication for [Institution CA] (we get over 1 million connects a week on our web site), and without any promotion or strategy, we realised that we had a surpringing number of foreign students studying with us online…”CA
  • 16. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 1
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #3: Which barriers are still preventing your institution from delivering to an international audience and what strategies are currently being tested or planned as solutions? Top Barrier Concerns: Expansion and language Top Solution: Collaboration or Expansion Area Limitation: “ The issues vary with the location as well: for the US, we are candidates for accreditation, which will opens doors for students to study with us and for us to build a lucrative market there with not too much impact on service nor curriculum, although we do try to engage in the US educational and DE community to ensure that we understand our role and task.” CA
  • 17. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: Based on the administrators’ responses during Interview 1, technical accessibility appears to be a major barrier to web-based distance education for many students around the world. Given the advanced technical requirements of web-based DE, how would you advise an administrator new to international distance education on the role that the Internet and web-based learning/teaching will take in the future? (major coding category: accessibility)
  • 18. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: Accessibility Philosophy: “ I will preface this by saying that I am talking from the perspective of someone who works in an OPEN university and is looking to minimise barriers to access.”
  • 19. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: Accessibility Alternative Delivery: “ The advice will be philosophical rather than technical. The Web has evolved for the past 8 years or so, and much thinking today is constrained by the way it currently operates…With the advent of Internet2 and a widening of 'the pipe' our basic medium will change - so the focus will be squarely on 'what' is being delivered rather than 'how'..” AU “ Of course, there may be regions where a very low tech solution will be required for a long time, but those are unlikely to access any Web teaching.” CA
  • 20. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
    • Question #1: Accessibility
    • Course Development and Design
    • In the categories of “course development and design” and “interaction”, participants suggested using the Web for limited, but web-unique uses in order to minimize barriers:
    •  Communication tools
    • Research
    • Animations and simulations
  • 21. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #1: Accessibility Noteworthy Commentary: “ I continue to believe that DE is a viable form of education globally. The demands of many societies require the ability to educate large numbers of people with limited instructional staff. For example, in Uzbekistan there is a growing demand for primary education in rural areas and not a sufficient number of teachers. So, DE could fulfill these needs.” US
  • 22. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: It is clear from Interview 1 responses that collaboration may be an essential component to any successful internationalization of distance education. What path/paths should an administrator take in forging new collaborations internationally and which collaborations are most beneficial at the earliest stages of internationalizing a web-based DE program? (major coding category: collaboration)
  • 23. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: Collaboration Profitability Strategy & Partner Types “ The support we find is needed to enable online learning internationally is local support for access, study space, distribution of other materials, student services, and exam invigilation, [(I should have included student recruitment)] so we need reliable partners, public or private, who understand these needs, can provide them cost effectively for them, the student and us, and who have appropriate authority in their home jurisdiction.” CA
  • 24. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: Collaboration Needs Assessment & Regional Awareness “ The path a DE administrator chooses in collaboration should be governed by the area of the world in which they are operating. Again, as with technology access, this may require some research. I'll give you a couple of examples: In Europe, it is quite feasible to establish a working partnership with another institution of higher education. However, in my experiences in Southeast Asia, the preferred conduit would be an independent "academic" broker. In the latter example, educational institutions don't want to be bothered by the administrative processes needed in developing relationships.” US
  • 25. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #2: Collaboration Noteworthy Commentary - Imperialism “ Apart from anything else this helps to overcome what can be a sense of imperialism which can occur. For example, if a US university were simply to launch into the Hong Kong market, it could be regarded as another example of MacDonaldalisation!” HK
  • 26. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #3: For those that participated in Interview 1, it appears that cultural issues are in the forefront of the administrators’ minds as real challenges. Suppose an institution has had a request to offer a distance education program in a particular foreign country. What cultural issues need to be focused on during planning, development, implementation, and evaluation, and how do you suggest that the administrator approach this task? (major coding category: culture)
  • 27. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #3: Culture Curriculum and Instruction & Localization of Content: “ The issues that have to be thought about will vary from country to country and from subject to subject. Science and technology courses tend to be quite culturally neutral although, for all courses, care will be needed in the types of examples used for illustrative purposes. Business courses (except for studies of international business) tend to require more reworking. For example, Asian values in business are very different to European or US values.” HK “ I wouldn't recommend anyone to substantially adjust their curricula in an endeavour to appease or get in touch with the local context: that would be paternalistic, and likely rejected. This happens already in Canada, where there is great resistance to the "southern" institutions beaming up their world view to the Arctic communities, and even more suspicion when an attempt is made to try to "understand" the far North.” CA
  • 28. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #3: Culture Clarification of Expectations, esp. Interaction “ A second cultural attitude is the approach to education. When I teach, I like to create an interactive environment. However, when I taught a DE course in Russia this did not work. Students were used to a classroom environment in which faculty lectured. They were not prepared to respond to questions. Added to the educational culture that did not promote interaction, was a general perception in society, based upon years of Soviet rule, that people did not readily share their ideas. Thus the instructional design and instruction of a course need to consider these prospects……Another slightly different example is in Singapore where students tend to be very motivated. As a result, the DE administrator needs to be sure that they have sufficient courses available to meet these students' accelerated demands.” US
  • 29. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #3: Culture Noteworthy Commentary - Administration “ We tend to hold all our face to face sessions at weekends or in the evenings. But what constitutes a weekend can vary between countries and even within countries (Malaysia being an example).” HK
  • 30. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #4: Much mention was made during Interview 1 of the importance of student services and support. Please describe what services and support you feel should be in place before offering distance education to international students. Major coding category: student services and support
  • 31. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
    • Question #4: Student Services and Support
        •  Interaction
        •  Student Technical Support
        •  Equitable Access
        • Secure Assessment
        •  Faculty/Staff Buy-In
        • Student Services & Support
        • Advising
        • Registration
        • Tuition & Payment
        • 24/7 Help
        • Remediation
  • 32. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
    • Question #4: Student Services and Support
        •  Tutoring
        •  Collaboration-Administrative
        •  Language
        •  Student Administrative Support
        •  Student Advocacy
        •  Student Motivation
        •  Study Aids
        •  Study Groups
        •  Student Mentoring
        • Student Retention
  • 33. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #5: Given that a stated mission of many internationalization efforts is to provide increased educational opportunities for those who lack resources, what are some possibilities for an institution to both be profitable while offering distance education to those who have difficulty affording it and/or lack the technology required? (major coding category: profitable development)
  • 34. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #5: Profitable Development “ Good question! You’re really mixing missions here. The institution needs to decide why it is internationalizing. I try, not all that successfully here, to argue that we should internationalize and seek to serve students for the betterment of society and as a method of promoting ideals such as democracy, human rights, and improved living circumstances.” US
  • 35. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University
    • Question #5: Profitable Development
    • Strategies for expanding internationally and serving students from all backgrounds composed a broad spectrum ranging from high institutional risk to low institutional risk:
        •  Institutional investment for infrastructure
        •  Study centers
        •  Local resources
        •  Collaboration
        •  Government/NGO funding
        • Non web-based low-end alternatives: CD-ROM, telephone, radio, print
  • 36. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #5: Profitable Development “ Finally, profitability may not be a short-term thing. In 1992, I visited Poland. At that time, the Poles had no money and the economy was in shambles. A decision was made by people above me that this was not a viable initiative at that time. Unfortunately, if we had invested some capital then we might be well positioned as an education provider now as Poland grows and develops.” US
  • 37. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • RESULTS: INTERVIEW 2
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Copyright © New Mexico State University Question #5: Profitable Development “ As an aside, I spent a month on a project in Lesotho (Southern Africa) last year and most of the students did not have access to electricity or running water and would often have to travel on horseback to reach a major population centre. They had no radio , no telephone, and no television. For people in that sort of situation (i.e. most of sub Saharan Africa) there is no technical solution and low tech solutions have to be employed” HK
  • 38. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • CONCLUSION & NEXT STEPS
    Presenters: Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, Carmen Gonzales, Mary Teresa Brandon New Mexico State University, USA Successes The intention of this research study was aimed at informing our practice in the strategic planning of the internationalization of the university’s distance education program development and market expansion. This was accomplished by learning from experienced practitioners in the field. We have learned a tremendous amount about priorities in the administration of international distance education including the importance of collaboration and focusing on student services and support. We have found that having an institutional philosophy regarding delivery and the “openness versus profitability” question is necessary and will determine much about our program development and marketing. We will consider these important and insightful findings in our future decisions regarding the internationalization of DE at New Mexico State University.   Limitations A more extensive version of this study would likely include the three main stakeholder groups involved in the distance education process: the administrators, the instructors, and the students. This would provide a much greater expanse of insight and will be considered at our institution for future research. Copyright © New Mexico State University
  • 39. Internationalizing Web-Based Distance Education at the Post-Secondary Level
    • THANK YOU!
    Cinda L. Holsombach-Ebner, M.A. Project Coordinator Office of Distance Education New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA [email_address]   Dr. Carmen L. Gonzales, Ph.D. Vice Provost Office of Distance Education New Mexico State University Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA carmen @ nmsu . edu Dr. Mary Teresa Brandon, M.A. Faculty Dona Ana Branch Community College Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA tbrandon @ nmsu . edu Copyright © New Mexico State University