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Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
Chemical bonds
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Chemical bonds

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  • 1. Chemical Bonds
  • 2. Sodium Chloride
  • 3. Chemical BondsTransfer ofelectronsFormed bySharing ofelectronsIonic bondsIonic bonds Covalent bondsCovalent bondsAtoms arejoinedtogetherCOMPOUND
  • 4. Ionic Bonds Formed through transfer of electrons betweenatoms of metal and non-metal. Example of metals: sodium, magnesium, iron, lead, aluminium Example of non-metals: Chlorine, sulphur, oxygen Metal atoms donate electrons Non-metals atom accept electronsAchievestablestableelectronelectronarrangementarrangementAchievestablestableelectronelectronarrangementarrangement
  • 5. Ionic BondsNeutralatomDonateselectronsCation(+)Acceptelectronsanion(-)
  • 6. Formation of Ionic Bonds Ionic compounds Formed through ionic bonds Example 1: sodium chloride Sodium atom: electron arrangement : 2.8.1 Chlorine atom : electron arrangement : 2.8.7
  • 7. Formation of ionic bonds of insodium chlorideNa ClNa Cl
  • 8. Formation of ionic bonds insodium chloride Electron arrangement of sodium atom is 2.8.1 A sodium atom donates one electron to achieve the stable octetelectron arrangement (2.8) Sodium ion, Na+is formed This electron is transferred to a chlorine atom with an electronarrangement of 2.8.7 A chlorine atom accepts electron from sodium atom to achieve thestable octet electron arrangement (2.8.8) Chloride ion, Cl-is formed The sodium ion and chloride ion, formed are attracted to oneanother to form a solid sodium chloride, The strong electrostatic force between the ions is called ionic bond(electrovalent bond)
  • 9. Formation of Ionic Bonds Example 2: magnesium fluorideMgFFMgF F
  • 10. Formation of ionic compound magnesium fluoride Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is 2.8.2 A magnesium atom donates two electron to achieve the stableoctet electron arrangement (2.8) Magnesium ion, Mg2+is formed This electron is transferred to two fluorine atom with an electronarrangement of 2.7 two fluorine atom accepts 1 electrons each from magnesium atomto achieve the stable octet electron arrangement (2.8) Fluoride ion, F-is formed The magnesium ion and fluoride ions, formed are attracted to oneanother to form a solid magnesium floride, MgF2. The strong electrostatic force between the ions is called ionic bond(electrovalent bond)
  • 11. Covalent Bondsnon-metal atomsShare electronsStable electronarrangementSingle bondDoublebondTriplebonda pair of electronsis sharedtwo pairs ofelectrons aresharedthree pairs ofelectrons aresharedFormed by
  • 12. Single Bond Formed when a pair of electrons is shared between 2 atoms. Example : hydrogen molecule Hydrogen atom has 1 valence electron Needs 1 more to achieve duplet electron arrangement 2 hydrogen atoms contribute one electron each for sharing This shared pair of electrons forms a single bond in hydrogenmolecule, H2
  • 13. Lewis Dot StructureG. N. Lewis 1875-1946
  • 14. Double Bond 2 pair of electron are sharing between atoms Example: formation of an oxygen molecule, O2 An oxygen atom has 6 valence electron Needs 2 electron to achieve octet electron arrangement 2 oxygen atom each contribute 2 electrons for sharing A double bond is formed between 2 atoms
  • 15. Triple Bond Is formed when 3 pairs of electron are shared between 2 atoms Example: formation of a nitrogen molecule, N2 Nitrogen atom has the electron arrangement of 2.5. It needs 3 more electron to achieve stable electron arrangement. Each atom contribute 3 electron each Thus sharing 3 pairs of electrons Triple bond is formed between the nitrogen atoms.
  • 16. Comparison between the ionic bondand covalent bondIonic bond Metal atomsand non-metalatom Transferringelectron Positivelycharged ionand negativelycharged ionCovalent bond Non metalsatoms Sharingelectrons moleculesTypes ofElements involvedin the formationof each bondHow each bondis formedThe particles inthe compoundformed
  • 17. Try this out!Draw the electron arrangement of the formationfor the following ionic compounds:[Proton number : Li, 3 ; Na, 11 ; K, 19 ; Ca, 20 ;Mg, 12 ; O, 8 ; Cl, 17 ; S, 16] Lithium oxide, Sodium sulphide, Calcium chloride, Magnesium oxide,
  • 18. Try this out Draw the electron arrangements of theformation Hydrogen chloride Water tetrachloromethane
  • 19. Try this out Draw the electron arrangements of theformation Carbon dioxide Ammonia (NH3)
  • 20. The Properties of Ionic andCovalent CompoundsIonic compound Exist as solid High. ->Non-volatile Conduct electricity inaqueoussolution/moltenstate Dissolve in water &do not dissolve inorganic solventsCovalent Compound Exist as solids, liquidor gases Low. ->volatile Do not conductelectricity Dissolve in organicsolvents and do notdissolve in waterPhysical stateat roomtemperatureMelting &boiling pointElectricialconductivitySolubility
  • 21. Electrical conductivity – ionic compounds Do not conduct electricity in solid. Ions are fixed in positions in the crystal latticestructure Ions do not move freely Conduct electricity in molten or aqueoussolution Ions are free to moveWhy?
  • 22. Electrical Conductivity – covalent compounds Do not conduct electricity in all states Consist of neutral moleculesWhy?
  • 23. Melting and Boiling Points Ionic compounds have high melting and boilingpoints. Ions are held together by strong ionic bonds. A lot of energy is needed to overcome the strongelectrostatic forces between the ions Covalent compounds Have low melting and boiling points Consist of molecules that held together by weakintermolecular forces Less heat is required to overcome these forces
  • 24. Use of covalent compounds Most covalent compounds are good solvents withhigh volatility Example: Alcohol Acetone Ether Hexane Used in Cosmetics Medical industries
  • 25. The EndGood luck in the exam!

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