Yearly Lesson Plan – Form 4W Chapter Learning Outcomes Suggested Learning Activities7 1.1 Understanding A student is able to: Collect and interpret the meaning of the word chemistry and its • explain the meaning of ‘chemistry’. importance chemistry, • list some common Discuss some examples of common chemicals chemicals used in daily life, used in daily life such as sodium chloride, • state the uses of common calcium carbonate and acetic acid. chemicals in daily life, • list examples of occupations Discuss the uses of these chemicals in daily life. that require the knowledge of chemistry View a video or computer courseware on the • list chemical-based following : industries in Malaysia a. careers that need the knowledge of chemistry, • describe the contribution of b. chemical-based industries in Malaysia and its chemical-based industries contribution to the development of the country. towards the development of the country. Attend talks on chemical-based industries in Malaysia and their contribution to the development of the country.7 1.2 Synthesising A student is able to: Observe a situation and identify all variables. scientific method • identify variables in a given situation, Suggest a question suitable for a scientific • identify the relationship investigation. between two variables to form a hypothesis, Carry out an activity to: • design and carry out a a. observe a situation, simple experiment to test the b. identify all variables, hypothesis, c. suggest a question, • record and present data in a d. form a hypothesis, suitable form, e. select suitable apparatus, • interpret data to draw a f. list down work procedures. conclusion, • write a report of the Carry out an experiment and : investigation. a. collect and tabulate data , b. present data in a suitable form, c. interpret the data and draw conclusions, d. write a complete report.7 1.3 Incorporate A student is able to: View videos or read passages about scientific scientific attitudes and • identify scientific attitudes investigations. Students discuss and identify values in conducting and values practised by scientific attitudes and values practiced by scientific scientists in carrying out researchers and scientists in the videos or investigations investigations, passages. • practise scientific attitudes and values in conducting Students discuss and justify the scientific scientific investigations attitudes and values that should be practiced during scientific investigation.8 2.1 Analysing matter A student is able to: Discuss and explain the particulate nature of • describe the particulate matter. nature of matter, • state the kinetic theory of Use models or view computer simulation to matter, discuss the following: • define atoms, molecules and a. the kinetic theory of matter, ions, b. the meaning of atoms, molecules • relate the change in the and ions. state of matter to the change in heat, Conduct an activity to investigate diffusion of • relate the change in heat to particles in solid, liquid and gas. the change in kinetic energy of particles, • explain the inter-conversion Investigate the change in the state of matter
of the states of matter in based on the kinetic theory of matter through term of kinetic theory of simulation or computer animation. matter Conduct an activity to determine the melting and freezing points of ethanamide or naphthalene Plot and interpret the heating and the cooling curves of ethanamide or naphthalene8 2.2 Synthesising A student is able to : Discuss the development of atomic models/ atomic structure the development of describe proposed by scientists namely Dalton, Thomson,9 atomic model. Rutherford, Chadwick and Bohr. • State the main subatomic particles of an atom, Use models or computers simulation to illustrated • Compare and contrast the the structure of an atom as containing protons relative mass and the and neutrons in the nucleus and electrons relative charge of the arranged in shells. protons, electrons and neutrons, Conduct activities to determine the proton • Define proton numbers, number, nucleon number and the number of protons, electrons and neutrons of an atom. • Define nucleon numbers, • Determine the proton Use the table to compare and contrast the number, relative mass and the relative charge of the • Determine the nucleon protons, electrons and neutrons. number, • Relate the proton number to Investigate the proton and nucleon numbers of the nucleon number different elements. • Relate the proton number to the type of element, Discuss : • Write the symbol of a. the relationship between proton number elements, and nucleon number, • Determine the number of b. to make generalization that each neutrons, protons and element has a different proton number. electrons from the proton number and the nucleon Carry out an activity to write: number and vice versa, a. the symbols of elements, • Construct the atomic b. the standard representation for an atom structure. of any element. Where : X = element A = nucleon number Z = proton number Construct models or use computer simulation to show the atomic structure.9 2.3 A student is able to: Collect and interpret information on: Understanding • state the meaning of a. the meaning of isotope, isotopes and isotope, b. isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, assessing their • list examples of elements chlorine and bromine. importance with isotopes • determine the number of Conduct activities to determine the number of subatomic particles of subatomic particles of isotopes from their proton isotopes numbers and their nucleon numbers. • justify the uses of isotope in daily life. Gather information from the internet or from printed materials and discuss the uses of isotope.9 2.4 A student is able to: Study electron arrangements of various atoms Understanding the • Describe electron and identify their valence electrons. electronic structure of arrangements of elements an atom with proton numbers 1 to Discuss the meaning of valence electrons using 20. illustration • Draw electron arrangement
of atoms in an element. Conduct activities to : • State the meaning of b. illustrate electron arrangements of valence electrons elements with proton numbers 1 to 20. • Determine the number of c. Write electron arrangements of valence electrons from the elements with proton numbers 1 to 20. electron arrangement of an atom.9 2.5 A student is able to: Discuss the contributions of scientists toward the Appreciate the • Describe the contributions development of ideas on the atomic structure. orderliness and of scientists towards the uniqueness of the understanding of the atomic Conduct a story-telling competition on the atomic structure structure, historical development of the atomic structure • Describe the creative and with emphasis on the creativity of scientists. conscientious efforts of scientists to form a complete picture of matter.11 3.1 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data concerning relative Understanding and • state the meaning of relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass based applying the concepts atomic mass based on on carbon-12 scale. of relative atomic carbon-12 scale, mass and relative • state the meaning of relative Discuss the use of carbon-12 scale as a molecular mass molecular mass based on standard for determining relative atomic mass carbon-12 scale, and relative molecular mass. • state why carbon-12 is used as a standard for Investigate the concept of relative atomic mass determining relative atomic and relative molecular using analogy or computer mass and relative molecular animation. mass, • calculate the relative Carry out a quiz to calculate the relative molecular mass of molecular mass of substances base on the given substances. chemical formulae for example HCI, CO2, Na2(CO3)2, Al(NO3)3, CuSO4.5H2O12 3.2 A student is able to: Study the mole concept using analogy or Analysing the • define a mole as the amount computer simulation. relationship between of matter that contains as the number of moles many particles as the Collect and interpret data on Avogadro constant. with the number of number of atoms in 12 g of particles 12 C, Discuss the relationship between the numbers of • state the meaning of particles in one mole OF substance with the Avogadro constant, Avogadro constant. • relate the number of 12 particles in one mole of a Carry out problem solving activities to convert the substance with the number of moles to the number of particles for a Avogadro constant given substance and vice versa. • solve numerical problems to convert the number of moles to the number of particles of a given substance and vice versa.12 3.3 A student is able to: Discuss the meaning of molar mass./ Analysing the • state the meaning of molar13 relationship between mass, Using analogy or computer simulation, discuss to the number of moles • relate molar mass to the relate: of a substance with its Avogadro constant, a. molar mass with the Avogadro constant, mass • relate molar mass of a b. molar mass of a substance with its relative substance to its relative atomic mass or relative atomic mass or relative molecular mass. molecular mass,
• solve numerical problems to Carry out problem solving to convert the number convert the number of moles of moles of a given substance to its mass and of a given substance to its vice versa. mass and vice versa.13 3.4 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on molar volume of a Analysing the • state the meaning of molar gas. relationship between volume of a gas, the number of moles • relate molar volume of a gas Using computer simulation or graphic of a gas with its to the Avogadro constant, representation, discuss: volume • make generalization on the a. The relationship between molar volume molar volume of a gas at a and Avogadro constant, given temperature and b. to make generalization on the molar volume pressure, of a gas at STP or room conditions. Carry out an activity to calculate the volume go • calculate the volume of gasses at STP or room gases at STP or room Conditions from the number of moles and vice conditions from the number versa. of moles and vice versa, • solve numerical problems Construct a mind map to show the relationship involving number of between number of particle, number of moles, particles, number of moles, mass of substances and volume of gases at STP and mass of substances and and room conditions. volume of gases at STP or room conditions. Carry out problem solving activities involving number of particles, number of moles, and mass of a substance and volume of gases at STP or room condition.14 3.5 A student is able to: Collect and interpret and chemical formula, Synthesising • state the meaning of empirical formula and molecular formula. chemical formulae chemical formula, • state the meaning of Conduct an activity to: empirical formula, a. determine the empirical formula • state the meaning of of copper(II) oxide using molecular formula, computer simulation, • determine empirical and b. determine the empirical formula molecular formulae of of magnesium oxide, substances, c. compare and contrast empirical • compare and contrast formula with molecular formula. empirical formula with molecular formula, Carry out problem solving activities involving • solve numerical problems empirical and molecular formula. involving empirical and molecular formulae, Carry out exercises and quizzes in writing ionic formula. • write ionic formulae of ions, • construct chemical formulae Conduct activities to: of ionic compounds, a. construct chemical formula of • state names of chemical compounds from a given ionic compounds using IUPAC formula, nomenclature. b. state names of chemical compounds using IUPAC nomenclature15 3.6 A student is able to: Discuss: / Interpreting chemical • state the meaning of a. the meaning of chemical equation,16 equations chemical equation, b. the reactants and products in a • identify the reactants and chemical equation. products of a chemical equation, Construct balanced chemical equation for the • write and balance chemical following reactions: equations a. heating of copper(II) carbonate, • interpret chemical equations CuCO3, quantitatively and b. formation of ammonium chloride,
qualitatively, NH4Cl, • solve numerical problems c. precipitation of lead(II) using chemical equations. iodide,PbI2 Carry out the following activities: a. write and balance chemical equations b. interpret chemical equations quantitatively and qualitatively, c. solve numerical problems using chemical equations (stoichiometry)16 3.7 A student is able to: Discuss the contributions of scientist for their Practising scientific • identify positive scientific research on relative atomic mass, relative attitudes and values attitudes and values molecular mass, mole concept, formulae and in investigating matter practised by scientists in chemical equations. doing research on mole concept, chemical formulae Discuss to justify the need for scientists to and chemical equations, practice scientific attitudes and positive values in • justify the need to practise doing their research on atomic structures, positive scientific attitudes formulae and chemical equations. and good values in doing research on atomic Discuss the role of chemical symbols, formulae structures, chemical and equations as tools of communication in formulae and chemical chemistry. equations, • use symbols, chemical formulae and equations for easy and systematic communication in the field of chemistry.17 4.1 A student is able to: Collect information on the contributions of Analysing the • describe the contributions of various scientists towards the development of the Periodic Table of scientists in the historical Periodic Table. Elements development of the Periodic Table, Study the arrangement of elements in the periodic table from the following aspects: • identify groups and periods (a) Group and period in the Periodic Table, (b) proton number • state the basic principle of (c) electron arrangement. arranging the elements in the Periodic Table from their Carry out an activity to relate the electron proton numbers, arrangement of an element to its group and • relate the electron period. arrangement of an element to its group and period, Discuss the advantages of grouping elements in • explain the advantages of the Periodic Table. grouping elements in the Periodic Table, Conduct activities to predict the group and period • predict the group and the of an element based on its electron arrangement. period of an element based on its electron arrangement.17 4.2 A student is able to: Use a table to list all the elements in group 18. Analysing Group 18 • list all Group 18 elements, elements • state in general the physical Describe the physical properties such as the properties of Group 18 physical state, density and boiling point of group elements, 18 elements. • describe the changes in the physical properties of Group Discuss: 18 elements, (a) changes in the physical properties of group • describe the inert nature of 18 elements, elements of Group 18, (b) the inert nature of group 18 elements. • relate the inert nature of Group 18 elements to their Discuss the relationship between the electron
electron arrangements, arrangement and the inert nature of group 18 • relate the duplet and octet elements. electron arrangements of Group 18 elements to their Use diagrams or computer simulations to stability, illustrate the duplet and octet arrangement of describe uses of Group 18 group 18 elements to explain their stability. elements in daily life. Gather information on the reasons for the uses of Group 18 elements.17 4.3 A student is able to: Gather information and discuss : Analysing Group 1 • list all Group 1 elements. (a) Group 1 elements elements • state the general physical (b) General physical properties of lithium, sodium properties of lithium, sodium and potassium and potassium, (c) Changes in the physical properties from • describe changes in the lithium to potassium with respects to hardness, physical properties from density and melting point. lithium to potassium, (d) Chemical properties of lithium, sodium and • list the chemical properties potassium. of lithium, sodium and (e) the similarities in chemical properties of potassium, lithium, sodium and potassium. • describe the similarities in (f) the relationship between chemical properties chemical properties of of Group 1 elements and their electron lithium, sodium and arrangements. potassium, • relate the chemical Carry out experiments to investigate the properties of Group 1 reactions of lithium, sodium and potassium with elements to their electron water and oxygen. arrangements, Study the reactions of lithium, sodium and • describe changes in potassium with chlorine and bromine through reactivity of Group 1 computer simulation. elements down the group, • predict physical and Discuss changes in the reactivity of Group 1 chemical properties of other elements down the group. elements in Group 1, state the safety precautions Predict physical and chemical properties of group when handling Group 1 elements 1 elements other than lithium, sodium and potassium.20 4.4 Analysing group A student is able to: 17 elements • list all Group 17 elements, Gather information and discuss on : • state the general physical (a) group 17 elements properties of chlorine, (b) physical properties of chlorine, bromine and bromine and iodine, iodine with respect to their colours, density and • describe changes in the boiling point physical properties from (c) changes in the physical properties from chlorine to iodine, chlorine to iodine • list the chemical properties (d) describe the chemical properties of chlorine, of chlorine, bromine and bromine and iodine. iodine, (f) the relationship between the chemical • describe the similarities in properties of group 17 elements with their chemical properties of electron arrangements chlorine, bromine and iodine, Carry out experiments to investigate the • relate the chemical reactions of chlorine, bromine and iodine with: properties of Group 17 (a) water elements with their electron (b) metals such as iron arrangements, (c) sodium hydroxide • describe changes in Discuss changes in the reactivity of group 17 reactivity of Group 17 elements down the group elements down the group, • predict physical and Predict physical and chemical properties of group chemical properties of other 17 elements other than chlorine, bromine and elements in Group 17, iodine • state the safety
precautions when handling Group 17 elements.20 Collect and interpret data on the properties of 4.5 Analysing A student is able to: elements in Period 3 such as: elements in a period • list all elements in a: proton number Period 3. b: electron arrangement • Write the electron c: size of atom arrangements of all d: electronegativity elements in Period 3. e: physical state • Describe changes in the properties of elements Discuss changes in the properties of elements across Period 3. across Period 3. • State changes in the properties of the oxides Carry out experiments to study the oxides of of elements across elements in Period 3 and relate them to their period 3. metallic properties. • Predict changes in the properties of elements Discuss in small groups and make a presentation across Period 2. on the changes of properties of oxides of Describe uses of semi-metals. elements across Period 3. Discuss and predict changes in the properties of the elements in Period 2. Collect and interpret data on uses of semi- metals, i.e. silicon and germanium, in the microelectronic industry.21 4.6Understanding A student is able to: Carry out an activity to identify the position of transition elements • Identify the position of transition elements in the Periodic Table. transition elements in the Periodic Table Collect and interpret data on properties of • Give example of transition elements with respect to melting points, transition elements density, variable oxidation numbers and ability to • Describe properties of form coloured compounds. transition elements • State uses of transition Observe the colour of : elements in industries. a: a few compounds of transition elements, b: products of the reaction between aqueous solution of compounds of transition elements with sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH, and ammonia solution , NH3 (aq) Observe the colour of precious stones and identify the presence of transition elements. Give examples on the use of transition elements as catalysts in industries.21 4.7 Appreciating the A student is able to: Gather information on efforts of scientists in existence of elements • Describe the efforts of discovering the properties of elements and make and their compounds scientists in discovering a multimedia presentation. the properties of elements Discuss in a forum about life without various • Describe what life would elements and compounds. be without diverse elements and Carry out project to collect specimens or pictures compounds of various types of rocks. • Identify different colours in compounds of Discuss and practice ways to handle chemicals transition elements safely and to avoid their wastage. found naturally, • Handle chemicals wisely
22 5.1 Understanding A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on the existence of Formation of • explain the stability of inert various naturally occurring compounds for Compound gases, example water, H2O carbon dioxide CO2 and • explain conditions for the minerals to introduce the concept of chemical formation of chemical bonds. bonds, Discuss: • state types of chemical bonds a. the stability of inert gases with respect to the electron arrangement, b. conditions for the formation of chemical bonds, c. types of chemical bonds22 5.2 A student is able to: Use computer simulation to explain formation of Synthesising ideas d • explain formation of ions, ions and electron arrangement of ions. formation of ionic • write electron bond arrangements for the ions Conduct an activity to prepare ionic compounds formed, for example, magnesium oxide MgO, sodium • explain formation of ionic chloride NaCl and iron (III) chloride, FeCl3. bond, • illustrate electron Carry out an activity to illustrate formation of ionic arrangement of an ionic bond trough models, diagrams or computer bond, simulation. • illustrate formation of ionic bond Use computer simulation to illustrate the existence of electrostatic force between ions of opposite charges in ionic bond.23 5.3 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on the meaning of Synthesising ideas on • state the meaning of covalent bond. formation of covalent covalent bond, bond • explain formation of Use models and computer simulation to illustrate covalent bond, formation of: • illustrate formation of a a. single bond in hydrogen , H2 , chlorine, Cl2 , covalent bond by drawing hydrogen chloride HCl, water H2O, methane , electron arrangement, CH4, ammonia,, NH3, tetrachloromethane, CCl4 • illustrate formation of b. double bond in oxygen ,O2, , carbon dioxide, covalent bond, CO2 • compare and contrast c. triple bond in nitrogen, N2 formation of ionic and covalent bonds Draw diagrams showing electron arrangement . for the formation of covalent bond including Lewis Structure. Discuss and construct a mind map to compare the formation of covalent bond with ionic bond23 5.4 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on properties of ionic Analysing properties • list properties of ionic and covalent compounds. of ionic and covalent compounds, compounds • list properties of covalent Work in groups to carry out an activity to compounds, compare the following properties of ionic and • explain differences in the covalent compounds: electrical conductivity of a. melting and boiling points ionic and covalent b. electrical conductivities compounds, c. solubility in water and organic solvents. • describe differences in melting and boiling points Discuss: of ionic and covalent a. differences in electrical conductivities of ionic compounds, and covalent compounds due to the presence of • compare and contrast the ions, solubility of ionic and b. differences in the melting and boiling points of covalent compounds, ionic and covalent compounds. state uses of covalent compounds as solvents. Gather information on uses of covalent
compounds as solvents in daily life.24 6.1 A student is able to: Conduct activities to classify chemicals into Understanding • state the meaning of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. properties of electrolytes electrolytes and non- • classify substances into Discuss: electrolytes electrolytes and non- a. the meaning of electrolytes electrolytes b. the relationship between the presence of • relate the presence of freely freely moving ions and electrical conductivity. moving ions to electrical conductivity.24 6.2 A student is able to: Discuss: Analysing electrolysis • describe electrolysis, a. electrolysis process of molten compounds • describe electrolytic cell, b. structure of electrolytic cell. • identify cations and anions in a molten compound, Use computer simulation to: • describe evidence for the a. identify cations and anions in a molten existence of ions held in a compound lattice in solid state but b. illustrate to show the existence of ions held in move freely in molten state, a lattice in solid state but move freely in • describe electrolysis of a molten state. molten compound, Conduct an activity to investigate the electrolysis • write half-equations for the of molten lead(II) bromide, PbBr2 to: a. identify cations and anions discharge of ions at anode b. describe the electrolysis process and cathode, c. write half-equations for the discharge of ions • predict products of the at anode and cathode electrolysis of molten compounds. Collect and interpret data on electrolysis of molten ionic compounds with very high melting points, for example sodium chloride, NaCl and lead(II) oxide, PbO. Predict products from the electrolysis of other molten compounds.25 6.3 A student is able to: Conduct an activity to investigate the electrolysis / Analysing the • identify cations and anions of copper(II) sulphate solution and dilute26 electrolysis of in an aqueous solution, sulphuric acid using carbon electrodes to: aqueous solutions • describe the electrolysis of a. identify cations and anions in the aqueous an aqueous solution, solutions • explain using examples b. describe the electrolysis of the aqueous factors affecting electrolysis solutions of an aqueous solution, c. write half equations for the discharge of ions • write half equations for the at the anode and the cathode. discharge of ions at the anode and the cathode, Conduct experiments to investigate factors • predict the products of determining selective discharge of ions at electrolysis of aqueous electrodes based on: solutions. a. positions of ions in electrochemical series b. concentration of ions in a solution c. types of electrodes. Use computer simulation to explain factors affecting electrolysis of an aqueous solution. Predict the products of electrolysis of aqueous solutions and write their half equations.26 6.4 A student is able to: Conduct experiments to study the purification Evaluating • state uses of electrolysis in and electroplating of metals. electrolysis in industry industries, • explain the extraction, Using computer simulation, study and discuss: purification and a. extraction of aluminium from aluminium oxide electroplating of metals b. purification of copper involving electrolysis in c. electroplating of metals industries, • write chemical equations to Carry out activities to write chemical equations
represent the electrolysis for electrolysis in industries. process in industries, • justify uses of electrolysis in Collect data and discuss the benefits and harmful industries, effects of electrolysis in industries. • describe the problem of pollution from electrolysis in industry.27 6.5 A student is able to: Study the structure of a voltaic cell such as a Analysing voltaic cell • describe the structure of a simple voltaic cell and Daniell cell. simple voltaic cell and Daniell cell, Conduct an experiment to show the production of • explain the production of electricity from chemical reactions in a simple electricity from a simple voltaic cell. voltaic cell, • explain the reactions in a simple voltaic cell and Daniell cell, Carry out activities on a simple voltaic cell and a Daniell cell to explain the reaction in each cell. • compare and contrast the Collect data and discuss the advantages and advantages and disadvantages of various voltaic cells including disadvantages of various dry cell, lead-acid accumulator, mercury cell, voltaic cells, alkaline cell and nickel cadmium cell. • describe the differences between electrolytic and Discuss and compare an electrolytic cell with a voltaic cells. voltaic cell.28 6.6 A student is able to: Carry out an experiment to construct the Synthesising • describe the principles used electrochemical series based on: electrochemical in constructing the a. potential difference between two metals series electrochemical series, b. the ability of a metal to displace another metal • construct the from its salt solution. electrochemical series, • explain the importance of Discuss uses of the electrochemical series to electrochemical series, determine: • predict the ability of a metal a. cell terminal to displace another metal b. standard cell voltage from its salt solution, c. the ability of a metal to displace another metal • write the chemical equations from its salt solution. for metal displacement reactions. Carry out experiments to confirm the predictions on the metal displacement reaction. Carry out an activity to write the chermical equations for metal displacement reactions.28 6.7 A student is able to: Discuss the importance of electrochemical Develop awareness • justify the fact that industries in our daily life. and responsible electrochemical industries practices when can improve the quality of Collect data and discuss the problems on handling chemicals life, pollution caused by the industrial processes used in • describe the problem of involving electrochemical industries. electrochemical pollution caused by the industries industrial processes Hold a forum to discuss the importance of waste involving electrolysis, disposal from electrochemical industries in a safe • justify the need to dispose of and orderly manner. waste from electrochemical Show a video on the importance of recycling and industries in a safe and systematic disposal of used batteries in a safe orderly manner, and orderly manner. Practise recycling used • practise safe and systematic batteries. disposal of used batteries.29 7.1 Analysing A student is able to: Discuss: characteristics and • state the meaning of acid, (a) the concept of acid, base and alkali in
properties of acids base and alkali, terms of the ions they contained or and bases • state uses of acids, bases produced in aqueous solutions, and alkalis in daily life, (b) uses of acids, bases and alkalis in daily • explain the role of water in life the formation of hydrogen carry out in experiment to show that the ions to show the properties presence of water is essential for the formation of of acids, hydrogen ions that causes acidity. • explain the role of water in the formation of hydroxide carry out in experiment to show that the ions to show the properties presence of water is essential for the formation of of alkalis, hydroxide ions that causes alkalinity. • describe chemical properties of acids and alkalis. Watch computer simulation on the formation of hydroxonium and hydroxide ions in presence of water. Conduct activities to study chemical properties of acids and alkalis from the following reactions: a. acids with bases b. acids with metals c. acids with metallic carbonates write equations for the respective reactions.29 7.2 A student is able to: Carry out an activity using pH scale to measure Synthesising the • state the use of a pH scale, the pH of solutions used in daily life such as soap concepts of strong • relate pH value with acidic or solution, carbonated water, tap water or fruit acids, weak acids, alkaline properties of a juice. strong alkalis and substance, weak alkalis • relate concentration of Carry out an activity to measure the pH value of hydrogen ions with pH few solutions with the same concentration. For value, example hydrochloric acid, ethanoic acid, • relate concentration of ammonia and sodium hydroxide with the use of hydroxide ions with pH indicators, pH meter or computer interface. value, • relate strong or weak acid with degree of dissociation, • relate strong or weak alkali Based on the data obtained from the above with degree of dissociation, activity, discuss the relationship between: a. pH values and acidity or alkalinity of • conceptualise qualitatively substance, strong and weak acids, b. concentration of hydrogen ions and the pH • conceptualise qualitatively values, strong and weak alkalis c. concentration of hydroxide ions and the pH values, d. strong acids and their degree of dissociation e. weak acids and their degree of dissociation f. strong alkalis and their degree of dissociation g. weak alkalis and their degree of dissociation use computer simulation to show the degree of dissociation of strong and weak acids as well as strong and weak alkalis. Build a mind map on strong acids, weak acids, strong alkalis and weak alkalis.30 7.3 A student is able to: Discuss: Analysing • state the meaning of a. the meaning of concentration concentration of acids concentration, b.the meaning of molarity and alkalis • state the meaning of c. the relationship between the number of moles molarity, with the molarity and the volume of the solutions • state the relationship d. methods for preparing standard solutions between the number of moles with molarity and volume of a solution, • describe methods for preparing standard Solve numerical problems involving conversion
solutions, of concentration units from g dm-3 to mol dm-3 and vice versa. Prepare a standard solution of sodium hydroxide, NaOH or potassium hydroxide, KOH Prepare a solution with specified concentration from the prepared standard solution through • describe the preparation of a dilution. solution with a specified concentration using dilution Carry out an experiment to investigate the method, relationship between pH values with molarity of a • relate pH value with molarity few diluted solutions of an acid and an alkali of acid and alkali, • solve numerical problems Solve numerical problems on the molarity of involving molarity of acids acids and alkalis and alkalis.31 7.4 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on neutralisation and Analysing • explain the meaning of its application in daily life neutralisation neutralisation, • explain the application of Carry out activities to write equations for neutralisation in daily life, neutralisation reactions • write equations for neutralisation reactions, Carry out acid-base titrations and determine the • describe acid-base titration, end point using indicators or computer interface. • determine the end point of titration during Carry out problem solving activities involving neutralisation, neutralisation reactions to calculate either • solve numerical problems concentration to volume of solutions. involving neutralisation reactions to calculate either concentration or volume of solutions.32 8.1 A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on : / Synthesising salts • state examples of salts used a. naturally existing salts,33 in daily life, b. the meaning of salts, / • explain the meaning of salt c. uses of salts in agriculture, medicinal field,34 preparation and preservation of food. • identify soluble and insoluble Carry out experiments to study the solubility of salts, nitrate, sulphate, carbonate and chloride salts. Prepare soluble salts by reacting : a. acid with alkaline b. acid with metallic oxide • describe the preparation of c. acid with metal soluble salts. d. acid with metallic carbonate Carry out an activity to purify soluble salts by crystallization. Discuss the need to purify salts. Observe to identify physical characteristics of crystals such as copper (II) sulphate, CuSO4, • describe the purification of Sodium chloride, NaCl, Potassium chromate (VI), soluble salts by K2CrO4 and Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7. recrystallisation, • list physical characteristics of crystals. • describe the preparation of Prepare insoluble salts such as lead (II) iodide, insoluble salts, PbI2, lead (II) chromate (VI), PbCrO4 and Barium sulphate,BaSO4 through precipitation reactions Carry out activities to write chemicals and ionic
equations for preparation of soluble and • write chemical and ionic insoluble salts. equations for reactions used in the preparation of salts. Construct a flow chart to select suitable method for preparation of salts. • design an activity to prepare a specified salt, Plan and carry out an activity to prepare a specified salt. Carry out an experiment to construct ionic equations through continuous variation method. • construct ionic equations Calculate quantities of reactants or products in through the continuous stoichiometric reactions. variation method, • solve problems involving calculation of quantities of reactants or products in stoichiometric reactions.34 8.2 Synthesising A student is able to: Discuss the meaning of qualitative analysis. / qualitative analysis • state the meaning of45 of salts qualitative analysis, • make inferences on salts Study and make inferences on the colour and the based on their colour and solubility of various salts in water. solubility in water, Watch multimedia presentation on methods used for identifying gases. Observe and carry out chemical tests to identify oxygen, O2, hydrogen, H2, Carbon dioxide, CO2, ammonia, NH3, chlorine, Cl2, Hydrogen chloride, • describe tests for the HCl, Sulphur dioxide, SO2 and Nitrogen dioxide, identification of gases, NO2 gases. Carry out tests to study the action of heat on carbonate and nitrate salts. Observe changes in colour and evolution of gases when the salts are heated. • describe the action of heat Carry out test to confirm the presence of on salts, carbonate sulphate chloride and nitrate ions in aqueous solutions. • describe the tests for anions, • state observation of reaction Carry out tests to identify the presence of Cu2+, of cations with sodium Mg2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Zn2+, NH4+, Ca2+ ions in hydroxide solution and aqueous solution using sodium hydroxide ammonia solution, solution, NaOH and ammonia solutions NH3(q). • describe confirmatory tests for Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+ and NH4+, Carry out test to confirm the presence of Fe2+, plan qualitative analysis to Fe3+, Pb2+ and NH4+ ions in aqueous solution. identify salts. Construct a flow chart on the qualitative analysis of salts.35 8.3 A student is able to: Plan and carry out tests to identify anions and
Practising to be carry out activities using the cations in unknown salts. systematic and correct techniques during meticulous when preparation of salts and crystals. Carry out activities using correct techniques carrying out activities during titration, preparation of standard solutions and preparation of salts and crystals. Plan and carry out an experiment, make observations, record and analyse data systematically and carefully.36 9.1 Understanding the Discuss uses of sulphuric acid in daily life such manufacture of A student is able to: as in the making of paints, detergents, fertilizers sulphuric acid. • list uses of sulphuric acid, and accumulators. • to explain industrial Collect and interpret data on the manufacture of process in manufacture of sulphuric acid. sulphuric acid, Construct a flow chat to show the stages in the • explain that sulphur dioxide manufacture of sulphuric acid as in the contact causes environmental process. pollution. Gather information and write an essay on how sulphur dioxide, SO2 , causes environmental pollution.36 9.2 Synthesising the A student is able to: Discuss uses of ammonia in daily life, e.g. in the manufacture of • list uses of ammonia, manufacture of fertilizers and nitric acid. ammonia and its • state the properties of Carry out an activity to investigate properties of salts. ammonia, ammonia. • explain the industrial Collect data from various sources and construct process in the manufacture the flow chart to show the stages in the of ammonia, manufacture of ammonia as in the haber • design an activity to process. prepare ammonium fertilizer. •36 9.3 Understanding A student is able to: Look at some example of pure metals and alloys. • relate the arrangement of materials made of alloys in daily life, list and atoms in metals to their discuss their properties. ductile and malleable properties, Carry out an activity to compare the strength and • state the meaning of alloy, hardness of alloys with that of their pure metals. • state the aim of making alloys, Study the arrangement of atoms in metals and • list examples of alloys, alloys through computer simulation. • list compositions and properties of alloys, • relate the arrangement of Work in group to discuss; atoms in alloys to their a. the meaning of alloy strength and hardness, b. the purpose of making alloys such as duralumin, brass, steel, bronze and pewter. • relate properties of alloys c. Composition, properties and uses of to their uses. alloys. Carry out experiments to compare the rate of corrosion of iron, steel and stainless steel. Study various local product made from alloys.37 9 .4 Evaluating uses A student is able to: Discuss the meaning of polymers. of synthetic polymers • State the meaning of polymers Observe exhibits of materials made of polymers • List naturally occurring and classify them into naturally occurring polymers polymers and synthetic polymers. • List synthetic polymers and their uses Identify the monomers in synthetic polymers • Identify the monomers in the using models or computer simulation.
synthetic polymers Collect information on the quantity and types of • Justify uses of synthetic household synthetic polymers disposed of over a polymers in daily life certain period of time. Discuss the environmental pollution resulting from the disposal of synthetic polymers. Hold a debate on uses and the environmental effects of non-biodegradable synthetic polymers in daily life.37 9.5 Applying uses of A student is able to: Collect and interpret data on types, composition, glass and ceramics • List uses of glass properties and uses of glass and ceramics. • List uses of ceramics • List types of glass and their Prepare a folio incorporating video clips and properties pictures on uses of glass and ceramics that have • State properties of ceramics been used for a specific purpose, e.g. photo chromic glass and conducting glass.37 9.6 Evaluating uses of A student is able to: Watch a multimedia presentation and prepare a composite materials • Describe needs to produce folio on: new materials for specific a. The meaning of composite materials, purposes, • State the meaning of composite materials, b. A list of composite materials such as • List examples of composite reinforced concrete, specific super conductor, materials and their fiber optic, fiber glass and photo chromic glass component, c. Components of composite materials • Justify uses of composite d. Uses of composite materials materials, Compare the superior properties of composite • Generate ideas to produce materials to their original component by advanced materials to fulfill computer simulation. specific needs. Discuss and justify the uses of composite materials. Watch the production of composite materials in factories.37 9.7 Appreciating A student is able to: Discuss the importance of synthetic materials in various synthetic • Justify the importance of daily life, industrial materials doing research and development continuously Hold a forum to discuss importance of research • Act responsibly when and development for the continuous well being of handling synthetic materials mankind. and their wastes, • Describe the Watch a multimedia presentation or computer importance of synthetic simulation on pollution caused by the disposal of materials in daily life. synthetic materials.