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form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2
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form4(BIOLOGY) chap 1 pt2

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biology form 4 chap 1(2)

biology form 4 chap 1(2)

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  • 1. 1.2 - Scientific Investigation
  • 2. Learning Outcomes• To state various ways of studying Biology• To identify variables in a given situation• To identify the relationship between two variables to form a hypothesis• To design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis• To record and present data in a suitable form• To interpret data to draw conclusions• To write a report on an experiment• To practice scientific attitudes and noble values
  • 3. VARIOUS WAYS OF STUDYING BIOLOGY• Conducting experiment & carrying out projects.• Involves acquiring scientific skills, using the scientific method & practising scientific attitudes & noble values• Can be divided into two : science process skills & manipulative skills
  • 4. •Science process skills – critical, analytical & creative thinking skills which enable a scientist to formulate questions & find out the answers & explanations to a phenomenon in a systematic manner.•Manipulative skills – psychomotor skills that enable scientists to cary out an investigation.
  • 5. SCIENCE PROCESS •SKILLS OBSERVING • CLASSIFYING • MEASURING & USING NUMBERS • INFERRING • PREDICTING • COMMUNICATING • USE SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP • INTERPRETING DATA• DEFINING THROUGH OPERATIONS • CONTROLLING VARIABLES • HYPOTHESISING • EXPERIMENTING
  • 6. OBSERVING Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell,taste & sight to collect information about anobject or a phenomenon
  • 7. CLASSIFYING Using observations togroup objects or eventsaccording to similarities or differences.
  • 8. MEASURING & USING NUMBERS Making quantitative observations using numbers & tools with standardised units. Measuring makesobservation more accurate.
  • 9. INFERRINGUsing past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions & explain events
  • 10. PREDICTINGStating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data
  • 11. COMMUNICATINGUsing words or graphic symbols such as tables,graphs, figures or models to describe an action, object or event.
  • 12. USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP Describing changes in parameter with time.Examples of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume, weight & mass.
  • 13. INTERPRETING DATA Giving rationalexplanations about anobject, event or patternderived from collected data.
  • 14. DEFININGOPERATIONALLY Defining concepts bydescribing what must bedone & what should be observed.
  • 15. CONTROLLING VARIABLESIdentifying the fixedvariables, manipulatedvariable & responding variable in an investigation.
  • 16. HYPOTHESISING Making a general statementabout the relationship between a manipulated variable & aresponding variable in order toexplain an event or observation.This statement can be tested to determine its validity.
  • 17. EXPERIMENTINGPlanning & conductingactivities to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include collecting, analysing & interpreting data & making conclusions.
  • 18. MANIPULATIVE SKILLS• USE & HANDLE SCIENTIFIC APPARATUS & LABORATORY SUBSTANCES CORRECTLY• HANDLE SPECIMENS CORRECTLY & CAREFULLY• DRAW SPECIMENS, APPARATUS & LABORATORY SUBSTANCES ACCURATELY• CLEAN SCIENCE APPARATUS CORRECTLY• STORE SCIENCE APPARATUS & LABORATORY SUBSTANCES CORRECTLY & SAFELY
  • 19. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES & NOBLE VALUES• Having an interest & curiosity towards the environment• Being honest & accurate in recording & validating data• Being diligent & persevering• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others & the environment• Realising that science is a means to understand nature• Appreciating & practising clean & healthy living
  • 20. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD• Employ by biological scientists to discover the phenomena of life.• The scientific method – the process of gathering facts based on an observable event or phenomenon @ a process of obtaining a fact about a phenomenon using a method recognised by the scientific community.
  • 21. IDENTIFYING A PROBLEM• Determine the problem to be solve by; (a) observing the situation or phenomena, (b) identifying the variables• In the form of a question to be answered.• Must show the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable.
  • 22. FORMING A HYPOTHESIS• A smart guess or prediction to explain the problem• Answer for the problem• A statement to explain the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable.• Eg.:The heavier the school bag, the faster the heartbeat.
  • 23. PLANNING THE EXPERIMENT• Plan an experiment to test the hypothesis• Determine the steps in planning experiment : apparatus/materials, technique, procedures, type of measurements, methods, way of presenting data• Write out the design plan of the experiment
  • 24. IDENTIFYING & CONTROLLING VARIABLES• Identified the variables :*Manipulated : how to alter the manipulated variable in the experimen*Responding : What to observe, measure and record*Controlled : How to maintain the controlled variable so that it is kept constant during the experiment
  • 25. CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT• Carried out as planned• Have to observed : i. The apparatus & materials are handled correctly, cleaned & stored safely ii. The variables are well-controlled. iii. The results being collected and recorded carefully. iv. A control experiment is also set up.
  • 26. COLLECTING DATA• Form of a table, graph and/or diagram
  • 27. ANALYSING & INTERPRETING DATA• Find a suitable explanation for what has been observed.• Analyse the relationship between the manipulated & the responding variables.• Look for a pattern in the data• Think critically to explain the results clearly
  • 28. DRAWING/FORMING A CONCLUSION• Determine whether the data supports the hypothesis• Decide whether the hypothesis is valid or not• Make a general statement about the results of the investigation, based on hypothesis
  • 29. WRITING A REPORT• A complete report of the experiment is written to following format (Refer to text book, page 10)
  • 30. EXERCISE 1.2• What are the two main scientific skills used in the biological studies?• Define science process skills & give four examples.• Define manipulative skills & give two examples.• State the typical format for the report of an experiment.

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