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    Learning area-3-e28093-powerpoint-hndybook Learning area-3-e28093-powerpoint-hndybook Presentation Transcript

    • LEARNING AREA 3 – COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • Topic 3.1 Basic Concepts of Networks and Communications
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.1 Define computer networks. A SYSTEM OF INTERCONNECTED COMPUTER AND PERIPHERAL DEVICE. INTERCONNECTED COMPUTING DEVICE CAN COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER THROUGH DEFINED RULES OF DATA COMMUNICATING USING HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE. MAY OPERATE ON WIRED OR WIRELESS CONNECTION. SYSTEM YANG MENYAMBUNGKAN PC DENGAN PERANTI LUARAN PERANTI PENYAMBUNGAN KOMUNIKASI BOLEH BERINTERAKSI ANTARA SATU SAMA LAIN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PERKAKASAN DAN PERISIAN YANG TELAH DITETAPKAN CARA DAN PERATURANNYA BOLEH BEROPERASI SAMADA SECARA WAYAR ATAU TANPA WAYAR
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.2 Define communications. IS ABOUT TRANFER OF INFORMATION FROM SENDER (CLIENT) TO A RECEIVER(PRINTER). USING AN ELECTRICITY , RADIO WAVE OR LIGHT . THE INFORMATION CAN BE TEXT , VIDEO, GRAPHICS, IMAGE OR COMBINATION OF ALL THESE. TRANSMIT INFORMATION OR DATA USING 2 SIGNAL NAMELY BY ANALOG AND DIGITAL. ADALAH BERKENAAN MENGHANTAR MAKLUMAT ATAU DATA DARIPADA PENGHANTAR KEPADA PENERIMA. IA MENGGUNAKAN ELEKTRIK, GELOMBANG RADIO ATAU CAHAYA. MAKLUMAT ATAU DATA BOLEH BERUPA TEKS, VIDEO, GRAFIK, IMEJ ATAU KOMBINASI KESEMUANYA. PENGHANTARAN DATA MENGGUNAKAN 2 JENIS SIGNAL IAITU ANALOG DAN DIGITAL.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.3 State the importance of computer networks and communications. • E- BUSINESS – SELL AND CONDUCT ONLINE SHOPPING THROUGH NETWORK • ONLINE EDUCATION - SHARE KNOWLEDGE, SEARCH FOR INFORMATION AND JOIN ONLINE DISCUSSION • E- BANKING - PAYBILLS, ACCOUNT BALANCES, TRANSFER MONEY • LONG DISTANCE COMMNUCATION - CAN BE FASTER, EASIER AND SAVE COST • • • • E- PERNIAGAAN - JUALAN DAN BELIAN MELALUI ATAS TALIAN PEMBELAJARAN ATAS TALIAN - KONGSI MAKLUMAT DAN PENGETAHUAN, PERBINCANGAN, DAPATAN MAKLUMAT DSBGNYA E-PERBANKAN - BAYARAN BILLS, KELUAR MASUK WANG, SEMAK BAKI WANG DSBGNYA KOMUNIKASI JARAK JAUH - LEBIH CEPAT, MUDAH DAN JIMAT KOS
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.3State the importance of computer networks and communications.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.4 Define types of computer networks: LAN, MAN and WAN. LAN - (LOCAL AREA NETWORK)COVER SMALLL REGION OF SPACE, TYPICALLY A SINGLE BULIDING DALAM LINGKUNGAN KAWASAN YANG KECIL SEPERTI DALAM MAKMAL PC MAN - METROPLITAN AREA NETWORK. COLLECTION OF LAN’S WITH THE SAME GEOGRAPHICAL AREA FOR INSTANCE A CITY KOLEKSI KEPADA LAN’S TETAPI DALAM KAWASAN GEORAFI YANG BESAR SEPERI BANDAR. WAN - WIDE AREA NETWORKCAN BE COLLECTION OF LAN’S AND MAN’S OR THE MIX WITH A VERY LARGE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA MERUPAKAN KOLEKSI KEPADA LAN’S DAN MAN’S ATAU KEDUADUANYA TETAPI DALAM GEOGRAFI YANG SANGAT BESAR IAITU SATU DUNIA
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.4 Define types of computer networks: LAN, MAN and WAN.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.5 Differentiate between the three types of computer networks. 1. COST / KOS LAN - LOW / RENDAH MAN - HIGH / TINGGI WAN - HIGHER / SANGAT TINGGI 2. SIZE / SAIZ LAN - LIMITED (SCHOOL LAB) / TERHAD (MAKMAL SEKOLAH) MAN – COVER LIKE CITY OF KL / MERANGKUMI SEBUAH BANDAR SEPERTI KL WAN – VERY LARGEST ARE(WHOLE WORLD)/ KAWASAN SGT BESAR (DUNIA) 3. SPEED / KELAJUAN LAN - FASTEST / SANGAT CEPAT KERANA KAWASAN KECIL MAN - SLOWER / PERLAHAN KERANA BYK PERTUKARANSUMBER BERLAKU WAN - SLOWEST / BERKAITAN DENGAN JARAK DAN KAWASAN YG SGT BESAR 4. NUMBER OF COMPUTER / JUMLAH KOMPUTER LAN - SMALLEST / KECIL MAN - LARGER / BESAR WAN - LARGEST / SANGAT BESAR 5.TRANSMISSION MEDIUM / MEDIUM PENGHANTARAN LAN - TWISTED PAIR CABLE MAN - TWISTED PAIR AND FIBRE OPTIC CABLE WAN - FIBRE OPTIC CABLE,RADIO WAVE AND SATELLITE
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.6 Define two types of network architecture: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer CLIENT/SERVER CLIENT – COMPUTER WHICH REQUEST SERVICES OR FILES FROM SERVER SERVER COMPUTER THAT SHARED INFORMATION AND RESOURCES WITH OTHER COMPUTERS ON A NETWORKSUITABLE FOR 10 OR MORE PC. USE TWISTED PAIR OR COAXIAL CABLE, IF LARGE USE FIBRE OPTIC. PROVIDE A CENTRALIZED STORAGE ARE FOR PROGRAM , DATA AND INFORMATION CLIENT/SERVER CLIENT – PC YANG MEMINTA PERKHIDMATAN DARIPADA SERVER SERVER PC YANG MEMBERIKAN MAKLUMAT DAN DATA KEPADA RANGKAIAN PC YANG DIKAWALNYA. SESUAI UNTUK 10 ATAU LEBIH PC MENGGUNAKAN KABLE TWISTED PAIR ATAU COAXIAL CABLE, JIKA BESAR IA MENGGUNAKAN KABEL FIBRE OPTIC. ADA KAWALAN BERPUSAT BAGI MAKLUMAT , DATA DAN PROGRAM
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.6 Define two types of network architecture: Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer PEER-TO-PEER. ALSO KNOWN AS P2P NETWORKNETWORK WITH ALL THE NODES ACTING AS BOTH SERVER AND CLIENTSFILES LOCATED ON ANAOTHER PC AND CAN ALSO PROVIDES FILE TO OTHER PC’SUSUALLY USE TWISTED PAIR OR COAXIAL CABLE BECAUSE ITS CHEAPER AND EASIERBEST CHOICE FOR NETWORK PC LESS THAN 10 EXAMPLE –WIRELESS NETWORKING PEER-TO-PEER . JUGA DIKENALI SEBAGAI RANGKAIAN P2P. KESEMUA PC BOLEH BERTINDAK SEBAGAI CLIENT AND SERVER. DATA DAN MAKLUMAT BERTERABUR. BIASANYA MENGGUNAKAN KABEL TWISTED PAIR ATAU KABEL COAXIAL CABLE KERANA IA MUDAH DAN MURAH. SESUAI UNTUK RANGKAIAN PC YANG KURANG DARIPADA 10 .CONTOH –RANGKAIAN TANPA WAYAR
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.7State three types of network topologies: RING TOPOLOGY Bus, ring and star. BUS TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY SERVER
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.8 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE THREE TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY 1. DESCRIPTION / PERNYATAAN BUS FOUND IN LANSOMETIMES HAVE MORE THAN ONE SERVER AND SOMETIMES DO NOT NEED SERVER ADA DALAM LAN.KADANGKALA ADA LEBIH SERVER DAN KADANG KALA TIADA LANGSUNG RING - FOUND IN LAN. SERVER MAY EXIST BUT NOT CONNECT TO ALL NODES IN THE NETWORK ADA DALAM LAN. SERVER BOLEH ADA TETAPI TIDAK SEMUA BERHUBUNG DENGANNYA DALAM RANGKAIAN STAR - FOUND IN LAN. MUST HAVE A HOST THAT CAN BE SERVER, HUB OR ROUTER ADA DALAM LANMESTI ADA HOST YANG BOLEH JADI MENGGUNAKAN SERVER, HUB ATAU ROUTER 2. DEPENDENCE / KEBERGANTUNGAN BUS IF ONE NODES FAIL, ITS NOT EFFECT NETWORK SATU PC GAGAL , TIDAK MENGGANGGU RANGKAIAN RING - IF ONE NODE FAIL, THE NETWORK WILL FAIL TO FUNCTION SATU PC GAGAL, MENGGANGGU SELURUH RANGKAIAN STAR - IF ONE FAIL, NETWORK CAN STILL FUNCTION AS LONG THE HOST STILL WORKING, IF THE HOST NOT WORKING NETWORK WILL FAIL TO FUNCTION SATU PC GAGAL, RANGKAIAN MASIH BERJALAN, TETAPI JIKA HOST GAGAL, MAKA SELURUH RANGKAIAN AKAN GAGAL DAN TERGANGGU
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.8 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE THREE TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY 3. ADVANTAGES / KELEBIHAN BUS EASY IMPLEMENTATION FAILURE OF NODES DOESNYT EFFECT THE ENTIRE LAN NO DISRUPTION TO THE NETWORK WHEN CONNECTING OR REMOVING DEVICE MUDAH DIURUS KEGAGALAN SATU PC TIDAK MENGGANGGU RANGKAIAN TIADA GANGGUAN JIKA MEMBUAT HUBUNGAN ATAU MENGGANTI PERANTI RING - STAR - TROUBLESHOOTING IS EASY WHEN ONE OF THE NODES FAILS REPAIR OR REMOVING NODES, THE NETWORK STLL FUNCTIONING MUDAH UNTUK MEMBETULKAN RANGKAIAN MEMBETUL DAN MENGGANTI PERANTI, RANGKAIAN MASIH BERJALAN EASY IMPLEMENTATION FAILURE OF NODES DOESNYT EFFECT THE ENTIRE LAN NO DISRUPTION TO THE NETWORK WHEN CONNECTING OR REMOVING DEVICE TROUBLESHOOTING IS EASY WHEN THE HOST FAILS. SIMPLY REPAIR OR REPLACE THE HOST MUDAH DIURUS KEGAGALAN SATU PC TIDAK MENGGANGGU RANGKAIAN MEMBETUL DAN MENGGANTI HOST SEMUDAH GANTI ATAU BETULKAN SAHAJA.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.8 DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE THREE TYPES OF NETWORK TOPOLOGY BUS TOPOLOGY 4. DISADVANTAGE / KEKURANGAN BUS IF THE BACKBONE(WIRED) FAILS , ENTIRE NETWORK WILL EXTENDED NETWORK SPEED DICREASE WHEN NUMBER OF PC INCREASE DIFFICULT TROUBLESHOOTING WHEN ONE NODES FAILS JIKA KABEL ROSAK, MENGGANGGU RANGKAIAN KELAJUAN BERKURANG JIKA PC BERTAMBAH SUKAR BUAT PEMBAIKAN JIKA SATU PC BERMASALAH RING - STAR - DIFFICULT IMPLEMENTATION FAILURE OF ONE NODES WILL FAILURE THE ENTIRE NETWORK CONNECTING AND REMOVING DEVICE DIFFICULT NETWORK SPEED DICREASE WHEN NUMBER OF PC INCREASE SUKAR DIURUS KELAJUAN BERKURANG JIKA PC BERTAMBAH SUKAR BUAT PEMBAIKAN DAN GANTIAN KEROSAKAN SATU PC MENGGANGGU RANGKAIAN FAILURE OF HOST WILL EFFECTS THE ENTIRE NETWORK NETWORK SPEED DICREASE WHEN NUMBER OF PC INCREASE HOST MUST BE INSTALED TO CONTROL THE NETWORK HOST ROSAK GANGGU RANGKAIAN KELAJUAN BERKURANG JIKA PC BERTAMBAH HOST MESTI DIPASANG DALA RANGKAIAN RING TOPOLOGY STAR TOPOLOGY SER VER
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.9 Define Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as a protocol to facilitate communication over computer network TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL/INTERNET PROTOCOL (TCP/IP) AS A PROTOCOL TO FACILITATE COMMUNICATION OVER COMPUTER NETWORK. • IS INTERNET COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL • STANDARD THAT SET RULES FOR PC MUST FOLLOW IN COMMUNICATING WITH EACH OTHER ON A NETWORK • SOME REFER TO TCP/IP AS INTERNET PROTOCOL SUITE • ADALAH PROTOKOL KOMUNIKASI INTERNET • MERUPAKAN SET ARAHAN STANDARD YANG MESTI DIPATUHI OLEH PC BAGI BERKOMUNIKASI DALAM RANGKAIAN INTERNET • SESETENGAH MERUJUK TCPIP SEBAGAI SET PROTOKOL INTERNET TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL(TCP) – PROTOCOL THAT SET OF COMMUNICAION RULES BETWEEN COMPUTERS. – ESTABLISHES CONNECTION BETWEEN 2 PC , PROTECT AGAINS DATA LOSS AND DATA CORRUPTION – RESPONSIBLE FOR BREAKING THE DATA INTO PACKETS BEFORE THE ARE SENT THAN ASSEMBLE THE PACKETS WHEN THEY REACH A DESTINATION – PROTOKOL YANG MENETAPKAN ARAHAN KOMUNIKASI ANTARA KOMPUTER – MENETAPKAN HUBUNGAN ANTARA 2 PC, ELAKKAN KEHILANGAN DAN KEROSAKAN DATA – BERTANGGUNGJAWAB BAGI MEMECAHKAN DATA KEPADA PAKET SEBELUM DIHANTAR KEMUDIAN MENGHIMPUNKAN PAKET APABILA IA SAMPAI KE DESTINASINYA INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) – PROTOCOL THAT TRANSFER DATA FORM NODE TO NODE (PC TO PC) – IP TAKE CARE OF DELIVERING DATA PACKETS BETWEEN 2 PC – RESPONSIBLE FOR SENDING THE PACKETS FROM SENDER TO RECEIVER – ADALAH PROTOKOL YANG MEMINDAHKAN DATA DARI PC KE PC – IP MENGAMBIL BERAT TENTANG PENGHANTARAN PAKET DATA ANTARA 2 PC – BERTANGGUNGJAWAB UNTUK HANTAR PAKET DATA DRPD PENGHANTAR KEPADA PENERIMA
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.10 Describe the types of network communications technology: • Internet • Intranet • Extranet INTERNET THE INTERNET, OR THE NET, IS THE WORLDWIDE, PUBLICLY ACCESSIBLE SYSTEM OF INTERCONNECTED COMPUTER NETWORKS THAT TRANSMIT DATA BY PACKET SWITCHING USING THE STANDARD INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP). IT CONSISTS OF MILLIONS OF SMALLER BUSINESS, ACADEMIC, DOMESTIC AND GOVERNMENT NETWORKS, WHICH TOGETHER CARRY VARIOUS INFORMATION AND SERVICES, SUCH AS ELECTRONIC MAIL, ONLINE CHAT, AND THE INTERLINKED WEB PAGES AND OTHER DOCUMENTS OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB.INTERNET IS ONE OF THE USES OF COMMUNICATION. THROUGH THE INTERNET, SOCIETY HAS ACCESS TO GLOBAL INFORMATION AND INSTANT COMMUNICATION. INTERNET ATAU NET ADALAH BERSIFAT GLOBAL SYSTEM CAPAIAN AWAM ANTARA RANGKAIAN KOMPUTER YANG BERHUBUNG, MENGHANTAR MENERIMA DATA DALAM BENTUK PAKET MENGGUNAKANA STANDARD PROTOKOL INTERNET.MENGANDUNGI BERJUTA PERKARA BERKAITAN PERNIAGAAN, AKADEMIK, BAHAGIAN DALAMAN DAN RANGKAIAN KERAJAAN DIMANA SEMUANYA MEMBAWA PELBAGAI MAKLUMAT DAN PERKHIDMATAN SEPERTI MEL ELEKTRONIK, BERCAKAP ATAS TALIAN, HUBUNGAN ANTARA LAMAN WEN DAN BERBAGAI LAGI.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.10 Describe the types of network communications technology: • Internet • Intranet • Extranet INTRANET AN INTRANET (INTRA MEANS WITHIN) IS AN INTERNAL NETWORK THAT USES INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES AND IT IS A SMALL VERSION OF THE INTERNET THAT EXISTS WITHIN AN ORGANISATION. AN INTRANET IS A PRIVATE COMPUTER NETWORK THAT USES INTERNET PROTOCOLS, NETWORK CONNECTIVITY AND POSSIBLY THE PUBLIC TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM TO SECURELY SHARE PART OF AN ORGANISATION’S INFORMATION OR OPERATION WITH ITS EMPLOYEES. INTRANET GENERALLY MAKE COMPANY INFORMATION ACCESSIBLE TO EMPLOYEES AND FACILITATE WORKING IN GROUPS. SIMPLE INTRANET APPLICATIONS INCLUDE ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING OF ORGANISATIONAL MATERIALS SUCH AS TELEPHONE DIRECTORIES, EVENT CALENDARS AND JOB POSTINGS INTRA BERMAKSUD “ANTARA” ADALAH RANGKAIAN DALAMAN YANG MENGGUNAKAN TEKNOLOGI INTERNET DAN ADALAH VERSI KECIL DAAM INTERNET YANG WUJUD DALAM ORGANISASI. IA MERUPAKAN RANGKAIAN PC PERIBADI YANG MENGGUNAKAN PROTOKOL INTERNET , BERGUBUNG SECARA RANGKAIAN DAN KEBERANGKALIAN SISTEM TELEKOMUNIKASI AWAM BAGI BERKONGSI SECARA SELAMAT DALAM ORGANISASI ATAU MERUPAKAN OPERASI SESAMA PEKERJANYA SECARA AM, MENJADIKAN ORGANISASI DAN PEKERJANYA DAPAT BEKERJA DALAM KUMPULAN DENGAN MUDAH DAN CEPATCONTOH: CAPAIAN TLEFON, SENARAI KERJA, MAKLUMAT ORGANISASI DAN SEBAGAINYA.
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.10 Describe the types of network communications technology: • Internet • Intranet • Extranet INTRANET
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.10 Describe the types of network communications technology: • Internet • Intranet • Extranet EXTRANET EXTRANET IS A PRIVATE NETWORK THAT USES INTERNET PROTOCOLS, NETWORK CONNECTIVITY, AND POSSIBLY THE PUBLIC TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEM TO SECURELY SHARE PART OF A BUSINESS’S INFORMATION OR OPERATIONS WITH SUPPLIERS, VENDORS, PARTNERS, CUSTOMERS OR OTHER BUSINESSES. MERUPAKAN RANGKAIAN PC PERIBADI YANG MENGGUNAKAN PROTOKOL INTERNET , BERGABUNG SECARA RANGKAIAN DAN KEBERANGKALIAN SISTEM TELEKOMUNIKASI AWAM BAGI BERKONGSI SECARA SELAMAT DALAM ORGANISASI ATAU MERUPAKAN OPERASI SESAMA PEMBEKAL, VENDOR, RAKAN KONGSI, PELANGGAN DAN PERNIAGAAN • PACKAGE SHIPPING COMPANIES, FOR EXAMPLE, ALLOW CUSTOMERS TO ACCESS THEIR NETWORK TO PRINT AIR BILLS, SCHEDULE PICKUPS, AND EVEN TRACK SHIPPED PACKAGES AS THE PACKAGES TRAVEL TO THEIR DESTINATIONS. • CONTOH: MEMBENARKAN PELANGGAN MENGAKSES UNTUK MMBAYAR BIL, MELIHAT JADUAL DAN LAIN-LAIN
    • 3.1.1 Definition 3.1.10 Describe the types of network communications technology: • Internet • Intranet • Extranet EXTRANET
    • Topic 3.2 – Hardware Requirements
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.1 Identify the devices needed in computer network communication : • NETWORK INTERFACE CARD • WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD • MODEM (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL) • HUB/SWITCH • ROUTER • WIRELESS ACCESS POINT
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: NETWORK INTERFACE CARD (NIC) • A NETWORK CARD, SOMETIMES PRONOUNCED AS NICK, IS AN ADAPTER CARD OR PC CARD THAT ENABLES THE COMPUTER TO ACCESS THE NETWORK. • KAD RANGKAIAN YANG KADANGKALA DISEBUT SEBAGAI NICK ADALAH KAD ADAPTER ATAU PC KAD YANG MEMBOLEHKAN KOMPUTER MENCAPAI INTERNET DALAM RANGKAIAN
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD WIRELESS NETWORK INTERFACE CARD IS A NETWORK CARD THAT PROVIDES WIRELESS DATA TRANSMISSION. ADALAH KAD RANGKAIAN YANG MEMBOLEHKAN CAPAIAN INTERNET TANPA WAYAR
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: MODEM (INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL) THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF MODEM, INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AN INTERNAL MODEM AN EXTERNAL MODEM ONLY WORKS IN STAND-ALONE COMPUTERS. IT IS BUILT INTO THE PC. IS SEPARATED FROM THE COMPUTER AND IS ALSO MOBILE. ADA 2 JENIS MODEM IAITU DALAMAN DAN LUARAN MODEM DALAMAN HANYA ADA PADA PC DESKTOP YANG MANA TELAH SEDIA DIBUAT DALAM PC MODEM LUARAN MERUPAKAN MODEM MUDAH ALIH
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: HUB/SWITCH • HUB OR SWITCH IS A COMMON CONNECTION POINT FOR DEVICES IN A NETWORK. HUBS ARE COMMONLY USED TO CONNECT SEGMENTS OF A LAN. • HUB ATAU SWITCH ADALAH POINT RANGKAIAN YANG BIASA BAGI PERANTI DALAM RANGKAIAN. HUB BIASA DIGUNA DALAM SET RANGKAIAN BAGI LAN.
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: ROUTER A ROUTER IS A COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE THAT CONNECTS MULTIPLE COMPUTERS OR OTHER ROUTERS TOGETHER AND TRANSMITS DATA TO THE CORRECT DESTINATION. MERUPAKAN PERANTI TELEKOMUNIKASI YANG MENGHUBUNGKAN PC DALAM JUMLAH BANYAK ATAU ANTARA ROUTERS BERSAMA DAN MENGHANTAR DATA KE DESTINASI YANG BETUL
    • 3.2.1 Devices 3.2.1.2 State the functions of the following: WIRELESS ACCESS POINT • • • • A WIRELESS ACCESS POINT IS A CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS DEVICE THAT ALLOW COMPUTERS TO TRANSFER DATA. THIS DEVICE CAN HELP INFORMATION TO BE TRANSFERRED WIRELESSLY TO OTHER WIRELESS DEVICES OR TO A WIRED NETWORK. WIRELESS ACCESS POINT HAS HIGH QUALITY ANTENNAS FOR OPTIMAL SIGNALS. MERUPAKAN ALAT PENERIMAAN MENGGUNAKAN SIGNAL BAGI TUJUAN PENGHANTARAN DAN PENERIMAAN DATA SECARA TANPA WAYAR.
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable TWISTED-PAIR CABLE THE TWISTED-PAIR CABLE IS GENERALLY A COMMON FORM OF TRANSMISSION MEDIUM. IT CONSISTS OF TWO WIRES OR CONDUCTORS TWISTED TOGETHER, EACH WITH ITS OWN PLASTIC INSULATION. THE TWISTED WIRES CANCEL OUT ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE THAT CAN CAUSE CROSSTALK . THE MOST COMMON CONNECTOR USED FOR TP CABLE IS RJ-45. KABEL TWISTED PAIR MERUPAKAN KABEL ASAS YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN DALAM MEDIUM PENGHANTARAN.MENGANDUNGI 2 WAYAR ATAU KONDUKTOR YANG DISIMPUL BERSAMA DAN STIAP SATUNYA DISALUTI PLASTIK LUARAN. PENYAMBUNG YANG BIASA DIGUNA ADALAH RJ5
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable TYPES OF TWISTED PAIR CABLETHE UNSHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR OR UTP IS THE MOST COMMON TWISTED-PAIR CABLE USED IN COMMUNICATIONS. IT HAS FOUR PAIRS OF COLOUR-CODED TWISTED-PAIR CABLES THAT ARE COVERED WITH A PLASTIC OUTER JACKET. KABEL UTP MERUPAKAN KABEL YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN DALAM KOMUNIKASI. IA ADA 4 PASANG KABEL YANG DISIMPUL. THE SHIELDED TWISTED-PAIR OR STP IS ANOTHER FORM OF TWISTED-PAIR CABLE. ITS FOUR PAIRS OF COLOUR-CODED WIRES ARE EACH WRAPPED IN METALLIC FOIL, AND ALL FOUR ARE THEN COLLECTIVELY WRAPPED IN A LAYER OF METALLIC BRAID OR FOIL. FINALLY, THIS LAYER IS WRAPPED WITH A PLASTIC OUTER JACKET. KABEL STP MERUPAKAN SATU LAGI JENIS KABEL TWISTED PAIR. JUGA ADA 4 PASANG KABEL YANG DISIMPUL BERSAMA DAN KESEMUANYA DISALUT SATU LAPISAN METALLIC FOIL. METALLIC FOIL ITU PULA DISALUT JAKET LUARAN
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable COAXIAL CABLE • THE COAXIAL CABLE, OFTEN REFERRED TO AS ‘COAX’, CONSISTS OF A SINGLE COPPER WIRE SURROUNDED BY AT LEAST THREE LAYERS.THEY ARE AN INSULATING MATERIAL, A WOVEN OR BRAIDED METAL AND A PLASTIC OUTER COATING. • BIASA DIPANGGIL SEBAGAI COAX. MENGANDUNGI SATU WAYAR TEMBAGA DISALUT SEKURANG-KURANG 3 LAPISAN IAITU LAPISAN FABRIK BESI TENUN DAN PLASTIK LUARAN • THIS CABLE IS OFTEN USED AS CABLE TELEVISION (CATV) NETWORK WIRING BECAUSE IT CAN BE CABLED OVER LONGER DISTANCES IN COMPARISON TO THE TWISTED-PAIR CABLE. • BIASANYA ADALAH KABEL TELEVISYEN SEBAB KETAHANAN DAN BOLEH DIGUNA UNTUK JARAK YANG JAUH.
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable COAXIAL CABLE CONNECTORS FOR THE COAXIAL CABLE • THE CONNECTOR MOST COMMONLY USED IN CONNECTING A COAXIAL CABLE TO A DEVICE IS THE BNC CONNECTOR. BNC IS SHORT FOR BRITISH NAVAL CONNECTOR OR BAYONET-NEILL-CONCELMAN. • PENGHUBUNG YANG BIASA DIGUNAKAN UNTUK COAXIAL KABEL KEPADA PERANTI ADALAH PENYAMBUNG BNC (BRITISH NAVAL CONNECTOR) • THERE ARE THREE POPULAR BNC CONNECTORS. THEY ARE: - BNC CONNECTOR: USED TO CONNECT DEVICES SUCH AS THE TV SET - BNC T CONNECTOR: USED IN ETHERNET NETWORKS - BNC TERMINATOR: CONNECTED AT THE END OF A CABLE TO PREVENT THE REFLECTION OF SIGNALS • ADA 3 JENIS PENYAMBUNG BNC YANG POPULAR. IANYA ADALAH… - PENYAMBUNG BNC – UNTUK TV - PENYAMBUNG BNC T – RANGKAIAN ETHERNET - PENYAMBUNG BNC TERMINATOR – DISAMBUNG PADA HUJUNG KABEL UNTUK MENGELAKKAN REFLEKSI DARIPADA SIGNAL..
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable FIBRE OPTIC CABLE • THE FIBRE OPTIC CABLE IS A NETWORKING MEDIUM THAT USES LIGHT FOR DATA TRANSMISSION. • THE INTENSITY OF LIGHT IS INCREASED AND DECREASED TO REPRESENT BINARY ONE AND ZERO. • ITS CORE CONSISTS OF DOZENS OR HUNDREDS OF THIN STRANDS OF GLASS OR PLASTIC WHICH USES LIGHT TO TRANSMIT SIGNALS. • EACH STRAND, CALLED AN OPTICAL FIBRE, IS AS THIN AS A HUMAN HAIR. • ADALAH MEDIUM RANGKAIAN YANG MENGGUNAKAN • CAHAYA UNTUK PENGHANTARAN DATA. KEUPAYAAN CAHAYA UNTUK BERKURANG ATAU BERTAMBAH DITAKRIFKAN SEBAGAI 0 DAN 1 DALAM KOD BINARI
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable FIBRE OPTIC CABLE - PARTS OF A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE • INSIDE A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE, EACH OPTICAL FIBRE IS CLAD WITH AN INSULATING GLASS AND A PROTECTIVE COATING. TYPICALLY, A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE HAS FIVE PARTS. 5 BAHAGIAN KABEL FIBER OPTIK 1. THE CORE IS THE LIGHT TRANSMISSION ELEMENT. IT IS TYPICALLY MADE OF GLASS OR PLASTIC. TERAS- ADALAH ELEMEN PENGHANTARAN CAHAYA. BIASA DIPERBUAT DARIPADA KACA ATAU PLASTIK 2. CLADDING SURROUNDS THE CORE.IT IS ALSO MADE OF GLASS OR PLASTIC BUT IS LESS DENSE THAN THE CORE. LAPISAN PELINDUNG TERAS – JUGA DIPERBUAT DARI KACA ATAU PLASTIK CUMA LEBIH PADAT DARIPADA TERAS 3. BUFFER SURROUNDS CLADDING. IT IS USUALLY MADE OF PLASTIC AND HELPS SHIELDS THE CORE AND CLADDING FROM BEING DAMAGED. LAPISAN MENGELILINGI PELINDUNG TERAS – BIASANYA DIPERBUAT DARIPADA PLASTIK DAN MEMBANTU MELINDUNGI TERAS DAN PELINDUNGNYA DRPD ROSAK 4. A STRENGTHENING MATERIAL SURROUNDS THE BUFFER TO PREVENT THE FIBRE CABLE FROM BEING STRETCHED WHEN INSTALLERS PULL IT. BAHAN TAHAN LASAK – MENGELILINGI LAPISAN PELINDUNG TERS BAGI MENGELAKKAN KABEL DARIPADA CALAR DAN ROSAK 5. OUTER JACKET SURROUNDS THE CABLE TO PROTECT THE FIBRE AGAINST ABRASION, SOLVENTS AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS. JAKET LUARAN – BAHAGIAN LUAR YANG MEGHALANG KABEL DARIPADA ROSAK
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.1 Identify various types of cables such as Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP), Coaxial and Fibre Optic Cable FIBRE OPTIC CABLE - CONNECTORS OF A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE THE MOST COMMONLY USED FIBRE OPTIC CONNECTORS ARE SC, ST, FC AND MT-RJ. ADA 4 JENIS PENYAMBUNG BAGI KABEL FIBER OPTIK. 1.SC A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A PUSH-PULL LATCHING MECHANISM SIMILAR TO COMMON AUDIO AND VIDEO CABLES. KABEL YANG BIASA DIGUNA UNTUK PENYAMBUNG AUDIO DAN KABEL VIDEO 2.ST A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A BAYONET PLUG & SOCKET. KABEL PENYAMBUNG BAGI PLUG BAYONET DAN SOKET 3.FC A FIBRE OPTIC CABLE CONNECTOR THAT USES A THREADED PLUG & SOCKET. KABEL PENYAMBUNG BAGI PLUG THREADED DAN SOKET 4.MT-RJ -MECHANICAL TRANSFER REGISTERED JACK (MT-RJ), A FIBRE OPTICS CONNECTOR POPULAR FOR SMALL FORM FACTOR DEVICES DUE TO ITS SMALL SIZE. KABEL PENYAMBUNG YANG POPULAR UNTUK PERANTI-PERANTI KECIL. ADA TERDAPAT DALAM PC. WAYAR SATA CONTOHNYA
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave RADIO WAVES THERE IS NO CLEAR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RADIO WAVES AND MICROWAVES. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES RANGING IN FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 3 KHZ AND 1 GHZ ARE NORMALLY CALLED RADIO WAVES. WAVES RANGING IN FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 1 AND 300 GHZ ARE NORMALLY CALLED MICROWAVES. TIDAK BANYAK PRBEZAAN ANTARA GELOMBANG RADIO DAN GELOMBANG MIKRO KECUALI DARI SEGI KEKUATAN FREKUENSI. • GELOMBANG RADIO – FREKUENSI ANTARA 3 KHZ HINGGA 1 GHZ • GELOMBANG MIKRO – FREKUENSI ANTARA 1 GHZ HINGGA 300 GHZ
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave MICROWAVES ELECTRONIC WAVES WITH FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 1 GHZ TO 300GHZ ARE NORMALLY CALLED MICROWAVES. UNLIKE RADIO WAVES, MICROWAVES ARE UNIDIRECTIONAL, IN WHICH THE SENDING AND RECEIVING ANTENNAS NEED TO BE ALIGNED. TIDAK SEPERTI GELOMBANG RADIO, GELOMBANG MIKRO BERGERAK SECARA BERTABURAN. IA MEMERLUKAN ANTENNA UNTUK MENGHANTAR DAN MENERIMA.
    • 3.2.2 Medium 3.2.2.2 Identify various types of wireless transmission media such as infrared, radio wave and microwave INFRARED • INFRARED IS USED IN DEVICES SUCH AS THE MOUSE, WIRELESS KEYBOARD AND PRINTERS. SOME MANUFACTURERS PROVIDE A SPECIAL PORT CALLED THE IRDA PORT THAT ALLOWS A WIRELESS KEYBOARD TO COMMUNICATE WITH A PC. INFRARED SIGNALS HAVE FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 300 GHZ TO 400 THZ. THEY ARE USED FOR SHORT-RANGE COMMUNICATION. • INFRA MERAH DIGUNAKAN OLEH PERANTI-PERANTI SEPERTI MOUSE TANPA WAYAR, PAPAN KEKUNCI TANPA WAYAR, PENCETAK TANPA WAYAR DAN SEBAGAINYA. SESETENGAH PENGELUAR MEMBEKALKAN SATU PORT KHAS DIPANGGIL IrDA YANG MEMBENARKAN PERANTI-PERANTI SEPERTI DI ATAS BERKOMUNIKASI DENGAN PC. FREKUENSINYA PULA ANTARA 300GHZ HINGGA 400GHZ. • BANYAK DIGUNAKAN BAGI JARAK-JARAK YANG SANGAT PENDEK.
    • Topic 3.3 – Software Requirements
    • 3.3.1 Server Software 3.3.1.1 Define Network Operating System DEFINITION OF NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS 1. AN OPERATING SYSTEM IS THE PROGRAM THAT FIRST LOADS WHEN A COMPUTER BOOTS AND MANAGES ANY OTHER SOFTWARE OR HARDWARE ON THE COMPUTER. SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN ADALAH PROGRAM YANG PERTAMA DIBACA OLEH PC DAN IA MENGURUSKAN PERISIAN DAN PERKAKASAN DLM PC 2. A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM OR KNOWN AS NOS, HAS ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONALITY THAT ALLOWS IT TO CONNECT COMPUTERS AND PERIPHERALS TO A NETWORK. RANGKAIAN SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN DIKENALI SEBAGAI NOS. IA MEMPUNYAI FUNGSI TAMBAHAN YANG MEMBENARKAN KOMPUTER DAN PERANTI BERHUBUNG DALAM RANGKAIAN
    • 3.3.1 Server Software 3.3.1.1 Define Network Operating System DEFINITION OF NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS 3. A NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM IS MOST FREQUENTLY USED WITH LOCAL AREA NETWORKS AND WIDE AREA NETWORKS, BUT COULD ALSO HAVE APPLICATION TO LARGER NETWORK SYSTEMS.RANGKAIAN SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN BIASA ADA DALAM LAN DAN WAN. NAMUN TERDAPAT JUGA APLIKASI UNTUK SISTEM RANGKAIAN YANG LEBIH BESAR 4. A NOS IS NOT THE SAME AS THE NETWORKING TOOLS PROVIDED BY SOME EXISTING OPERATING SYSTEMS, WINDOWS XP FOR INSTANCE. NOS TIDAK SAMA SEPERTI ALAT RANGKAIAN. CONTOH WINDOWS XP. 5. NOS IS AN OPERATING SYSTEM THAT HAS BEEN SPECIFICALLY WRITTEN TO KEEP NETWORKS RUNNING AT OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE. NOS ADALAH SISTEM PENGOPERASIAN YANG SECARA SPESIFIK MEMBOLEHKAN RANGKAIAN BERJALAN DENGAN LANCAR.
    • 3.3.1 Server Software 3.3.1.2 Name various Network Operating System Software. EXAMPLES OF NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS SOME POPULAR NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEMS INCLUDE: • WINDOWS NT • WINDOWS 2000 SERVER • WINDOWS SERVER 2003 • RED HAT LINUX NOS-NOS YANG POPULAR TERMASUKLAH • WINDOWS NT • WINDOWS 2000 SERVER • WINDOWS SERVER 2003 • RED HAT LINUX
    • 3.3.2 Client Software 3.3.2.1 State the functions of various client software.(web browser, email client, network utilities, network file manager) FUNCTIONS OF WEB BROWSER 1. A WEB BROWSER IS A SOFTWARE APPLICATION THAT ENABLES A USER TO DISPLAY AND INTERACT WITH HTML DOCUMENTS HOSTED BY WEB SERVERS OR HELD IN A FILE SYSTEM. TEXT AND IMAGES ON A WEB PAGE CAN CONTAIN HYPERLINKS TO OTHER WEB PAGES AT THE SAME OR TO DIFFERENT WEBSITES. CARIAN WEB ADALAH PERISIAN APLIKASI YANG MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA MEMAPAR DAN BERINTERAKSI DENGAN DOKUMEN HTML YANG DATANG DARIPADA SERVER WEB. TEKS DAN IMEJ DALAM WEB BOLEH MENGANDUNGI HIPER RANGKAI KEPADA LAMAN WEB LAIN ATAU SAMA 2. WEB BROWSER ALLOW A USER TO QUICKLY AND EASILY ACCESS INFORMATION PROVIDED ON MANY WEB PAGES AT MANY WEBSITES BY SURFING THESE LINKS. CARIAN WEB MEMBENARKAN PENGGUNA DENGAN CEPAT DAN MUDAH MENGAKSES MAKLUMAT YANG DIBEKALKAN OLEH BANYAK HALAMAN WEB PADA BANYAK LAMAN WEB.
    • 3.3.2 Client Software 3.3.2.1 State the functions of various client software.(web browser, email client, network utilities, network file manager) FUNCTIONS OF WEB BROWSER 3. WEB BROWSERS AVAILABLE FOR PERSONAL COMPUTER INCLUDE MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER, SAFARI, NETSCAPE AND OPERA.WEB BROWSERS ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED TYPE OF HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP) USER AGENT. CARIAN WEB BOLEH DIDAPATI PADA PC TERMASUKLAH PADA MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER, SAFARI, NETSCAPE AND OPERA. 4. ALTHOUGH BROWSERS ARE TYPICALLY USED TO ACCESS THE WORLD WIDE WEB, THEY CAN ALSO BE USED TO ACCESS INFORMATION PROVIDED BY WEB SERVERS IN PRIVATE NETWORKS OR CONTENT IN FILE SYSTEMS. WALAUPUN CARIAN BIASA DIGUNA UNTUK MENGAKSES PADA DUNIA WEB, PENGGUNA JUGA BOLEH MENGAKSES MAKLUMAT YANG DIBEKALKAN OLEH SERVER WEB PERIBADI ATAU KANDUNGAN SISTEM FAIL
    • 3.3.2 Client Software 3.3.2.1 State the functions of various client software.(web browser, email client, network utilities, network file manager) FUNCTIONS OF WEB BROWSER 3. WEB BROWSERS AVAILABLE FOR PERSONAL COMPUTER INCLUDE MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER, SAFARI, NETSCAPE AND OPERA.WEB BROWSERS ARE THE MOST COMMONLY USED TYPE OF HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL (HTTP) USER AGENT. CARIAN WEB BOLEH DIDAPATI PADA PC TERMASUKLAH PADA MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER, SAFARI, NETSCAPE AND OPERA. 4. ALTHOUGH BROWSERS ARE TYPICALLY USED TO ACCESS THE WORLD WIDE WEB, THEY CAN ALSO BE USED TO ACCESS INFORMATION PROVIDED BY WEB SERVERS IN PRIVATE NETWORKS OR CONTENT IN FILE SYSTEMS. WALAUPUN CARIAN BIASA DIGUNA UNTUK MENGAKSES PADA DUNIA WEB, PENGGUNA JUGA BOLEH MENGAKSES MAKLUMAT YANG DIBEKALKAN OLEH SERVER WEB PERIBADI ATAU KANDUNGAN SISTEM FAIL
    • 3.3.2 Client Software 3.3.2.1 State the functions of various client software.(web browser, email client, network utilities, network file manager) FUNCTIONS OF EMAIL CLIENT • AN EMAIL CLIENT IS A COMPUTER PROGRAM THAT IS USED TO READ AND SEND EMAIL. • EMAIL CLIENT ADALAH PROGRAM KOMPUTER YANG DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MEMBACA DAN MENGHANTAR EMAIL. FUNCTIONS OF FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP) • FILE TRANSFER PROTOCOL (FTP) IS USED TO CONNECT TWO COMPUTERS OVER THE INTERNET SO THAT THE USER OF ONE COMPUTER CAN TRANSFER FILES AND PERFORM FILE COMMANDS ON THE OTHER COMPUTER. • PROTOKOL PENGHANTARAN FAIL DIGUNAKAN UNTUK MENGHUBUNGKAN 2 PC MELALUI INTERNET SUPAYA PENGGUNA SALAH SATU PC BOLEH MENGHANTAR FAIL DAN MELAKUKAN OPERASI ARAHAN FAIL PADA PC YANG SATU LAGI.
    • 3.4 & 3.5 3.4 SETTING NETWORK FACILITIES • ASSESSMENT S06.1 AND S06.2 3.5 CURRENT AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT • ASSESSMENT S07.1