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  • 1. nutrition Hasimah Azit
  • 2. Types of nutrition
  • 3. Autotrophic
    • Green plants
    • Photosynthetic process
  • 4. Heterotrophic :
    • Any living organism that obtains its energy from organic substances produced by other organisms
      • herbivores ,
      • carnivores ,
      • Saprophytes ,
      • Parasitic
    holozoic
  • 5. HERBIVORES
    • Animal that feeds on green plants
    • or photosynthetic single-celled organisms
    • or their products,
      • including seeds, fruit, and nectar.
    • Herbivores are more numerous than other animals
  • 6.  
  • 7. CARNIVORES
    • Organism that eats other animals.
  • 8. SAPROPHYTES
    • Organism that feeds on the excrement or the dead bodies or tissues of others.
    • Saprophytes cannot make food for themselves
    • include :
      • most fungi (the rest being parasites);
      • many bacteria and protozoa;
      • animals such as dung beetles
      • a few unusual plants, including several orchids.
  • 9.  
  • 10. Parasites
    • Organism that feeds on the living bodies or tissues of others
      • Fungi
      • Bacteria
      • Virus
      • Protozoa
  • 11. Balance diet
    • All major nutrient
    • Correct proportion
    • Able to fulfill daily requirement of the body
    • Daily energy requirement depends on:
      • Age
      • Activities
  • 12. BALANCED DIET
    • A balanced diet must contain carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, mineral salts and fiber:
    • Carbohydrates : these provide a source of energy.
    • Proteins : these provide a source of materials for growth and repair.
    • Fats : these provide a source of energy and contain fat soluble vitamins.
    • Vitamins : these are required in very small quantities to keep you healthy.
    • Mineral Salts : these are required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles etc..
    • Fibre : this is required to help your intestines function correctly; it is not digested.
    • Balanced Diets : we must have the above items in the correct proportions.
  • 13. Carbohydrates
    • the most important source of energy
    • In the form of:
      • starch
      • sugar [ sucrose]
    • digestive system turns all these carbohydrates into glucose – the simplest form of carbohydrate
  • 14. Proteins
    • required for growth and repair
    • Proteins can also be used as a source of energy.
    • turned into amino-acids by digestive system
    • excess amino-acids are removed from the body is excreted as a nitrogen chemical compound called urea
  • 15. Fats
    • Fats are used as a source of energy
    • also stored beneath the skin – to insulate us against the cold.
    • To solute vitamin A, D, E and K
  • 16. Vitamin
    • required in very small quantities
    • Two types:
      • Fat soluble vitamin
      • Water soluble vitamin
    • List down the importance of these vitamins:
      • A
      • B
      • C
      • D
      • E
      • K
    • In each vitamin above, give an example of food
  • 17. Mineral
    • also needed in small quantities
    • Iron: required to make haemoglobin.
    • Calcium: required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles.
    • Sodium: all cells need this, especially nerve cells.
    • Iodine: used to make a hormone called thyroxin.
  • 18. Fibre [roughage]
    • To prevent excess water absorption in the the colon, prevent constipation
    • Important for peristalsis movement along
    • digestive tract
  • 19. Food pyramid
    • What is food pyramid?
    • Why we don’t have to take same amount of different type of food?
  • 20.  
  • 21.
    • Healthy Diet Food Guide
    • Vegetable and Fruits 5 to 12 servings per day
    • Example:
      • Carrots
      • Broccoli
      • Salads
      • Bananas
      • Apples
      • Juices
    • Grain Products 5 to 10 servings per day
    • Example:
      • Breads
      • Cereals
      • Bagel
      • Pastas
      • Rice
      • Buns
  • 22.
    • Dairy Products 2 to 4 servings per day
    • Example:
      • Milk
      • Cheese
      • Yogurt
    • Meat and Alternative Products 2 to 3 servings per day
    • Example:
      • Poultry
      • Fish
      • Eggs
      • Beans
      • Peanut butter
      • Soy products (i.e.. Tofu)
  • 23. Suggest what extra food should be taken by these people
    • Pregnant women
    • Baby
    • Old man
    • Diabetic people
    • Athlete
    • Active teenagers
  • 24. Group the following list of food into their respective class. State one function for each class of food .
    • Fish Sweet potato Meat
    • Honey Rice Fish oil
    • Milk Egg yolk Spinach
    • Palm oil Lime Butter
    • Bread Star fruit
    • Egg white Jackfruit
  • 25. MALNUTRITION what is malnutrition? What is the effects of malnutrition?
  • 26. No food? marasmus
  • 27.  
  • 28. Kwashiorkor
  • 29. rickets
  • 30. Beriberi
  • 31. arteriosclerosis
  • 32. pellagra
  • 33.  
  • 34. Gout
  • 35.  
  • 36. scurvi
  • 37.  
  • 38. xeropthalmia
  • 39. Too much food?
  • 40. Anorexia nervosa
  • 41.  
  • 42. Diabetic patient
  • 43. Human digestive system
  • 44.
    • is made up of the alimentary canal [digestive tract] other abdominal organs that play a part in digestion, such as the liver and pancreas.
    • is the long tube of organs including
      • esophagus,
      • stomach,
      • intestines
    • runs from the mouth to the anus, is about 30 feet (about 9 meters) long.
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47. Mouth
    • teeth - tear and chop the food,
    • saliva moistens it for easy swallowing.
    • amylase , which is found in saliva, starts to break down some of the carbohydrates
  • 48. Esophagus
    • a muscular tube
    • peristalsis force food
    • down through the esophagus
    • to the stomach.
  • 49.  
  • 50.  
  • 51. Stomach
    • mix the food with acids and enzymes, breaking it into much smaller, digestible pieces.
    • Glands in the stomach lining produce about 3 quarts (2.8 liters) of the digestive juices each day.
  • 52.  
  • 53. Volume?
    • Empty = 1.6 fluid ounces
    • Full = 64 fluid ounces
  • 54.  
  • 55.
    • The food has been processed into a thick liquid called chyme .
    • Enzymatic reaction:
      • Pepsin : protein >>>> polipeptide
      • Renin: caseinogen >>>> casein
            • Coagulate milk
            • Easy to digest
      • Hiydrocloric Acid :
        • Kill germs
        • Acidic medium for enzymatic reaction
    • the outlet of the stomach called the pylorus keeps chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine.
    • Chyme is then squirted down into the small intestine
  • 56. Small intestine
  • 57. Small intestine
    • is made up of three parts:
      • the duodenum , the C-shaped first part
      • the jejunum , the coiled midsection
      • the ileum , the final section that leads into the large intestine
  • 58. Duodenum
  • 59. duodenum
  • 60. Duodenum didn’t secrete any enzyme, All the enzymes are from pancreas, and bile juice from liver
  • 61.
    • Gall bladder secrete bile juice containing:
      • Sodium bicarbonate
      • Neutralise stomach acid
      • Alkaline medium for enzyme
    • Pancreas :enzyme
      • Lipase : lipid >>> fatty acid and glycerol Amylase : starch >>> maltose
      • Trypsin : polypeptide >>> peptide
  • 62.  
  • 63. ileum
  • 64. Digestion in ileum
    • Enzyme :
      • Sucrase: sucrose >>>> glucose + fructose
      • Lactase: lactose >>> glucose + galactose
      • Erepsin: peptide >>> amino acid
      • Maltase: maltose >>> glucose.
  • 65. A PR LAT SLEM List the names of enzymes that involve in digestion
  • 66. digestive system in ruminants and rodents
  • 67.  
  • 68. Ruminant digestion
    • Mouth Rumen Reticulum
    • Abomasums Omasom
    • esophagus small intestine colon
    • rectum
  • 69.  
  • 70. Rumination
    • Re chewing food after store in rumen and reticulum
    • Bacteria and protozoa are stored in rumen and reticulum for digestion of cellulose
    • They produced cellulase enzyme
  • 71. Rodent Digestive tract
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74. Inside the cecum
    • Protozoa and bacteria
    • Produce cellulase
    • To digest cellulose
  • 75. Cecum
  • 76. Rodent digestion
    • Double digestion
    • Eat their own first faeces
    • To obtain vitamin and glucose
    • Produce second hard faeces
  • 77. absorption Name digestion products
  • 78. Small intestine – jejunum
  • 79.  
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82. Label the figure
  • 83. Absorption
    • Water soluble digested substances will absorb into the blood capillaries
      • Amino acid
      • Glucose
      • Minerals salt
      • Vitamin B and C
    • Lipid soluble digested substances will absorb into lacteal
      • Fatty acid and glycerol
      • Vitamin A, D, E, K
  • 84. In what way, villi are adapted for efficient food absorption ?
  • 85.  
  • 86. Food Assimilation
    • Glucose :
      • Will be distributed to all body parts for cell respiration
      • Excess glucose will converted into glycogen by insulin hormone for storage
    • Amino acid:
      • Will be distributed to all body parts
      • Excess amino acid will converted into urea and turn into urine
  • 87.
    • All digested food absorb by capillaries will be transported to the liver via vena portal hepar
    • All digested food absorb by lacteal will be transported by lymph system to the blood system
  • 88. lipids
    • Glycerol and fatty acid will combine to form fat
    • Store in adipose tissue
  • 89. Colon Large intestine
  • 90.  
  • 91.  
  • 92. water absorption
  • 93. Formation of faeces
    • Colon, rectum and anus almost 1 m length
    • Water will be absorb into the blood, eliminate undigested food and fibre
    • Decomposed by bacteria in colon
    • The faeces formed and moved by peristalsis in the rectum to anus
  • 94.
    • Removal of unabsorbed and undigested materials from digestive system
    • Control by anal sphincter muscle
    • What is diarrhoea?
    • What is constipation?
    Defecation
  • 95.  
  • 96. overview