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Human reproduction


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  • 1. Hasimah Azit
  • 2. Sexual and AsexualReproduction Sexual reproduction occurs when a new individualis formed through the union of two sex cells(gametes). produce zygote Haploid gametes formed by meiosis in sex organs(gonads). Asexual reproduction occurs when geneticallyidentical cells are produced from a single parentcell by mitosis. fission or budding
  • 3. Adi Ahmad Danish
  • 4. Gametogenesis Gamete production By meiosis The chromosomal number in gamete is half ofchromosomal number in parent cell Gamete will carry different genetic constitution
  • 5. -Testis is located in scrotum, outside the body to maintain the lowtemperature [suitable for gamete production]-Inside the testes, seminiferous tubule is densely coiled, connected toepididymis that connected to vas deferans that connected to semenalvesicle.
  • 6. Male Reproductive SystemMale accessory sex organs epididymis vas deferens seminal vesicles prostate gland urethra
  • 7. Spermatogenesis
  • 8. Testis and Spermatogenesis
  • 9. spermatogenesisSpermatogoniumPrimary SpermatocyteSecondary SpermatocyteSpermatidSpermatozoaMitosisMeiosis IMeiosis IIDifferentiation
  • 10. Differentiation
  • 11. sperm
  • 12. Male Reproductive SystemSpermatozoa Head encloses nucleus and capped by an acrosome -contains enzymes that aid in egg penetration.body and tail provide propulsion
  • 13. Epididymis -• Nonmotilesperm arrivein Epididymus- Tubules onouter surfaceof testis wheresperm mature(18 hrs.) andare stored.Epididymus
  • 14. 1. Prostate gland - large gland behindurinary bladder and producesseminal fluid.2. Seminal vesicles - paired glands atbases of vas deferentia and produceseminal fluid.Seminal fluid serves as a lubricant,pH buffer, and nutrient (high insugars) seminalvesicleprostate
  • 15. Male Reproductive SystemHormonal control of male reproductionFSH stimulates the Sertoli to facilitate spermdevelopment.LH stimulates Leydig cells to secretetestosterone.Principle negative feedback inhibition appliesto FSH and LH secretion.
  • 16. UTERUS and OVARY
  • 17. Ovari
  • 18. OogenesisOvum production processOccurs in ovaryOocyte develop simultaneously withthe development of follicle.
  • 19. Female Reproductive SystemMenstrual and estrous cycles At birth, a female’s ovaries containapproximately 2 million follicles.Some follicles are stimulated todevelop each cycle.Human menstrual cycle lastsapproximately one month, and iscommonly divided into a follicularphase and a luteal phase.
  • 20. I want to learn tosome morePlease …..
  • 21. OogenesisOogoniumOocyte primerSecondary oocyte + polar bodymitosisMeiosis IOvum + polar bodySpermMeiosis II
  • 22. Graafian follicle
  • 23. Inside the fallopian tube
  • 24. Secondary Oocyte
  • 26. Ovum andsperm
  • 27. Mitosis
  • 28. Oooh… overdosed already
  • 29. 5 weeks 6 weeks 7 weeks8 weeks 9 weeks 12 weeks
  • 30. 24 weeks20 weeks18 weeks16 weeks14 weeks
  • 31. Baby grow?
  • 32. Before birth After birth
  • 33. Placenta
  • 34. Substances that able to diffuseacross the placenta from mother tofetus:OxygenAmino AcidGlucoseFatty acid and glycerolVitaminAntibodyAny virus, drugs, alchohol.
  • 35. Substances that able to diffuseacross the placenta from fets tomother blood:Carbon dioxideUric acidUrea
  • 36. Milk production
  • 37. Normal delivery
  • 38. Problems in reproductionInfertility in male and female----find the causesEctopic pregnancyFamily planning
  • 39. Ectopic pregnancy
  • 40. Procidentia
  • 41. Placenta abnormal position
  • 42. Hormone involvePituitary secretes: FSH [Follicle Stimulating Hormone] stimulate thedevelopment of follicle in the ovary LH [Luteinizing – stimulate ovulationFrom ovary: Follicle cells produce Estrogen- – stimulate the endometrial wall (uterine lining) aftermenstrual Corpus luteum produces Progestrone- – stimulate and maintain the thickness of endometrial.
  • 43. Compilation of graph
  • 44. Identical twin Produce after fertilization of an ovum by a sperm Membentuk satu zigot Diperingkat morula berlaku pemisahan tisu kepada dua – dua fetusberkembang serentak Berkongsi plasenta Ciri-ciri: Jantina sama Rupa paras sama
  • 45. Fraternal / non-identical twin
  • 46. Fraternal twin Two ovum produce at a time Fertilezed by two sperm Two zigotes formed Not sharing the plasenta Developed into two babies with: Same or different gender Different feature
  • 47. Siamese twin
  • 48. Group discussion:1 Male and female infertility2 Sperm bank3 Invitro fertilization4 GIFT5 IVF6 Surrogate mother7 Family planning
  • 49. Natural way….
  • 50. Infertility has been defined as theinability of a couple to conceiveafter one year of regular intercoursewithout the use of contraceptives.The definition has also cometo include couples who are able toconceive but, due to repeated miscarriages,are unable to carry a pregnancy to term.
  • 51. causes of infertility>>>In men, these include environmentaland hormonal factors that affect the production ofhealthy, motile sperm and normal semen, as well asblockages that affect the delivery of sperm>>>In women, the causes are more varied since she plays agreater role in reproduction. First, one of the organs involvedin reproduction may be absent, mal-formed or non-functional.Second, the organs may be normal, but the complexhormonal feedback system that is necessary tosupport follicular development, ovulation and implantationof the fertilized egg may be disrupted
  • 52. If there are enough sperms ?>>less than 20 million sperm per ml,this is considered to be a lowsperm count.>>Less than 10 million is very low.
  • 53. # Whether the sperms aremoving well or notGrade a ( fast progressive) sperms are thosewhich swim forward fast in a straight lineGrade b ( slow progressive) sperms swim forward,but either in a curved or crooked line,Grade c ( nonprogressive) sperms move their tails,but do not move forward ( local motility only).Grade d ( immotile ) sperms do not move at all
  • 54. Whether the sperms arenormally shaped or not>> a good sperm should have a regularoval head, with a connecting mid-pieceand a long straight tail.>> abnormal* round heads;* pin heads;* very large heads;* double heads;* absent tails