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  1. 1. Respiration Hasimah Azit
  3. 3. ENERGY REQUIREMENT <ul><li>FOR: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle contraction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of nerves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formation of new organelle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell division </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain body temperature </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Cellular respiration is the process in which energy -rich molecules such as glucose are converted into energy usable for life processes
  5. 5. <ul><li>The process occurs in gradual steps that result in the conversion of the energy stored in glucose to usable chemical energy in the form of ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Waste products (CO2 + H2O) are released through exhaled air, sweat and urine </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cellular respiration Substrate for energy production: Glucose – obtain from food Oxygen - from air
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anaerobic respiration </li></ul></ul>respiration
  8. 8. Aerobic respiration <ul><li>Aerobic respiration requires oxygen in order to generate energy. </li></ul><ul><li>36 ATP molecules can be made per glucose </li></ul><ul><li>reactions take place in the mitochondria </li></ul>
  9. 9. mitochondria
  10. 10. Chemical equation: <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + Energy released (2898 kJ/mol) </li></ul><ul><li>glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + </li></ul><ul><li>water + E </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Activities like sprinting require levels of energy that are greater than the body can produce with the aerobic ( with oxygen ) metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>For these activities, the body relies on anaerobic ( without oxygen ) processes. </li></ul>Anaerobic respiration
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lactic acid is a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>It builds up to high levels within the muscles and eventually leads to fatigue during these high intensity activities . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anaerobic respiration <ul><li>In the absence of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose undergoes a process of fermentation . </li></ul><ul><li>in the cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>In human cells the waste product is lactic acid . </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP are produced during anaerobic respiration per glucose </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chemical reaction for Anaerobic in muscle <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 -> 2C 3 H 6 O 3 + E (150kJ mol−1) </li></ul><ul><li>[Glucose] [lactic acid] + Energy </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Lactic acid will build up causes fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Fast and deep breathing – supply extra oxygen to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown lactic acid into CO 2 and H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converted back to glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The amount of O 2 needed = oxygen debt </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anaerobic in yeast <ul><li>In yeast, the waste product is ethanol and carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The important of ethanol and carbon dioxide production for human </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Comparison <ul><li>Between aerobic and anaerobic respiration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy produced </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristic of respiratory surfaces <ul><li>Large surface area for gas exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Thin respiratory surface, one layer epithelial cells that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory surfaces must be moist, gases can only cross cell membranes when they are dissolved in water or an aqueous solution </li></ul>
  19. 19. Insect respiratory structure
  20. 20. Tracheal system <ul><li>spiracles - openings on the sides of the thorax and abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>usually one pair of spiracles per segment </li></ul><ul><li>The tracheae are invaginations of the cuticular exoskeleton that branch throughout the body with diameters from only a few micrometers up to 0.8mm. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest tubes, tracheoles, penetrate cells and serve as sites of diffusion for oxygen and carbon dioxide </li></ul>
  21. 25. Fish respiratory structure
  22. 26. gills
  23. 28. Fish gills <ul><li>The gills of bony fishes are covered by an operculum.  They are four in number with intervening gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>Branches of the afferent and efferent branchial arteries pass out to the tip of a gill filament on each side.  A rich capillary network, cross-connecting these branches and at right angles to them, occupies each lamella. </li></ul><ul><li>the water flows directly opposite to the flow of blood in the lamellar capillaries.  </li></ul>
  24. 31. Amphibian <ul><li>Frogs have three respiratory surfaces : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>skin : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frogs can breathe through their skin while they are in wet places. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can also exchange gases between the blood vessels in it, and with its outer environment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are also mucus glands in the skin, these keep the skin moist. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their skin absorbs a lot of dissolved oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><ul><li>the thin membranes lining its mouth and pharynx. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lungs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adult frogs have poorly developed lungs. Their lungs are used on dry land while the frogs are active. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas exchanged by the lungs is used to make the vocal cords vibrate. They are located in the larynx, and are necessary for the sound generated by a frog. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>The frog inhales and exahales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the frog breathes, the air enters the mouth. The floor of the mouth drops, and the external nares open. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The floor of the mouth rises and falls in a rhythmic pattern. These movements are interrupted by a rapid expansion and contraction of the sides of the body wall at less frequent intervals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At rest, frogs usually breathe through the lining of the mouth. This process only fills the lung occasionally. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 36. Human respiratory structure
  28. 37. General structure of human respiratory system
  29. 39. <ul><li>The lungs are large, lobed, paired organs </li></ul><ul><li>in the thoracic cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Thin sheets of epithelium ( pleura ) separate the inside of the chest cavity from the outer surface of the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>The bottom of the thoracic cavity is formed by the diaphragm . </li></ul>
  30. 40. Lung
  31. 41. <ul><li>Bronchi are reinforced by cartilage ring to prevent their collapse </li></ul><ul><li>They are lined with ciliated epithelium and mucus-producing cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchi branch into smaller and smaller tubes known as bronchioles . </li></ul>
  32. 43. <ul><li>Bronchioles terminate in grape-like sac clusters known as alveoli . </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli are surrounded by a network of thin-walled capillaries . </li></ul><ul><li>Only about 0.2 µm separate the alveoli from the capillaries due to the extremely thin walls of both structures. </li></ul>
  33. 44. alveolus
  34. 46. Ventilation <ul><li>the mechanics of breathing in and out </li></ul><ul><li>inhalation, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles in the chest wall contract, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lifting the ribs and pulling them, outward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diaphragm at this time moves downward enlarging the chest cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced air pressure in the lungs causes air to enter the lungs. </li></ul>
  35. 47. <ul><li>Exhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscles in the chest wall relax, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lifting the ribs and pulling them, outward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diaphragm at this time moves downward enlarging the chest cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased air pressure in the lungs causes air to exit the lungs. </li></ul>
  36. 50. <ul><li>Diffusion is the movement of materials from a higher to a lower concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>The differences between oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations are measured by partial pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the difference in partial pressure the greater the rate of diffusion. </li></ul>
  37. 51. Gas exchange alveolus
  38. 52. Gas exchange <ul><li>Partial pressure of oxygen in alveolus is higher than in alveolar blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen from the air dissolve in water [moist] at alveoli lining and diffuse in blood </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells to form oxyhaemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxyhaemoglobin is carried to all body cells by blood circulation </li></ul>
  39. 53. From cell to blood
  40. 54. Carbon dioxide - transported from the body cells back to the lungs as: <ul><li>1 - bicarbonate (HCO3) - 60% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed when CO2 (released by cells making ATP) combines with H2O </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 - carbaminohemoglobin - 30% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formed when CO2 combines with hemoglobin (hemoglobin molecules that have given up their oxygen) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 - dissolved in the plasma - 10% </li></ul>
  41. 55. <ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction, from capillary blood to alveolar air. </li></ul><ul><li>Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood is higher than in the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuse out to the alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Exhalation follows, to get rid of the carbon dioxide and completing the cycle of respiration. </li></ul>
  42. 56. From blood to alveolus
  43. 59. What are differences between inhaled and exhaled air?
  44. 60. Regulatory mechanism <ul><li>After vigorous exercise the rate of respiration increase and heartbeat increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To supply more oxygen to the muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To eliminate more carbon dioxide from the muscle </li></ul></ul>
  45. 61. Resting stage <ul><li>Breathing rate = 16 – 18 breaths/minute </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbeat rate = 60 – 80 beats/minute </li></ul><ul><li>After activities </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing rate = 30 – 40 breaths/minute </li></ul><ul><li>Heartbeat rate = 120 – 150 beats/minute </li></ul>
  46. 62. <ul><li>Vigorous exercise = concentration in the blood CO 2 increase </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 dissolve in water forming carbonic acid </li></ul><ul><li>pH blood drop </li></ul><ul><li>Detected by central chemoreceptor in medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve impulse send to respiratory centre </li></ul><ul><li>Resp. cen. send impulse to intercostal muscle and diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation increase </li></ul>Regulatory mechanism of O 2 and CO 2
  47. 63. CO2 Water Carbonic acid pH Central chemoreceptor [medulla oblongata] Respiratory centre Intercostals muscle diaphragm Ventilation faster CO2 eliminate faster Detected by Impulse send Impulse send
  48. 64. Respiration in plant <ul><li>Occurs all the time </li></ul><ul><li>In daylight photosynthesis produces plenty of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Used by plant in respiration processes </li></ul><ul><li>At night O 2 from atmosphere is used for respiration </li></ul>
  49. 65. Compare respiration and photosynthesis