Dy Eco Part 1


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Dy Eco Part 1

  1. 1. dynamic ecosystem (part 1) <ul><li>Dynamic system of organisms interacting with each other (biotic) and the inanimate environment (abiotic). </li></ul>
  2. 2. ecosystem component Abiotic and Biotic
  3. 3. abiotic component <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Rocks & Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic disturbances </li></ul>
  4. 7. Global climate <ul><li>Seasons </li></ul>• Precipitation & Winds
  5. 8. biotic component - animals - plants ..... all living organism
  6. 11. food chain
  7. 12. Food chain <ul><li>Sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with producer >>>>> end with consumer </li></ul>
  8. 13. Example : Producer 1 Consumer st 2 Consumer nd 3 Consumer rd 4 Consumer th
  9. 14. 1 2 3 Primary consumer Producer Secondary consumer Tertiary consumer From the organisms above, form three food chains.
  10. 15. Construct a food web from three food chains below
  11. 17. tropic level
  12. 19. Snake Mice Paddy Grasshopper Caterpillar Frog Bird Eagle Identify the producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer and decomposer in a food web Fungi Dead
  13. 20. interaction between biotic component Symbiosis - commensalism - mutualism - parasitisme
  14. 21. What is symbiosis <ul><li>Interaction between 2 or more organisms from different species which live closely together and interact with each other . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types of symbiosis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalisms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphytes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epizoites </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endoparasite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ectoparasite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two plants or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plant and Animal or </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 22. epiphytes symbiosis commensalism
  16. 24. epizoites
  17. 25. Sea anemones and hermit crab
  18. 26. Scallop with another sea snail?
  19. 27. symbiosis mutualism Lichen
  20. 28. Mutualistic interaction between ants and an acacia species (a tree) in the tropics. The ants protect the host tree, while the tree provides the ants with nutrient rich food (the yellow bodies on the tip of leaflets).
  21. 29. Sea anemone and fish… what do each of them get?
  22. 30. fix nitrogen from the atmosphere in to a plant usable form. In return the plant feeds the bacteria with sugars, proteins, and oxygen .
  23. 31. parasitisme plant parasite Rafflesia When in bloom, the Rafflesia emits a repulsive odor, similar to that of rotting meat. This odor attracts insects that pollinate the plant. No visible leaves, roots, or stem It attaches itself to a host plant to obtain water and nutrients
  24. 32. dodder
  25. 33. ectoparasites
  26. 34. A parasitic mold killing a locust
  27. 35. Various endoparasites of humans The protozoan Tripanosoma gambiense causes the African sleeping sickness; The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides lives in the intestinal cavities of humans and some other animals
  28. 36. The human liver fluke, a flatworm ( Clonorchis sinensis ). Tapeworm
  29. 37. saprophytes
  30. 38. Saprophytes are the organisms that act as the decomposers ,
  31. 39. predator and prey
  32. 40. <ul><li>Predatory behavior is that which results in the killing of another animal for food. </li></ul><ul><li>Predators usually possess excellent senses to find their prey and special abilities to capture the prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Most species are potential prey for another animal at least sometime during their lives </li></ul>Predator and prey relationship
  33. 42. Regardless of body mass or numbers in a population, a given mass of prey will support a given mass of predator.  If the numbers of prey go down, the numbers of predators go down. On the other hand, if the numbers of predators go down, the numbers of prey will go up.
  34. 43. Colonization and succession <ul><li>Primary colonisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organisms that are able to colonise a disturbed habitat such as an area of bare soil or rock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce in the harsh environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary colonisers typically have effective methods of dispersal </li></ul></ul>
  35. 44. succession <ul><li>A series of communities that develop in an area over time. </li></ul><ul><li>If the succession develops from an area with no community, it is called a primary succession e.g. on exposed rock. </li></ul><ul><li>If the succession develops from an area that has been prevented from changing e.g. by agriculture, it is called a secondary succession. </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>Each community of plants and animals alters the environment making it less suitable for them and more suitable for other colonisers. </li></ul><ul><li>the succession eventually reaches a stable community called the climatic climax. </li></ul>
  37. 48. Pioneer species:- adaptive character: <ul><li>Long root – water/stronghold of plant </li></ul><ul><li>Small leaves / needlelike/thorn </li></ul><ul><li>– less transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Able to live in less nutrient soil </li></ul>
  38. 52. 1 st successor : <ul><li>Pioneer change the soil into more suitable condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for pioneer to live </li></ul><ul><li>Soil moist and nutritious </li></ul><ul><li>Shrubs and grass </li></ul>
  39. 55. 2 nd successor : <ul><li>Small trees and shrub </li></ul><ul><li>Moist and fertilized soil </li></ul><ul><li>Small animals able to live </li></ul><ul><li>>>>> forest gradually form and become climax comunity. </li></ul>
  40. 58. Colonisation and succession in a pond. Example: unused mining pool
  41. 61. Pioneer plant: <ul><li>Phytoplankton – micro algae </li></ul><ul><li>Submerged plant – Hydrilla sp, Elodea sp. </li></ul><ul><li>- carry out photo – provide food </li></ul><ul><li>- died – decomposed at the bottom of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>- banks of pond are eroded and soil settle at the bottom of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>>> pond become shallow and not suitable for submerged plant. </li></ul>
  42. 63. 1 st successor :floating plant <ul><li>Duckweed(Lemna sp.) Pistia sp, Eichornia and lotus </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent sunlight from penetrating into the pond </li></ul><ul><li>Submerged plant unable to carry out photo </li></ul><ul><li>Died and decomposed </li></ul><ul><li>Pond become too shallow and fertile. </li></ul>
  43. 64. Duckweed/ Lemna sp Lotus / Nelumbium sp
  44. 65. Eichornia sp Pistia sp
  45. 66. 2 nd successor: amphibious plant <ul><li>Live with the root anchored to the pond bottom and banks soil </li></ul><ul><li>Spread into the centre of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>Plant died – decayed organic deposited at the bottom of the pond </li></ul><ul><li>Pond dried up </li></ul>
  46. 69. Final successor: land plants <ul><li>Shrubs and woody plant </li></ul><ul><li>Climax community formed </li></ul>
  47. 71. Mangrove swamp colonization and succession
  48. 72. Mangrove swamp
  49. 73. Unsuitable condition of muddy bank in mangrove swamp: <ul><li>Soft muddy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Water logged soil which lacks of oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>High salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Strong sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme heat </li></ul>
  50. 74. Pioneer species : <ul><li>Avicennia sp – grow facing the sea </li></ul><ul><li>Sonneratia sp – at the mouth of river which is sheltered. </li></ul>
  51. 75. Adaptation of pioneer species: <ul><li>Root system spread out widely to give support in the soft muddy soil </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumotophores – grow vertically upwards – spongy, able to taken in air for respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Having higher osmotic pressure of cell sap than surrounding sea water </li></ul><ul><li>Excess salt secreted through hydathodes in leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick cuticle and succulent leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Sunken stoma – to reduce transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Float seed. </li></ul>
  52. 76. Avicennia sp
  53. 81. Sonneratia sp:
  54. 83. 1 st successor – Rhizophora sp <ul><li>Root of avicennia and sonneratia trap mud and soil, bank raised and contain less water. </li></ul><ul><li>More suitable for Rhizophora </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly replace the pioneers </li></ul>
  55. 84. Rhizophora sp: <ul><li>Prop roots to support and anchor the trees </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparity seeds to ensure seedling survival </li></ul><ul><li>Prop roots traps a lot of soil and mud, died and decomposed adding humus to the soil </li></ul>
  56. 86. Prop root of Rhizopora
  57. 90. Viviparity fruit.
  58. 91. 2 nd successor : Bruguiera sp <ul><li>The banks are rised up higher and dried, the soil become compact, fertile and less saline. </li></ul><ul><li>Not suitable for Rhizophora, slowly replaced by Bruguiera sp </li></ul>
  59. 92. Bruguiera sp : <ul><li>Buttress roots for support </li></ul><ul><li>Knee shape pneumatophores </li></ul><ul><li>More sedimentation of decayed substances – dried land form </li></ul><ul><li>Replaced by other types of plants; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coconut, pandanus, palm trees and others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forest formed. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 94. Buttress root Knee root
  61. 95. 3 rd successor : Paya bakau forest Plants :
  62. 96. Nypa sp.
  63. 97. Animals in mangrove swamps:
  64. 98. Ecological important of mangrove swamp: <ul><li>Food, nesting and nursery for animal e.g. fish, crabs, shrimp and birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect coastline by acting as wave breakers and coastal erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Natural barriers against storms and tsunamis </li></ul><ul><li>Cleansing system, trap debris, excess nutrient and toxin brought down by the rivers </li></ul>
  65. 99. Economical value: <ul><li>Poles: shaft of Rhizophora species </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel wood and charcoal: Rhizophora species wood have a high calorific value (more heat) </li></ul><ul><li>Tannins and dyes: Bark of mangrove trees are harvested as a source of tannin for the tanning industry </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials for industries: lignocellulose for the manufacture of chipboard, pulpwood (newspaper and cardboard) or synthetic materials (e.g., rayon). </li></ul>
  66. 101. Food product: <ul><li>industrial ethanol from distillation of the fermented plant sap – Nypa sp </li></ul><ul><li>Seafood: Oysters, clams, mussels, cockles and other shellfish may be harvested directly or cultivated for consumption. Prawn and crab ponds converted from mangrove areas </li></ul>
  67. 103. Conduct a field study to estimate the population size of animals such as garden snails and wood lice