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LEARNING OUTCOMES To explain what malnutrition is To explain the effects of malnutrition using examples To describe ways to reduce the chance of contracting certain health problems due to one’s diet To describe ways to reduce the effects of certain health problem
Malnutrition and Its Effects Malnutrition : lack of one or more of the nutrients required in the diet to maintain good health Can be caused by : A reduced intake of nutrients (undernourishment) An inability to use absorbed nutrients The failure to meet a required increase in nutrient intake Nutrient loses
Malnutrition & Its Effects 3 stages to provide energy in cases of 3 stages to provide energy in cases of malnutrition : The carbohydrate stores in the body are used up The fat reserves are oxidised Proteins are broken down. When protein levels have been reduced to half their normal value, death will occur Lack of any nutrient can cause deficiency diseases
Nutrients Effects of Characteristics deficiency Proteins Kwashiorkor Stomach bloated, growth of body and brain retarded, no appetite for food, weak bodyVitamin A Night blindness poor night vision Xerophthalmia cornea dry & opaqueVitamin B1 Beri-beri Swollen legs & ankles, numbness in hands, muscular pain & cramps, fatigue, loss of appetiteVitamin B3 Pellagra Dermatitis (skin becomes red & inflamed), diarrhoea & mental disorder
Vitamin B12 Anaemia Lack of RBC or haemoglobin Iron to transport oxygen Vitamin C Scurvy Bleeding gums, bruise skin, painful & swollen joints, weakness Vitamin D Rickets Stunted growth of bones & Calcium Osteoporosis teeth, weak bones Brittle bones which easily broken Iodine Goitre Enlarge thyroid glands Cretinism Physical & mental growth retarded Sodium Muscular cramps Sudden & painful contraction of muscles
E f f e c t s o f E x c e s s iv e In t a k e o f C e r t a in N u t r ie n t s o n H e a lt h Nutrient Effects CharacteristicsCarbohydrates Obesity which may Body weight is more than (sugar) lead to high blood 20% of the suitable body pressure, diabetes weight for a particular mellitus, heart diseases height Dental caries Tooth decay due to the destruction of the teeth’s enamel by acids which are produced by bacteria from carbohydrate Lipids Atherosclerosis (as a The narrowing & result of saturated hardening of arteries animal fats)
Proteins Gout Excessive uric acid Stones in the kidney deposits on the joints which can damage the causing joint pain kidney Uric acid crystalises & forms stones in the kidneyVitamin A Liver damage The liver fails to function because liver cells die & fibrous tissues form in the liver Sodium High blood pressure Fatigue, headache, Kidney damage can cause bleeding in the brain (stroke) & heart failure Kidneys are overloaded with the task of removing excess salt
Calcium Atherosclerosis Calcium deposits on the inner walls of arteries causing the arteries to harden & lose their elasticity
D IE T -R E L A T E D D IS E A S E S HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE – Excessive intake of food that is rich in saturated fat, cholesterol & calcium leads to atherosclerosis & high blood pressure. – The saturated fats, cholesterol & calcium are deposited on the inner walls of arteries. The lumen become smaller & the walls of the arteries harden & lose their elasticity. Blood flow is reduced. the heart pump faster to produce a higher pressure
– Also can cause by excessive intake of salts, tea & coffee which can increase the rate of heart beat, thus increasing the blood pressure.– Ways to reduce the risk of HBP : Reduce the intake of food which are rich in saturated fats & cholesterol Exercise frequently Reduce the intake of salts in food, as well as tea & coffee Do not smoke Have enough rest
D IE T -R E L A T E D D IS E A S E DIABETES MELLITUS – Caused by excessive glucose in the blood & its subsequent excretion in the urine – Excessive intake of food rich in sugar (carbohydrates) can cause diabetes mellitus – Obesity can also lead to DM – The risk of DM can be reduced by : Reduce the intake of food rich in sugar Exercise frequently
DIET-RELATED DISEASE OSTEOPOROSIS – Due to the lack of calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D in the diet of an adult – Low density of the bone mass & the bones become thin & brittle, easily broken – The risk of contracting osteoporosis can be reduced in the following ways : Intake of food rich in calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D Exercise frequently
E X E R C IS E 6 . 31. Ex p l ai n wh at i s mal n u t r i t i o n .2. Ex p l ai n t h e e f f e c t s o f mal n u t r i t i o n u s i n g e x amp l e s .3. D e s c r i b e ways t o r e d u c e t h e e f f e c t s o f c e r t ai n h e al t h p r o b l e ms .