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Product development project Product development project Document Transcript

  • Student: Cillian O Sullivan Number: 0661716 Course Title: Product Design and Technology Module: PT4427 (Design for Manufacture) Lecturer: Dr. Con Sheahan
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Contents Product Development Project ................................................................................................... 4 Abstract .................................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 4 Background ............................................................................................................................ 5 Current Approach .................................................................................................................. 6 Objective (Key Concepts) ....................................................................................................... 7 Business Opportunity ............................................................................................................. 7 Survey of existing solutions ................................................................................................... 8 Project Justification .............................................................................................................. 13 Project Plan .......................................................................................................................... 13 Design Approach ...................................................................................................................... 14 Literature Review ................................................................................................................. 14 QFD....................................................................................................................................... 15 Voice of the Customer ......................................................................................................... 16 Evaluation Criteria................................................................................................................ 17 Evaluation of existing solutions ........................................................................................... 19 Final Customer Requirement ............................................................................................... 21 Conceptual Model ................................................................................................................ 21 Use Description .................................................................................................................... 22 Product Development Specification .................................................................................... 23 Detailed Requirement Analysis ............................................................................................ 31 Design Requirements ........................................................................................................... 31 Manufacturing Requirements .............................................................................................. 32 Manufacturing Process Map ................................................................................................ 32 Final System Specification & Test Plans ............................................................................... 33 Prototype Manufacture ........................................................................................................... 34 Prototype Design ................................................................................................................. 34 Prototype Build .................................................................................................................... 36 Prototype Proof of Concept ................................................................................................. 39 Evaluation of Design ................................................................................................................ 40 2
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology DFA Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 40 DFM Analysis ........................................................................................................................ 41 DFE Analysis ......................................................................................................................... 41 Discussion and Conclusions ..................................................................................................... 42 Proof of Concept as compared to Specification .................................................................. 42 Superiority over current system .......................................................................................... 42 Cost Benefit Analysis of this Approach ................................................................................ 42 Learning outcomes............................................................................................................... 42 Discussion............................................................................................................................. 43 Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 43 References ........................................................................................................................... 45 Appendices........................................................................................................................... 46 3
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Product Development Project Abstract This report deals with the problems facing a mechanic (automotive technician) while working underneath and design and manufacture of a product that aid them while there. The customer requirements are detailed and matched with design and manufacturing requirements. The design and build of a concept model are included along with proof that the concept carries out the tasks required of it. Introduction Automotive technicians have a very labour intensive job as jobs tend to go. The physical toll taken on one’s body can lead to one being unable to work through one’s prime. The goal of this project is to alleviate part of the physical toll by means of designing a device to aid mechanics while they work on the underneath of a car. It can be taken for granted that working underneath a car is an unpleasant experience. Modern techniques for working underneath the car involve the vehicle be lifted, by means of a mechanical lift, above the head of the mechanic. 4
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Background Illness and injuries among mechanics are very common for example, • Asbestosis • Skin cancer • Strains (muscles and joints) • Trapped limbs • Cuts • Head injuries • Burns • Heart Attacks (over exertion) There is a wealth of products already on the market that provide mechanics with solutions to most of these problems. Rubber gloves to protect from skin cancer and dust masks to prevent asbestosis. There are engine cranes and jacks to aid with lifting and to prevent falling objects. However gaps are still present where a mechanics health and safety is at risk. For example when removing a gearbox from a car both to replace the clutch or the gearbox 5
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology itself the market only provides jacks that take the weight of a gearbox(between 20 and 60kgs) none provide a means of aiding the mechanic in pulling the gearbox (red) away from the engine block (blue). This is a key cause of over exertion due to the weight of the box and the use of one’s hands over heart level doing a strenuous exercise. The convenience factor is another issue dealt with by mechanics. Having ones tools to hand is important. Trying to reduce the need to pick tools of the ground or having to run over and back to a work bench isn’t an appealing option for mechanics. Current Approach At the moment there are solutions on the market for both issues raised above, gearbox jacks and tool trays. To remove a gearbox the mechanic must first load a tool tray with all the appropriate tools needed to separate the gearbox from the engine. This tray is then wheeled into position under the car. At gearbox jack is the wheeled into position under the gearbox and lifted up under the box to take the weight. The gearbox is then unbolted form the engine block and the mechanic physically pulls the box out from the block. The gearbox is then dropped down and the mechanic proceeds with the task at hand. 6
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Objective (Key Concepts)  To create a jack that eliminates the need to carry both a tool tray and a gearbox jack under the car  To create a jack the eliminates the need for the mechanic to physically pull out the gearbox by hand  Make a more secure jack plate to ensure the gearbox does not fall during the task  Make the product as user friendly and adjustable as possible  Account for varying sizes of gearbox Business Opportunity There are many mechanics in operation in the working world. Clutches and gearboxes have to be replaced all the time and for this to be done jacks and tool trays are needed. All products have a lift span so when a mechanic needs to invest in a new tray or jack why wouldn’t they invest in a product that offers more than the traditional one. 7
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Survey of existing solutions Car lift that allows the mechanic access to the underneath side of the car. Trolley Jack allows restricted access to the underside of a car and can also be used to support a gear box as car be seen bellow. 8
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology A gearbox removed from car at ground level with a trolley jack. Gearbox jack for when the car is close to the ground. Similar jack to the previous but with added support to prevent gearbox from falling. 9
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology A gearbox jack for working at height. Similar jack with chains to restrain the gearbox 10
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Simple tool tray for moving tools to the work area 11
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Tool tray with added light on castor wheels 12
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Project Justification The need exists for a product on the market for mechanics that provides adequate adjustability to grip a gearbox while a mechanical system eliminates the need for the mechanic to physically exert oneself while removing a gearbox. This product also needs to have sufficient tool storage to abolish the need for a mechanic to use a separate tool tray. Project Plan  Test existing products  Talk to the user  Research and solve mechanical problems  Explore various ideas to improve convenience  Acquire gearbox for testing  Test prototypes for functionality  Attain relevant feedback from the user 13
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Design Approach Literature Review US Patent 5139233 Abstract A lift jack adaptor for cradling a heavy irregularly shaped object such as an automotive transmission includes a rigid base for mounting to a lift jack and pairs of laterally spaced arms extending up from the base, the upper ends of those arms being terminated by flanges for engaging the underside of the object cradled in the adaptor. These flanges are fastened to the object and positively connect the object to the adaptor so that one can raise and lower the object using the jack and repair the object in relative safety. 14
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology QFD A system for translation customer requirements into design and manufacturing requirements. It reduces the number of design changes thus saving time. 15
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Voice of the Customer Ways chosen to research the customer and get their opinion.  Online forums  Driver.ie  Car Mechanics Discussion Forum  Interviews  Observation The online forums provided a lot of solid information that was really helpful in directing the project. After asking mechanics online questions like  Could you describe your job in three words?  Have you ever been injured on the job?  Do you suffer from any long term injury or illness that you attribute to your job?  Does anything bother you about your line of work? E.g. fear, anger, annoyance. With the answers acquired online it was time to visit the user in person and ask them some questions for example.  Why do mechanic sometimes describe their jobs as being dangerous?  Why do back and neck injuries seem to be the most prominent injuries?  What annoys you about working underneath a car?  What dangers are underneath the car? 16
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology From taking to various mechanics they all have the general consensus that working with gearboxes at the height in question is dangerous and the effort needed to remove the box is greater that it needs to be. Convenience is also an important factor for mechanics. A product that solves more than one problem is a worthwhile investment. Evaluation Criteria  Weight of a gearbox(20-60kgs)  Variations of gearboxes ( Rear wheel drive, front wheel drive, four wheel drive)  Jobs done on gearbox (clutch , replacing box itself) 4WD Gearbox  heaviest box at around 60kgs  Larger size due to more gearing 17
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology RWD Gearbox  Middle weight at around 40kgs  Longer than the other boxes due to it being positioned along the length of the car FWD Gearbox  Lightest at around 20-30kgs  Shortest and thinnest due to it position beside the engine block. Replacing clutch  Multitude of tools needed  Large ammount of bolts to be removed  Many parts of a clutch( clutch plate, friction plate etc) 18
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Evaluation of existing solutions Gearbox (transmission) jacks come in a wide variety of shapes and size but generally they all perform the basic requirements needed.  Taking the weight of the gearbox  Providing basic stability for the gearbox  Simple jack with a supporting plate  No tool tray  No pulling movement  Slight adjustability  Simple jack with a supporting plate  No tool tray  No pulling movement  No adjustability 19
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology  large and bulky  Risk of losing nuts and bolts  Not very manoeuvrable  Separate item to jack  large and bulky  Not very manoeuvrable  Separate item to jack 20
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Final Customer Requirement  A safe and secure way to remove the gearbox  A place to lay or store tools when they are not being used  Easily accessible tools  A secure place to store nuts and bolt to prevent them from falling on the floor and being lost  A jack that is easily cleaned and stored  Portable  Convenience Conceptual Model Top plate of the jack modelled in card board to help in working out sizes. Because it was modelled around a standard size gearbox and the fact that it’s adjustable means that it can support a range of different sized gearboxes 21
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology The sliding mechanism was deveolped to be as simple as possible. It also features a standard fitting so that a mechanic car use a simple ratchet or impact wrench to manoeuver the gearbox. Use Description The jack positioned under the gearbox and rose into place. The side supports are slid into place to prevent the gearbox from rocking and a strap is added to secure the gearbox to the jack. The gearbox can then be pulled out mechanically using an impact wrench or a socket wrench. All tools used can be placed on a tool tray attached to the jack. 22
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Product Development Specification Performance The jack should be able to take a considerable amount of weight above and beyond the weight of a gearbox. Shock loading should also be a factor if the gearbox or ever the engine block should fall on the product. The hydraulic ram should rise and fall under weight at a constant speed. It should not drop quickly with a large weight on top. Environment The product should be able to withstand dust and dirt of all types. Being in a mechanics garage the jack should perform in a dirty environment. It should be able to withstand being covered in oil and grease (prolong the product by preventing rust) The castor wheels should be able to run over rough and cracked concrete floors without the risk of it toppling over. Service Life The jack should have a long service life. The longer the service life is the better the reputation for the product. A jack that is robust and that lasts a long time is likely to create a good market for itself by both reputation and word of mouth. 23
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Maintenance The maintenance of the product should be kept to a minimum. The mechanics job is to maintain cars so the less maintenance that needs to be done the better. The storage and supporting plate should be virtually maintenance free expect for a clean ever so often. The hydraulic ram, for safely reason, should be checked for jack creep (slow descent under pressure) often and repaired when necessary. Target Costs Retail costs for transmission jacks range from between 150 to 350 Euros. With the added features for that jack being designed the retail price would be on the top end on the price scale if not more. This is acceptable because of the extra features including the tool tray itself. The cost of manufacture can be kept low by buying in standard parts like the ram and castor wheels. The use or standard nuts and bolt will also keep the cost down. Machining being kept to a minimum will also allow for a long manufacturing cost. Target cost too make would be 200 euro depending on the quality of materials and machining. 24
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Competition Competition exists on the market when one looks at existing gearbox jacks but the safety and convenience of the sliding jack come tool tray hasn’t yet been seen and fills a hole in the market at a price not far from an inferior product. Shipping The product will be bought by internet tool suppliers in the form of a flat pack kit. These suppliers buy in bulk if they see a market for the product you are supplying. The customer will then search for the product online or from a catalogue and place the order. The company will then send the order flat packed though a courier service ready for the customer to do the final assembly. Product Volume As the product has a long life span it would not have the product volume of a consumable. However there is a very large market for the jack due to the nature of the product (mechanics are worldwide). One would be looking at a long term market gradually phasing out the existing products on the market with a superior one as they have to be replaced. 25
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Packing  Plastic packing around all part to prevent water damage during transportation.  Parts separated by packing foam to stop denting or paint chipping.  Cardboard box to make shipping easier  The parts in the box should be orientated in such a way as to reduce packaging Manufacturing Facility The product could be manufactured in and existing plant. The only exception is that the amount of parts increases and the assembly line lengthens. Size The jack should be big enough to hold the weight of a gearbox safely and prevent buckling on the jack when being moved under weight. The jack should be the same size as a regular jack so a mechanic can store it in the same place as the original jack. Weight The weight of the jack should be kept to a minimum without impeding the strength of the jack as it will have to be moved around by hand with and without a gearbox on it. 26
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Aesthetics and Finish Aesthetically the jack has to long robust to give the mechanic a sense of reliability at a first glance. The main features of the jack must be noticeable at a distance and there function must be recognised at a glance. A bright colour should be used so that the jack can be seen at a distance and can be found quickly in a garage environment. The finish on the jack must be strong and well able to withstand scratching and chipping. It must also be able to withstand oil soaking and discolouration. Materials  Recycled steel  Bought in parts Product Life Span The product life span is hard to say as cars are changing all the time and with diminishing oil resources who can say that a whole new generation or car won’t come into use. Ergonomics The handles and trays have to be at comfortable height to reduce stain of being over and risk of the jack being pulled over. The working height has to be at stomach height. 27
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Customer The customer expects  Reliability  Cheep cost  Safety  Convenience  Speed  Low maintenance Quality and Reliability The product has to be that of high quality as it will be expected to have a long life being put under pressure. Failure on the job would be unacceptable as a fail could result in serious injury to the user. Shelf Life Due to the robust nature of the product a long shelf life is possible as there are no perishable parts. Manufacturing processes  Milling  Drilling  Tapping  Spraying(painting) 28
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Timescales This product was brought to the proof of concept stage in twelve weeks. Testing should take place for a period of time. Tool manufacture is irrelevant because no specialist tools are needed to manufacture. With a working solid works model the product could go to primary manufacture for testing. Testing Each jack will have to be individually tested under weight to ensure that it meets safety standards. Safety Safety is a big issue with this product. It has to be manufactured and assembled to a high quality to ensure the safety of the user. The user is working with heavy object so the jack has to guarantee no to bend, buckle or give under pressure. Company Constraints The product will be manufactured by a company that currently manufactures similar automotive product therefore the only company constraint is that it is manufactured to a similar standard as the existing products. 29
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Market Constraints As cars are the same the world over there are few if no market constraints. High quality tools are generally known and used worldwide. Patents, Literature and Product Data US Patent 5139233 - Transmission jack adaptor US Patent 3735958 – Transmission Jack Political and Social Implications The product in question prevents possible injuries to mechanics thus impacting on a social level. Disposal Due to the product being manufactured almost entirely out of steel and the fact that it is easily disassembled because of the use of standard bolts and screws it is easily recycled. 30
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Detailed Requirement Analysis The product must be  Safe  Reliable  Cheep( comparing existing products) Cleaning and maintenance  Easy to clean  Resist scratching or any aesthetic damage  Easy to maintain and repair The product must carry out the tasks the customer expects it to  Allow the gearbox to be removed with minimal effort  Allow for quick task completion  Have a designated area for tools Design Requirements The jack must be designed in such a way that it carries out the tasks expected by the customer. All parts should be mirrored to make the manufacturing process easier. It must be designed so that a standard hydraulic jack can be used in the assembly process to reduce the overall manufacturing cost. Allowances should be made for easy repair and maintenance. The design can also account for the disposal at the end of its like. If design properly and if the right materials are used the jack should be easy to recycle. 31
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Manufacturing Requirements The jack has to be manufactured to a high standard to ensure that it is a safe product and doesn’t fail during operation. A fail could result in serious injury to the user. The manufacturing costs have to be kept to a minimum so that the customer gets a good price and the manufacturer makes a profit. A competitive market price is also important. Manufacturing Process Map 32
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Final System Specification & Test Plans A jack that is fully adjustable and portable. It should aid the mechanic in pulling out the gearbox from the engine block. Adequate tray area for tools and nuts and bolts should be incorporated. The jack will have to be tested in a real life situation. Tool tray will need to be used to show the convenience aspect. The pulling mechanism will have to be shown in detail working. 33
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Prototype Manufacture Prototype Design The prototype design varies a good deal from the final design. The prototype is used to prove a concept so changes to materials and looks can be made while keeping the functionality of the product. Sketching and sketch models were an important commodity in coming up with the overall final design. In the original design to allow the gear box to be moved away from the engine a hydraulic jack seemed to be the way to go. However this idea merely inspired a simpler system 34
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology whereby a mechanic would be able to use tools already in use when removing the gear box, such as an impact wrench or ratchet. The system work similar to a bench vice whereby a treaded bar when turned would slide a plate backwards or forwards depending on the rotation of the bar. As seen below. The top plate consisted of an adjustable platform with an accompanying strap to secure the gearbox when in motion 35
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Castor wheels and storage were next on the agenda in the design. Castor wheel were a simple and necessary addition to give the jack mobility around the garage area. The storage on the other hand was a simple addition but it gives this jack a lot more than just being a jack. Aside from the fact that it allows one to carry all that is needed for a job in one system (tools, jack, power, etc) it also gives the jack a lot of stability and structural strength. Prototype Build The materials and processes in the prototype build were kept basic. This allowed for a cheap build as well as a quick built. Also almost all machining and casting processes were avoided. The model is simply buts using wood, MDF, treaded bar, nuts, bolts, cardboard and some salvaged scrap items to mimic movements and parts needed to prove the concept works. 36
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology  Top plate attached to sliding mechanism  Strap for holding gearbox in place  Adjustable top plate for different size gear boxes Finished sliding mechanism 37
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Height adjustment and clip to mimic the hydrolic jack up and down movement. Tool storage unit built in prototype out of cardboard allow quick access to tools while providing overall strength to the product. 38
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Prototype Proof of Concept Table top with lips on the edges to allows for quick retrival of tools while working and the prevention of tools and accessories falling on the floor.  Tool and part storage. The jack takes the strain of the gearbox even after being built from low fidelity materials. 39
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Evaluation of Design DFA Analysis Design for a minimum number of parts. Keeping parts to a minimum aids in the assembly as the assembly line will be shorter and the assembly will be easier. Ready assembled parts such as the hydraulic jack and castor wheel will also reduce assembly time and cost. Standard bolts throughout will reduce confusion and speed up the assembly process. Tapped holes eliminate the need for bolts and washers thus reducing the number of overall parts. Mirrored holes and centred parts allow for quick and easy assembly as well as the option for automated assembly. The jack is designed in such a way that once the castor section is assembled the hydraulic ram and storage unit can be lowered and fastened from the top down. The top section for supporting, restraining and moving the gearbox can then be lowered and secured from the top also. Having all the individual sections ready assembled manually,  Storage unit  Castor wheels  Hydraulic Jack  Top supporting unit. The entire piece can then be assembled top down along the vertical axis. Standard size parts such as bolts and screws situated in easily accessible places not only provide easy assembly but they also provide easy disassembly for maintenance, service, repair or recycling of the jack. 40
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology DFM Analysis Reducing the number of processes used to manufacture the product greatly reduces the time the product spends in production thus increasing the overall yield. Also reduced is the total cost of manufacture. While some of the components for the jack can be part cast and part machined, if these part were designed symmetrical just the machining process would be needed. This would be a more suited process as it provides greater accuracy and a good surface finish. The accuracy provided by machining would ensure less wear and a longer lift for the jack. The good surface finish would allow the parts to be painted without the need to be worked on further. DFE Analysis The jack in question will be manufactured from steel for the most part, which can be bought in as a recycled product thus reducing this products impact on the environment and on the worlds steel resources. Having steel as the dominant material and the easy disassembly of the product also allows the jack to be easily recycled come the end of its life span. 41
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Discussion and Conclusions Proof of Concept as compared to Specification The jack preformed well for the proof of concept. It was safe (gearbox was secure). It was convenient (allowed for easy access to tools) It was impossible to prove the maintenance issues as the model was only built from low fidelity materials. Superiority over current system The new system provides more adjustability to the user when taking into account the varying size of gearboxes. It also allows the user to remove a gearbox with considerably less effort that the jacks that are currently on the market. The convenience of this system is something that hasn’t been seen before. It ensures that the user can have everything needed to do a job at hand rather than having to walk over and back across a workshop getting tools or tool trays. Cost Benefit Analysis of this Approach The product designed allows the user to purchase one product rather that purchasing two separate products. This also saves the user money on shipping costs Learning outcomes  Learned how much work has to go into bringing an idea from design through to manufacture.  Learned how to do a Product Specification report.  Learned how building a conceptual model benefits proving one concept 42
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Discussion As a whole mechanics face a lot of dangers in a working day. Many can be avoided with the right use of equipment and exercising caution however there are still areas where there are still problems with equipment being inferior to what a mechanic needs. This report dealt with the task of removing a gearbox from a car either to replace the gearbox or to replace a clutch. To do this the weight of the gearbox needs to be supported while the mechanic unbolts it and pulls it out by hand. This task puts huge strain on mechanic due to the weight of the gearbox. This coupled with inconvenience of dealing with tools either on a separate tool tray or on the floor makes for a very undesirable job. The report also deals with the design and manufacture of a new jack that deals with the problems outlined above. Customer requirements are outlined along with design and manufacturing requirements in detail. The prototype design and build is outlined and tested. Prototyping allowed for a proof of concept to be achieved and problem in the design to be worked out. Conclusions Problems were identified with and existing gearbox jack  Only took the weight of a gearbox  Didn’t provide tool storage  Mechanic had to physically move the gearbox  Chance of the gearbox slipping of the jack These problems were then evaluated and solutions found. The jack designed takes both the weight of the gearbox and supports it from falling. The gearbox can then be moved mechanically so the mechanic doesn’t have to use physical 43
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology effort. Tool storage is accounted for as a large work area is provided. The need for a separate tool tray is eliminated. 44
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology References Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 Vehicle workshop health & safety policy manual Goss, A. (1992). Transmission jack adaptor, Google Patents. Hollingsworth, E. (1973). HIGH RISE TRANSMISSION JACK, Google Patents. Keyserling, W., T. Armstrong, et al. (1991). "Ergonomic job analysis: A structured approach for identifying risk factors associated with overexertion injuries and disorders." Applied Occupational & Environmental Hygiene 6(5): 353-363. Munck-Ulfsfält, U., A. Falck, et al. (2003). "Corporate ergonomics programme at Volvo Car Corporation." Applied Ergonomics 34(1): 17-22. Pheasant, S. and C. Haslegrave (2006). Bodyspace: anthropometry, ergonomics, and the design of work, CRC Press. Sauter, S., L. Schleifer, et al. (1991). "Work posture, workstation design, and musculoskeletal discomfort in a VDT data entry task." Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 33(2): 151-167. 45
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Appendices Health and Safety Good health and safety practice is an essential part of realising the Ambulance Trust’s mission values in respect to care. It is also a factor which directly impacts upon business performance through its effect upon staff morale, employee relations, absenteeism, productivity, accident costs and damages, legal enforcement measures and public image. Good health and safety practice must therefore be an integral part 46
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology of good business management to which everyone in the workplace can effectively contribute. There are increasing legal obligations affecting employers in the field of health, safety and welfare at work is beyond doubt. The health and safety at work act 1974 has been the most significant piece of legislation which, as an ‘enabling’ Act, has empowered the Secretary of State for Employment to subsequently introduce regulations and code of practice on a range of health and safety matters. More recently, the European Council has focused appreciable attention on health and safety with the result that additional regulations introduced in 1993 will inevitably increase demands upon management, and generally raise the profile of health and safety on the business agenda. The Trust’s policy and Code of Practice ensure compliance with legal obligations. They also recognise the business advantages of applying best practice in the management of health and safety, against which the Trust will be judged by the Health and Safety Executive inspectors. The Codes of Practice form extensions of the Trust’s policy statement, and provide frameworks upon which the section management can build its own specific structures, policies, practices and standards. Applying these Codes of Practice is not just about complying with the law, it is about establishing and fostering a safety culture that enables everyone to help make the business better. 47
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology Faulty equipment Tools and equipment need regular inspection, checking and cleaning with any defects being recorded. Under no circumstances should you continue to use equipment such as a defective jack and especially where safety is involved, you must notify your supervisor who will arrange repairs or replacement. Trolley jacks Staff should monitor the condition of the jack. During every day use, checks for leaks, general condition and the jack descending (creep), should be monitored. It is the responsibility of staff to carry out these checks until such time as the defect can be reported to the supervisor who then assumes responsibility for removing the jack from service. At least annually the jack should be tested by placing under a suitable vehicle which should be lifted until a “test piece” such as a block of wood can be placed under the wheel with an additional clearance of approximately 2cm. If after 30 minutes the jack has descended, so that the wood cannot be removed, the jack should be withdrawn from service. Safety Equipment The following safety equipment is supplied free of charge and must be worn/used at all times when applicable:- • Overalls • Safety Shoes • Reflective Jacket • Protective Gloves • Safety Goggles 48
  • Cillian O Sullivan 0661716 Product Design & Technology • Barrier Cream • Face Masks (Disposable) • Plastic Suit for steam cleaning • Hard hats Jack and Axle Stands Jack vehicles only on a level undamaged floor with a trolley jack rated to lift the weight safely. The correct jacking points must be used and handbrake and/or chocks must be used. The jack must be used for lifting the vehicle only, then axle stands must be properly positioned in order to support the vehicle weight. Ensure that the correct support pins in good condition are used for the extendable columns of the axle stands. 49