2. Learning Outcomes• To state various ways of studying Biology• To identify variables in a given situation• To identify the relationship between two variables to form a hypothesis• To design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis• To record and present data in a suitable form• To interpret data to draw conclusions• To write a report on an experiment• To practice scientific attitudes and noble values
3. VARIOUS WAYS OF STUDYING BIOLOGY• Conducting experiment & carrying out projects.• Involves acquiring scientific skills, using the scientific method & practising scientific attitudes & noble values• Can be divided into two : science process skills & manipulative skills
4. •Science process skills – critical, analytical & creative thinking skills which enable a scientist to formulate questions & find out the answers & explanations to a phenomenon in a systematic manner.•Manipulative skills – psychomotor skills that enable scientists to cary out an investigation.
5. SCIENCE PROCESS •SKILLS OBSERVING • CLASSIFYING • MEASURING & USING NUMBERS • INFERRING • PREDICTING • COMMUNICATING • USE SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP • INTERPRETING DATA• DEFINING THROUGH OPERATIONS • CONTROLLING VARIABLES • HYPOTHESISING • EXPERIMENTING
6. OBSERVING Using the sense of hearing, touch, smell,taste & sight to collect information about anobject or a phenomenon
7. CLASSIFYING Using observations togroup objects or eventsaccording to similarities or differences.
8. MEASURING & USING NUMBERS Making quantitative observations using numbers & tools with standardised units. Measuring makesobservation more accurate.
9. INFERRINGUsing past experiences or previously collected data to draw conclusions & explain events
10. PREDICTINGStating the outcome of a future event based on prior knowledge gained through experiences or collected data
11. COMMUNICATINGUsing words or graphic symbols such as tables,graphs, figures or models to describe an action, object or event.
12. USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP Describing changes in parameter with time.Examples of parameters are location, direction, shape, size, volume, weight & mass.
13. INTERPRETING DATA Giving rationalexplanations about anobject, event or patternderived from collected data.
14. DEFININGOPERATIONALLY Defining concepts bydescribing what must bedone & what should be observed.
15. CONTROLLING VARIABLESIdentifying the fixedvariables, manipulatedvariable & responding variable in an investigation.
16. HYPOTHESISING Making a general statementabout the relationship between a manipulated variable & aresponding variable in order toexplain an event or observation.This statement can be tested to determine its validity.
17. EXPERIMENTINGPlanning & conductingactivities to test a certain hypothesis. These activities include collecting, analysing & interpreting data & making conclusions.
19. SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES & NOBLE VALUES• Having an interest & curiosity towards the environment• Being honest & accurate in recording & validating data• Being diligent & persevering• Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others & the environment• Realising that science is a means to understand nature• Appreciating & practising clean & healthy living
20. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD• Employ by biological scientists to discover the phenomena of life.• The scientific method – the process of gathering facts based on an observable event or phenomenon @ a process of obtaining a fact about a phenomenon using a method recognised by the scientific community.
21. IDENTIFYING A PROBLEM• Determine the problem to be solve by; (a) observing the situation or phenomena, (b) identifying the variables• In the form of a question to be answered.• Must show the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable.
22. FORMING A HYPOTHESIS• A smart guess or prediction to explain the problem• Answer for the problem• A statement to explain the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable.• Eg.:The heavier the school bag, the faster the heartbeat.
23. PLANNING THE EXPERIMENT• Plan an experiment to test the hypothesis• Determine the steps in planning experiment : apparatus/materials, technique, procedures, type of measurements, methods, way of presenting data• Write out the design plan of the experiment
24. IDENTIFYING & CONTROLLING VARIABLES• Identified the variables :*Manipulated : how to alter the manipulated variable in the experimen*Responding : What to observe, measure and record*Controlled : How to maintain the controlled variable so that it is kept constant during the experiment
25. CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT• Carried out as planned• Have to observed : i. The apparatus & materials are handled correctly, cleaned & stored safely ii. The variables are well-controlled. iii. The results being collected and recorded carefully. iv. A control experiment is also set up.
26. COLLECTING DATA• Form of a table, graph and/or diagram
27. ANALYSING & INTERPRETING DATA• Find a suitable explanation for what has been observed.• Analyse the relationship between the manipulated & the responding variables.• Look for a pattern in the data• Think critically to explain the results clearly
28. DRAWING/FORMING A CONCLUSION• Determine whether the data supports the hypothesis• Decide whether the hypothesis is valid or not• Make a general statement about the results of the investigation, based on hypothesis
29. WRITING A REPORT• A complete report of the experiment is written to following format (Refer to text book, page 10)
30. EXERCISE 1.2• What are the two main scientific skills used in the biological studies?• Define science process skills & give four examples.• Define manipulative skills & give two examples.• State the typical format for the report of an experiment.