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Nutrition

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  • 1. nutrition Hasimah Azit
  • 2. Types of nutrition
  • 3. Autotrophic <ul><li>Green plants </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic process </li></ul>
  • 4. Heterotrophic : <ul><li>Any living organism that obtains its energy from organic substances produced by other organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>herbivores , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carnivores , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saprophytes , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul></ul>holozoic
  • 5. HERBIVORES <ul><li>Animal that feeds on green plants </li></ul><ul><li>or photosynthetic single-celled organisms </li></ul><ul><li>or their products, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including seeds, fruit, and nectar. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herbivores are more numerous than other animals </li></ul>
  • 6. &nbsp;
  • 7. CARNIVORES <ul><li>Organism that eats other animals. </li></ul>
  • 8. SAPROPHYTES <ul><li>Organism that feeds on the excrement or the dead bodies or tissues of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Saprophytes cannot make food for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>include : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most fungi (the rest being parasites); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many bacteria and protozoa; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animals such as dung beetles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a few unusual plants, including several orchids. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. &nbsp;
  • 10. Parasites <ul><li>Organism that feeds on the living bodies or tissues of others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. Balance diet <ul><li>All major nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Correct proportion </li></ul><ul><li>Able to fulfill daily requirement of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Daily energy requirement depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. BALANCED DIET <ul><li>A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fiber: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates : these provide a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins : these provide a source of materials for growth and repair. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats : these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins : these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Mineral Salts : these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Fibre : this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested. </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Diets : we must have the above items in the correct proportions. </li></ul>
  • 13. Carbohydrates <ul><li>the most important source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>In the form of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sugar [ sucrose] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>digestive system turns all these carbohydrates into glucose – the simplest form of carbohydrate </li></ul>
  • 14. Proteins <ul><li>required for growth and repair </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins can also be used as a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>turned into amino-acids by digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>excess amino-acids are removed from the body is excreted as a nitrogen chemical compound called urea </li></ul>
  • 15. Fats <ul><li>Fats are used as a source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>also stored beneath the skin – to insulate us against the cold. </li></ul><ul><li>To solute vitamin A, D, E and K </li></ul>
  • 16. Vitamin <ul><li>required in very small quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat soluble vitamin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water soluble vitamin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List down the importance of these vitamins: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In each vitamin above, give an example of food </li></ul>
  • 17. Mineral <ul><li>also needed in small quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: required to make haemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium: required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium: all cells need this, especially nerve cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Iodine: used to make a hormone called thyroxin. </li></ul>
  • 18. Fibre [roughage] <ul><li>To prevent excess water absorption in the the colon, prevent constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Important for peristalsis movement along </li></ul><ul><li>digestive tract </li></ul>
  • 19. Food pyramid <ul><li>What is food pyramid? </li></ul><ul><li>Why we don’t have to take same amount of different type of food? </li></ul>
  • 20. &nbsp;
  • 21. <ul><li>Healthy Diet Food Guide </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable and Fruits 5 to 12 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broccoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bananas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grain Products 5 to 10 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bagel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pastas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buns </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. <ul><li>Dairy Products 2 to 4 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yogurt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meat and Alternative Products 2 to 3 servings per day </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poultry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peanut butter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soy products (i.e.. Tofu) </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Suggest what extra food should be taken by these people <ul><li>Pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Baby </li></ul><ul><li>Old man </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetic people </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete </li></ul><ul><li>Active teenagers </li></ul>
  • 24. Group the following list of food into their respective class. State one function for each class of food . <ul><li>Fish Sweet potato Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Honey Rice Fish oil </li></ul><ul><li>Milk Egg yolk Spinach </li></ul><ul><li>Palm oil Lime Butter </li></ul><ul><li>Bread Star fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Egg white Jackfruit </li></ul>
  • 25. MALNUTRITION what is malnutrition? What is the effects of malnutrition?
  • 26. No food? marasmus
  • 27. &nbsp;
  • 28. Kwashiorkor
  • 29. rickets
  • 30. Beriberi
  • 31. arteriosclerosis
  • 32. pellagra
  • 33. &nbsp;
  • 34. Gout
  • 35. &nbsp;
  • 36. scurvi
  • 37. &nbsp;
  • 38. xeropthalmia
  • 39. Too much food?
  • 40. Anorexia nervosa
  • 41. &nbsp;
  • 42. Diabetic patient
  • 43. Human digestive system
  • 44. <ul><li>is made up of the alimentary canal [digestive tract] other abdominal organs that play a part in digestion, such as the liver and pancreas. </li></ul><ul><li>is the long tube of organs including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>esophagus, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stomach, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intestines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>runs from the mouth to the anus, is about 30 feet (about 9 meters) long. </li></ul>
  • 45. &nbsp;
  • 46. &nbsp;
  • 47. Mouth <ul><li>teeth - tear and chop the food, </li></ul><ul><li>saliva moistens it for easy swallowing. </li></ul><ul><li>amylase , which is found in saliva, starts to break down some of the carbohydrates </li></ul>
  • 48. Esophagus <ul><li>a muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>peristalsis force food </li></ul><ul><li>down through the esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>to the stomach. </li></ul>
  • 49. &nbsp;
  • 50. &nbsp;
  • 51. Stomach <ul><li>mix the food with acids and enzymes, breaking it into much smaller, digestible pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>Glands in the stomach lining produce about 3 quarts (2.8 liters) of the digestive juices each day. </li></ul>
  • 52. &nbsp;
  • 53. Volume? <ul><li>Empty = 1.6 fluid ounces </li></ul><ul><li>Full = 64 fluid ounces </li></ul>
  • 54. &nbsp;
  • 55. <ul><li>The food has been processed into a thick liquid called chyme . </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymatic reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsin : protein &gt;&gt;&gt;&gt; polipeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renin: caseinogen &gt;&gt;&gt;&gt; casein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coagulate milk </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Easy to digest </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiydrocloric Acid : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill germs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidic medium for enzymatic reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>the outlet of the stomach called the pylorus keeps chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Chyme is then squirted down into the small intestine </li></ul>
  • 56. Small intestine
  • 57. Small intestine <ul><li>is made up of three parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the duodenum , the C-shaped first part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the jejunum , the coiled midsection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ileum , the final section that leads into the large intestine </li></ul></ul>
  • 58. Duodenum
  • 59. duodenum
  • 60. Duodenum didn’t secrete any enzyme, All the enzymes are from pancreas, and bile juice from liver
  • 61. <ul><li>Gall bladder secrete bile juice containing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium bicarbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralise stomach acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkaline medium for enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pancreas :enzyme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipase : lipid &gt;&gt;&gt; fatty acid and glycerol Amylase : starch &gt;&gt;&gt; maltose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trypsin : polypeptide &gt;&gt;&gt; peptide </li></ul></ul>
  • 62. &nbsp;
  • 63. ileum
  • 64. Digestion in ileum <ul><li>Enzyme : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sucrase: sucrose &gt;&gt;&gt;&gt; glucose + fructose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactase: lactose &gt;&gt;&gt; glucose + galactose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erepsin: peptide &gt;&gt;&gt; amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltase: maltose &gt;&gt;&gt; glucose. </li></ul></ul>
  • 65. A PR LAT SLEM List the names of enzymes that involve in digestion
  • 66. digestive system in ruminants and rodents
  • 67. &nbsp;
  • 68. Ruminant digestion <ul><li>Mouth Rumen Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasums Omasom </li></ul><ul><li>esophagus small intestine colon </li></ul><ul><li>rectum </li></ul>
  • 69. &nbsp;
  • 70. Rumination <ul><li>Re chewing food after store in rumen and reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and protozoa are stored in rumen and reticulum for digestion of cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>They produced cellulase enzyme </li></ul>
  • 71. Rodent Digestive tract
  • 72. &nbsp;
  • 73. &nbsp;
  • 74. Inside the cecum <ul><li>Protozoa and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Produce cellulase </li></ul><ul><li>To digest cellulose </li></ul>
  • 75. Cecum
  • 76. Rodent digestion <ul><li>Double digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Eat their own first faeces </li></ul><ul><li>To obtain vitamin and glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Produce second hard faeces </li></ul>
  • 77. absorption Name digestion products
  • 78. Small intestine – jejunum
  • 79. &nbsp;
  • 80. &nbsp;
  • 81. &nbsp;
  • 82. Label the figure
  • 83. Absorption <ul><li>Water soluble digested substances will absorb into the blood capillaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin B and C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipid soluble digested substances will absorb into lacteal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamin A, D, E, K </li></ul></ul>
  • 84. In what way, villi are adapted for efficient food absorption ?
  • 85. &nbsp;
  • 86. Food Assimilation <ul><li>Glucose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be distributed to all body parts for cell respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess glucose will converted into glycogen by insulin hormone for storage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amino acid: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will be distributed to all body parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess amino acid will converted into urea and turn into urine </li></ul></ul>
  • 87. <ul><li>All digested food absorb by capillaries will be transported to the liver via vena portal hepar </li></ul><ul><li>All digested food absorb by lacteal will be transported by lymph system to the blood system </li></ul>
  • 88. lipids <ul><li>Glycerol and fatty acid will combine to form fat </li></ul><ul><li>Store in adipose tissue </li></ul>
  • 89. Colon Large intestine
  • 90. &nbsp;
  • 91. &nbsp;
  • 92. water absorption
  • 93. Formation of faeces <ul><li>Colon, rectum and anus almost 1 m length </li></ul><ul><li>Water will be absorb into the blood, eliminate undigested food and fibre </li></ul><ul><li>Decomposed by bacteria in colon </li></ul><ul><li>The faeces formed and moved by peristalsis in the rectum to anus </li></ul>
  • 94. <ul><li>Removal of unabsorbed and undigested materials from digestive system </li></ul><ul><li>Control by anal sphincter muscle </li></ul><ul><li>What is diarrhoea? </li></ul><ul><li>What is constipation? </li></ul>Defecation
  • 95. &nbsp;
  • 96. overview

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