form 4 biology chap6 pt3

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  • 1. LEARNING OUTCOMES To explain what malnutrition is To explain the effects of malnutrition using examples To describe ways to reduce the chance of contracting certain health problems due to one’s diet To describe ways to reduce the effects of certain health problem
  • 2. Malnutrition and Its Effects Malnutrition : lack of one or more of the nutrients required in the diet to maintain good health Can be caused by :  A reduced intake of nutrients (undernourishment)  An inability to use absorbed nutrients  The failure to meet a required increase in nutrient intake  Nutrient loses
  • 3. Malnutrition & Its Effects 3 stages to provide energy in cases of 3 stages to provide energy in cases of malnutrition :  The carbohydrate stores in the body are used up  The fat reserves are oxidised  Proteins are broken down. When protein levels have been reduced to half their normal value, death will occur Lack of any nutrient can cause deficiency diseases
  • 4. Nutrients Effects of Characteristics deficiency Proteins Kwashiorkor Stomach bloated, growth of body and brain retarded, no appetite for food, weak bodyVitamin A Night blindness  poor night vision Xerophthalmia  cornea dry & opaqueVitamin B1 Beri-beri Swollen legs & ankles, numbness in hands, muscular pain & cramps, fatigue, loss of appetiteVitamin B3 Pellagra Dermatitis (skin becomes red & inflamed), diarrhoea & mental disorder
  • 5. Vitamin B12 Anaemia Lack of RBC or haemoglobin Iron to transport oxygen Vitamin C Scurvy Bleeding gums, bruise skin, painful & swollen joints, weakness Vitamin D Rickets Stunted growth of bones & Calcium Osteoporosis teeth, weak bones Brittle bones which easily broken Iodine Goitre Enlarge thyroid glands Cretinism Physical & mental growth retarded Sodium Muscular cramps Sudden & painful contraction of muscles
  • 6. E f f e c t s o f E x c e s s iv e In t a k e o f C e r t a in N u t r ie n t s o n H e a lt h Nutrient Effects CharacteristicsCarbohydrates  Obesity which may Body weight is more than (sugar) lead to high blood 20% of the suitable body pressure, diabetes weight for a particular mellitus, heart diseases height Dental caries Tooth decay due to the destruction of the teeth’s enamel by acids which are produced by bacteria from carbohydrate Lipids Atherosclerosis (as a The narrowing & result of saturated hardening of arteries animal fats)
  • 7. Proteins  Gout Excessive uric acid  Stones in the kidney deposits on the joints which can damage the causing joint pain kidney Uric acid crystalises & forms stones in the kidneyVitamin A Liver damage The liver fails to function because liver cells die & fibrous tissues form in the liver Sodium High blood pressure Fatigue, headache, Kidney damage can cause bleeding in the brain (stroke) & heart failure Kidneys are overloaded with the task of removing excess salt
  • 8. Calcium Atherosclerosis Calcium deposits on the inner walls of arteries causing the arteries to harden & lose their elasticity
  • 9. D IE T -R E L A T E D D IS E A S E S HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE – Excessive intake of food that is rich in saturated fat, cholesterol & calcium leads to atherosclerosis & high blood pressure. – The saturated fats, cholesterol & calcium are deposited on the inner walls of arteries. The lumen become smaller & the walls of the arteries harden & lose their elasticity. Blood flow is reduced. the heart pump faster to produce a higher pressure
  • 10. – Also can cause by excessive intake of salts, tea & coffee which can increase the rate of heart beat, thus increasing the blood pressure.– Ways to reduce the risk of HBP :  Reduce the intake of food which are rich in saturated fats & cholesterol  Exercise frequently  Reduce the intake of salts in food, as well as tea & coffee  Do not smoke  Have enough rest
  • 11. D IE T -R E L A T E D D IS E A S E DIABETES MELLITUS – Caused by excessive glucose in the blood & its subsequent excretion in the urine – Excessive intake of food rich in sugar (carbohydrates) can cause diabetes mellitus – Obesity can also lead to DM – The risk of DM can be reduced by :  Reduce the intake of food rich in sugar  Exercise frequently
  • 12. DIET-RELATED DISEASE OSTEOPOROSIS – Due to the lack of calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D in the diet of an adult – Low density of the bone mass & the bones become thin & brittle, easily broken – The risk of contracting osteoporosis can be reduced in the following ways :  Intake of food rich in calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D  Exercise frequently
  • 13. K w a s h io kor
  • 14. X e r o p h t h a lm ia
  • 15. B e r i-b e r i
  • 16. PELLAG RA
  • 17. A N A E M IA
  • 18. S C U R VY
  • 19. R IC K E T S
  • 20. G O IT R E
  • 21. A TH E R O S C L E R O S IS
  • 22. O S TE O P O R O S IS
  • 23. O B E S IT Y
  • 24. G OUT
  • 25. H IG H B L O O D PRES S URE
  • 26. D IA B E T E SM E L L IT U S
  • 27. E X E R C IS E 6 . 31. Ex p l ai n wh at i s mal n u t r i t i o n .2. Ex p l ai n t h e e f f e c t s o f mal n u t r i t i o n u s i n g e x amp l e s .3. D e s c r i b e ways t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t ai n h e al t h p r o b l e ms .