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Cell Organisation
 

Cell Organisation

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    Cell Organisation Cell Organisation Presentation Transcript

    • cell organisation Hasimah bt Azit
    • unicellular organism
    •  
    •  
    • How this organism:
      • Move?
      • Do respiration?
      • Respond to stimuli?
      • Controls and regulates water ?
      • Reproduce?
    • multicell organism They have a lot of cells !!
    • Levels of Organization
      • Chemical
      • Cellular
      • Tissue
      • Organs
      • Organ System
      • Organism
    •  
    • All the tissues are same in the beginning!
      • They differentiate to fit their function in the organism
      • They undergo specialisation in order to perform their tasks more efficiently
    • The Origin of Tissues Morula Blastula Gastrula Differentiate between primary tissues and embryonic germ layers.
    • 4 Basic Tissues Types
      • Epithelial
      • Connective
      • Muscle
      • Nervous
    • Epithelial Tissue -- General Features
      • Cover surfaces, line cavities and form glands
        • Name one multicellular gland formed by epithelial tissue.
        • Attached to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane
      • Avascular ---without blood vessels
        • nutrients diffuse in from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue
        • What does this mean for especially thick epithelia?
      • Good nerve supply
      • Rapid cell division; responsive to environmental stresses
      • Named according to the shape and arrangement of cells
        • List the general functions of epithelial tissues.
    •  
    • Connective Tissues
      • Cells rarely touch due to usually large amount of intercellular material (extra cellular matrix )
      • Matrix(fibers & ground substance) secreted by cells
      • Consistency varies from liquid or gel to solid
      • Function is to support, connect, protect and insulate
      • Good nerve & blood supply except cartilage & tendons
    •  
    • What are the three major cell types often found in connective tissues, and what are their functions? Areolar c.t.
    • Adipose Tissue
      • Peripheral nuclei due to large fat storage droplet
      • Deeper layer of skin, organ padding, yellow marrow
      • Reduces heat loss, energy storage, protection
    • Bones
    • Blood
    • Muscle
    •  
    • Cardiac Muscle
    • Skeletal Muscle
    • Smooth Muscle
    • Nervous tissues
    • Organs
      • Two or more types of tissues working together to perform a particular function
      • Examples:
      Kidney Brain Lung
    •  
    • Systems
      • Several organs that works together
    •  
    • cell organisation in plant
    •  
    • Tissues
      • 2 main types:
        • Meristematic:
          • Cambium – actively dividing cells
        • Permanent :
          • Epidermal: outmost layer of cells – cover leaves, stems and roots. Protective tissues.
          • Ground:(cortex)
            • Parenchyma
            • Collenchyma
            • Sclerenchyma
          • Vascular:
            • Xylem
            • phloem
    •  
    • Meristematic tissues
    • Root Apical Meristem
    • Epidermal
    •  
    • Ground tissue Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma
    •  
    •  
    • Vascular tissue
      • transportation of water and minerals from the roots to shoot systems
      • Transportation food that is synthesized in leaves to whole plant.
    •  
    •  
    • Organs
    • Systems
    • Regulating internal environment By Hasimah Azit
    • The Boundary Organ Concept
    • What is internal environment?
      • Consists of:
        • Interstitial fluid
        • Blood plasma
      Our cells surrounding
    •  
      • The necessity to maintain optimal internal environment so that cells can function optimally
      • Internal factors :
        • Physical:
          • Temperature
          • Blood pressure
          • Osmotic pressure
        • Chemical:
          • Salt
          • Sugar
          • pH
      The process to regulate and maintain internal environment >>>> HOMEOSTASIS
    • Homeostasis of Body Fluids
      • Separation of fluid compartments
        • intracellular fluid (ICF) = within cells = cytoplasm
        • extracellular fluid (ECF) = outside cells
          • intercellular fluid = tissue fluid = interstitial fluid
          • plasma = fluid portion of blood
      • Composition of fluids change as substances move between compartments
        • nutrients, oxygen, ions and wastes move in both directions across capillary walls
    • How is this (homeostasis) controlled?
    • feedback process . positive : >> increase >> increase . Negative: >> increase >>> decrease
    • Components of Feedback Loop
      • Receptor
        • monitors a controlled condition
      • Control center
        • determines next action
      • Effector
        • receives directions from the control center
        • produces a response that changes the controlled condition
    • Eg. Homeostasis of Blood Pressure
      • Pressure receptors in walls of certain arteries detect an increase in BP
        • blood Pressure = force of blood on walls of vessels
      • Brain receives input and signals heart and blood vessels
      • Heart rate slows and arterioles dilate (increase in diameter)
      • BP returns to normal
    •  
    • Uniqueness of cells
    • Why these cells are so unique?
      • They can perform their function optimally!
      • Red blood cell – without nucleus – they have a lot of spaces for hemoglobin so a lot of oxygen can be carried.
      • Bone – they have calcium