HISTORICALINVESTIGATIONYear 11 Modern History Turning points in history Welcome to the first unit for chosen subject of In your research, you should: Year 11 Modern History. investigation. • develop historical questions to direct your research This unit aims to develop your Present your findings in a • consult at least four different understanding of the nature of written portfolio using primary primary sources of information sources as evidence. • Clearly explain the key historical inquiry. features and issues Present your findings to the • organise your writing and We will use the “inquiry cycle” class in an oral presentation visuals into a logical sequence as the basis for this study and to answer the question you you will be assessed on the REQUIREMENTS: have researched, your ability to: 1. Written component: within the word limit allocated Approximately 1500 words • use at least one visual aid to Plan and conduct an historical with appropriate images/ help illustrate the issues investigation on an historical multimedia (Visual aids may include: turning point. 2. Oral component: maps, photographs, Approximately graphs, video clips, diagrams, Analyse the background, 3 minutes timelines). activity, key personalities and Evaluation of your partner (if • compile a bibliography of the events associated with your working in a group). references you have used 1
Was 9/11 a turning point?Our first step in the practice century just as the Nor did 9/11 usher in,investigation is to establish aseries of questions that will Sarajevo assassination fortunately, a worldhelp to guide our research. in July 1914 marked dominated by “hyper-Our overarching aim is todetermine whether or not 9/11 our entrance into the terrorism.” Terroristswas a turning point in history. 20th? inspired by Al QaedaRead the following articlesfrom the New York Times and have continued toanswer the questions that Contrary to what some strike from Spain tofollow each article. analysts said in the Britain and from IndiaAn Infamy immediate aftermath of to Nigeria, just to the terrorist attacks, mention a few of theirin History 9/11 did not signify the targets.By DOMINIQUE MOISI entrance into a worldPublished: September 7, dominated by the But placed on the2011 “clash of civilizations” defensive by the announced in the 1990s mobilization of thePARIS — “What were by Samuel Huntington. world against them — ayou doing on 9/11?” In collaborative effort thata few days this question With the benefit of really made thewill dominate all hindsight, this unique difference — they haveconversations, at least human tragedy — never been able toin the Western world. nearly 3,000 people repeat 9/11.The emotional died in the Twincentrality of this tragic Towers of Manhattan — The death of Osama binday remains appears instead as the Laden in the midst ofundeniable, but what culminating point and the Arab Spring — aabout its strategic the beginning of decline revolution that begancentrality? for Al Qaeda in its without the knowledge sectarian warfare or involvement ofIs 9/11 an historical against established fundamentalistturning point, one that Islam, as much as Islamists — declaredushered us into the 21st against the West. the defeat of the
terrorists and the dawn presidential elections inmover of a ruinous andof a post-Islamist 2000 and a dozen ill-considered rushworld, even if Islamist terrorists indoctrinated forward (theparties do well in by a nihilist ideology armaments race forelections in countries accelerated and may Moscow, and foreignlike Egypt. even have modified the adventures for course of history. Washington). And ofOf course terrorism can course America today isnever be fully defeated. The encounter between not the equivalent ofThere will be more George W. Bush and what the Soviet Unionterror attacks. Al Qaeda 9/11 produced was yesterday —may win a few more consequences that even America’s internalbattles, but it has lost the terrorists, in their contradictions havethe war. darkest dreams, could neither the depth nor not foresee. It is the gravity of the SovietIf 21st century unlikely that Al Gore as Union’s.historians will continue president would haveto regard 9/11 as a used 9/11 as a pretext Yet it is legitimate tosymbolic date, as a to launch the war in ask whether the firstrevealing accelerator of Iraq, a war that has decade of the 21sthistory, it will be less resulted in the doubling century has not been afor the terror attacks of the American debt. “lost” one for thethemselves than for the United States, andAmerican response. It would be highly whether, in American exaggerated to say that eyes, the tree ofHistorians speak of the Bin Laden became the fundamentalist“law of unintended equivalent for the terrorism did not hideconsequences.” The United States of what the forest of the rise ofencounter between a Ronald Reagan was for Asia.few thousand confused a declining Sovietvoters in Florida in the empire — the prime
The purported Dominique Moïsi is differ from the typeAmerican victory a senior adviser at the of Islam that Alagainst French Institute for Qaeda promotes?fundamentalism has International Relationsbeen a Pyrrhic one not (IFRI), and the author, 5. Which four countryonly because of its most recently, of “Un (other than the US)financial, moral and Juif improbable.” have been attackeddiplomatic cost, but in by terrorists linked to I.H.T. OP-ED Al Qaeda?its overreaction, in the CONTRIBUTORwaste of energy that 6. What is the “Arabcould have been used Spring”? Who died infar better in QUESTIONS: the midst of thisAfghanistan than in 1. What does Masi movement?Iraq. mean by a “clash of 7. What, according toAmerica probably civilizations”? Which this writer, was theunderreacted to the civilisations is he “unintendedterrorist threat before referring to? consequence” of the9/11, and overreacted 2. How many people war in Iraq?after the event. died because of the 8. What is a PyrrhicSo 9/11 is a historical 9/11 attacks? victory?moment, but not 3. What are the twonecessarily for the 9. What, according to targets that Al Qaedareasons that seemed to the writer, has 9/11 has employed itsprevail at the time. It accelerated? “sectarian warfare”did not signal the against? Source: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/08/arrival of a new world,but it has accelerated 4. How does opinion/08iht-edmoisi08.html?_r=1the end of the American “established Islam”Century.
University, joins the marked the beginningWas 9/11 a debate. of the end of theHistorical It was irresistible, on American Century.Turning the 10th anniversary of It is always tempting toPoint? 9/11, to draw large historical conclusions search for historical comparisons — or inBy TED WIDMERPublished: September 16, about the demise of the this case two (“the2011 United States, and to American Century” was 1 RECOMMEND 2 TWITTER express regrets over coined as the United 3 LINKEDIN 4 SIGN IN TO E-MAIL paths not taken. And so States was about to 5 PRINT 6 REPRINTS a mighty wind blew enter World War II). 7 SHARE across the media But 9/11 stands alone landscape, lamenting as an event, and weDominique Moïsi “the lost decade,” as should resist the easyargued on these pages Dominique Moïsi called path to lump it togetheron Sept. 8 (“An infamy it in his column. with the disasters of thein history” ) that the past.significance of 9/11 lies Moreover, Moïsi askednot in what many leading questions about Few now deny that theobservers see as an the fall of empires, Iraq war was aopening salvo in a wondering if 9/11 was a misguided effort that“clash of civilizations,” historical disaster on achieved few of itsbut rather in the fact the order of the stated aims. Thatthat the attacks assassination of seemed to be nearlyaccelerated the end of Archduke Franz unanimous last week asthe American Century. Ferdinand in Sarajevo commentators tried toTed Widmer, a in 1914. Without quite focus on 9/11, buthistorian who directs answering in the inevitably found theirthe John Carter Brown affirmative, he still way into the series ofLibrary at Brown suggested that it military actions that
followed the East. That is not to Most of thosedestruction of the minimize its exuberant claims wereWorld Trade Center. consequences — made on the right, byAnd the end of the Vietnam was a small partisans of the Iraqadventure in country too, and war nostalgic for WorldAfghanistan cannot Sarajevo a distant War II, but highlycome soon enough. Balkan outpost. But selective in their still, it is not the same. memory. In theBut Sarajevo? A lot of neoconservativeterrible things have It is essential to be narrative, Winstonhappened in the last 10 precise about the Churchill was usuallyyears, but nothing on details. Playing fast and the dominant leader ofthe scale of World War loose with the past can the Allies, rather thanI. The Great War may have disastrous Franklin D. Roosevelt,have killed as many as consequences, and it whose politics were20 million people, was a similar inconvenientlydestroyed three imprecision that progressive. Or for thatempires and brought the Iraq war matter, the otherpermanently disrupted into our living rooms member of the Biga power structure that and our lives. For much Three, Joseph Stalin,had ruled much of the of the last decade, we whose politics wentworld for centuries. heard Osama bin Laden considerably pastWorld War II may have likened to Hitler or “progressive.” Wekilled 50 million and Stalin, when in fact didn’t hear Uncle Joereshaped the world all there was nothing even described very often inover again. Most remotely fascistic or that context.surveys indicate that totalitarian about the100,000 have been stateless band of It has become ratherkilled in Iraq, a small terrorists he was trying easy to criticizecountry in the Middle to direct. President George W.
Bush for the mistakes is hard to see how a historians drawnhe made, especially in refusal to fight those about the US?Paris, where America’s wars would havefailure to live up to slowed China’s growth. 2. What disaster did theFrench expectations is assassination ofa much-cherished local And it remains difficult Archduke Franztradition, nearly as old to see how China will Ferdinand inas the United States assume the great Sarajevo in 1914itself. But to fall into mantle of leadership bring about?undisciplined thinking that was thrust upon the United States for 3. Why does Tedabout the past risks much of the last Widmer believe thatperpetuating the same century. Or how that 9/11 is nothing likemistakes. would bring much World War I?It also surrenders to a comfort to France. 4. What has the wars inform of pessimism that Instead, commentators Iraq and Afghanistanis not especially on the left and the right “eroded”?instructive when theworld seeks a new and need to come up with 5. What is differencebetter narrative. creative solutions for between “hard” and guiding a world that “soft” power?The wars in Iraq and does not always live upAfghanistan have to its history. 6. How much as theeroded both hard and “War on Terror” costsoft power for the QUESTIONS: the US?United States at a time 1. On the 10thwhen we could use both 7. What does Widmer anniversary of 9/11,— along with the $1.2 believe that what “large historicaltrillion or so that we commentators need conclusions” havespent chasing after the to come up with?specters of 9/11. But it