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Terrorism Keynotess

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Brief and potted history of terrorism

Brief and potted history of terrorism

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    Terrorism Keynotess Terrorism Keynotess Presentation Transcript

    • TERRORISM The History of
    • • Is violence act of Definition an unlawful • Intimidates or governments societies • Goal is to achieve political, religious or ideological objectives
    • “The calculated use of violence or the threat of violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.” (U.S. Department of Defense) “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” (Walter Laqueur)
    • “Terrorism is defined here as the recurrent use or threatened use of politically motivated and clandestinely organised violence, by a group whose aim is to influence a psychological target in order to make it behave in a way which the group desires.” (C. J. M. Drake) “The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.quot; (FBI)
    • Early history of terrorism • Terror has been ends and has used to achieve political a long history • AsJewishas 66 – 72 A.D.Roman early resistance to occupation, terrorists killed Roman soldiers and destroyed Roman property. • Terror was used to resist occupation.
    • Terrorism as biological warfare 14th Century – Kaffa - City on the Crimean Peninsula The Tartars hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it, effectively breaking a three-year stalemate - led the the Black Death as the plague spread through Europe 18th Century French and Indian War British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French Caused an epidemic in tribes, which resulted in the death of 1/3 of the population Effective means of incapacitating group
    • Early History of Terrorism Suicidal martyrdom represented being killed by invaders, which resulted in rewards in heaven. It dates back thousands of years in most societies and religions. Terrorism against the enemy is often viewed as a religious act.
    • Terrorism - where does the term come from? • The term quot;terrorismquot;French became prominent during the Revolution, when the word quot;terreurquot; was used to describe the action of the revolutionary government known as the quot;Régime de la terreurquot;, led by Maximilien Robespierre (July 1793 — July 1794).
    • • At that time, the wordof opposition withintoand outside quot;terrorquot; was used describe the violent repression the government and the use of fear to achieve political goals. Unlike today, terrorism at the time was used primarily by state representatives and not by clandestine non-state actors. Another difference can be seen in the connotations of the term. Whereas today, terrorism is regarded as negative and illegitimate, it was not originally perceived that way.
    • This can be seen in a fragment of Robespierre's speech Republic of Virtue: If the strength of popular government in peacetime is virtue, the strength of popular government in revolution is both virtue and terror; terror without virtue is disastrous, virtue without terror is powerless. Terror is nothing but prompt, severe, and inflexible justice; it is thus an emanation of virtue [...]. Maximilien Robespierre
    • Modern History of Terrorism Anarchists were seen in the late 19th century Individual terrorism The use of selective terror against an individual in order to bring down a government, e.g. Lincoln assassination
    • Modern History of Terrorism Anarchists were also responsible for the assassination of Tsar Alexander II
    • Irgun 1940s Palestine The Irgun, a group of Jewish nationalists planted bombs across Palestine through the 1930s and 1940s, which targeted both British soldiers and Palestinian civilians. Ninety people killed and forty five wounded after Jewish terrorists blow up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, Palestine, which was home to British government and military offices. It had two goals: to drive the British imperialists out, and to coerce the Palestinian population into unconditionally accepting the creation of Israel.
    • State Sponsored Terrorism quot;The Disappeared.quot; For thousands of Argentine families, this word has become a symbol of a long, harrowing nightmare. In a coup on March 24, 1976, a military junta seized power in Argentina and went on a campaign to wipe out left-wing terrorism with terror far worse than the one they were combating. Between 1976 and 1983 - under military rule - thousands of people, most of them dissidents and innocent civilians unconnected with terrorism, were arrested and then vanished without a trace.
    • DISAPPEARED In 1983, after democracy was restored, a national commission revealed the systematic abductions of men women and children, the existence of about 340 well-organized, secret detention centers, and the methodic use of torture and murder. The disappeared have not been heard of to this day.
    • Propaganda by deeds … terrorists acts Terrorism became tool of communication, propaganda American electrical contractor Nick Berg was assassinated by Al Quaeda in Iraq and video of his decapitation was sent to media outlets and broadcast on the internet
    • Modern History of Terrorism 20th century, terrorism became a tool used by both sides of colonial conflicts.
    • T T E E R R R R O O R R In the last 20 years of the 20th century, religious based terrorism became more and more frequent.
    • Terrorism is Asymmetric Warfare Asymmetric warfare is the use of apparently random/unpredictable violence by an weak military against a stronger military to gain advantage. (Allen, 1997). The key of Asymmetric warfare is using unexpected, unconventional tactics in combat (Craig, 1998).
    • Terrorism conclusions Terrorism is an ancient tactic. Terrorism is a mode of communication. Terrorism is a special type of violence and Asymmetrical warfare. Terrorism is used in times of peace, conflicts and war. Terrorism is designed to make a point, through psychological means, fear. Terrorism is a political act.
    • Terrorism Terrorism is different from regular crime because of its strong political properties The definition of terrorism can vary from people to people due to the differences in standpoint One person’s terrorist can be another’s freedom fighter