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Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
Chemical Of The Cell
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Chemical Of The Cell

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  • 1. chemical composistion of the cell
  • 2.  
  • 3. Elements of the cell
  • 4.  
  • 5. Inorganic elements
    • State the name of elements
    • State the function of each elements in animal and plant cell
  • 6. Water molecules
  • 7. List the importance of water in the cell :
    • Biochemical reaction
    • Solvent
    • Transport medium
    • Maintaining osmotic balance
    • Support
    • Moisture – alveoli
    • Lubrication – mucus
    • Maintaining body tempt
  • 8. Organic compound in the cell Basic element: C, H, O
  • 9.
    • Always contain carbon and hydrogen
    • Usually contain covalent bonds
    • Usually large, unique molecules with complex functions
    • Make up 40% of body mass
  • 10. Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Carbohydrate
  • 11. Carbohydrates
    • Substances formed from C, H, and O
    • Main function is source of energy for ATP
    • formation
    • Forms only 2-3 % of total body weight
      • glycogen is storage in liver and muscle tissue
      • sugar building blocks of DNA & RNA (deoxyribose & ribose sugars)
      • Only plants produce starch for energy storage
  • 12. Glucose Fructose Galactose Monosaccharides
  • 13. Characteristic of the monosaccharide
    • Water soluble
    • Crystallization
    • Colorless
    • Sweet to taste
    Food test:
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19. Sucrose Maltose Lactose Disaccharide
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23. polysaccharides . strach - plant cell storage . glycogen - animal cell storage . cellulose - cell wall
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. Fatty acid Glycerol lipids
  • 27. List the importance of lipids
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32. proteins . contain C, H, O, N, S . smallest unit = amino acid . combine -by peptide bond . dipeptide . polypeptide
  • 33. List the importance of proteins:
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37. Amino acid
    • Essential
      • Need to take by food
      • Can be synthesized by body
      • First class protein
      • Found in animals
    • Non-essential
      • Almost found in plant
      • Can be synthesized by our body
  • 38.
    • Peptide bond can be broken by:
      • Heat
      • Dilute acids
      • Enzymes
    • Denaturation:
      • Loss of three dimensional structure
      • By heat or chemical
  • 39. Polypeptide chain
  • 40. Various protein structures e.g.: hormone insulin e.g.: hormone, antibodies, enzyme e.g.: hemoglobin
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43. DNA Structure
    • Huge molecules containing C, H, O, N and P
    • A molecule of DNA is a chain of nucleotides
    • Nucleotide
      • nitrogenous base (A-G-T-C),
      • a 5- carbon sugar,
      • and a phosphate group
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46. enzyme
  • 47. what is enzyme?
  • 48.
    • Answer:
    • 1. Proteins: most enzymes are proteins , primarily tertiary and quaternary structures .
    • 2. Catalyst: chemical agent that accelerates a reaction without being permanently changed in the process.
  • 49.
    • 3. Selective: enzymes are specific for which they will catalyze (Specificity - depends upon 3D shape).
    • 4. Recycled: enzymes are reusable.
  • 50. student presentation
  • 51. . proteins . biological catalyst . speed up biochemical reation
  • 52.
    • Work rapidly
    • Not destroyed after reaction
    • Can work both direction
    • Extremely specific
    • Denatured by high temperature
    • Sensitive to pH
    enzymes characteristics:
  • 53. “ ase” endings: sucrase maltase lactase naming of enzymes Name according to substrate it catalyst A few enzymes are named before : pepsin, trypsin, rennin
  • 54. Lock and key hypothesis
    • Enzyme is specific to its substrate
    • When pH change, the charge of active sites change,
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59. DNA
    • Huge molecules containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus
    • Each gene of our genetic material is a piece of DNA that controls the synthesis of a specific protein
    • A molecule of DNA is a chain of nucleotides
    • Nucleotide = nitrogenous base (A-G-T-C), a 5- carbon sugar, and a phosphate group
  • 60.  
  • 61. Factors affecting the rate of enzymatic reactions
  • 62. pH [acidity and alkalinity]
    • Enzymes are affected by changes in pH
    • Most work best at pH 7
    • A change of pH, will change the active site charge of enzyme molecules,
    • not able to form enzyme – substrate complex
  • 63. Rate of enzyme reaction pH 7 1 14 Pepsin [stomach] Amylase [mouth] Amylase [duodenum]
  • 64. Heat
    • Most work best at optimum temperature
    • 37 C
    • Extreme heat (above) – denaturation of enzyme molecule
    • Active site altered – not able to form enzyme – substrate complex
    • In cold condition [below 20] – enzyme inactive
  • 65. TEMPT [c] Rate of enzyme reaction 37 60 0
  • 66. Substrate concentration
    • If the concentration of substrate increase,
    • the chance for enzyme-substrate collision will increase .
    • When all active sites filled with substrate,
    • the rate remains constant.
    Rate of enzyme reaction Substrate concentration
  • 67. Enzyme concentration
    • If the concentration of enzyme increase,
    • the chance for enzyme-substrate collision will increase .
    • When all substrate are used at one time,
    • the rate remains constant.
    Rate of enzyme reaction Enzyme concentration
  • 68. The effect of pH/ temperature on enzymatic activities Design an experiment :
  • 69. Enzymes in daily life
    • State the use of enzyme in:
      • Food production
      • Dairy industry
      • Biological detergent
      • Textile industry
      • Leather industry
      • Paper industry

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