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Chapter 2 body coordination

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Transcript

  • 1. CHAPTER 2 BODY COORDINATION
  • 2. 2.1 BODY COORDINATION
    • Definition: the adjustment of our body’s reaction towards any stimulus .
    • Example: reaction to temperature change
  • 3.  
  • 4. IMPORTANCE OF BODY COORDINATION
    • Enables all body organs to function as a unit to detect stimuli and respond towards them
    • Helping us to avoid injuries or dangers
    • Enables us to adapt to the changes around us
    If a certain of your nervous system does not function properly, then you can be paralysed.
  • 5. 2.2 THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • 6. HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Spinal cord Spinal nerve Cranial nerve Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system
  • 7. A) CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • It is the control centre of the body.
      • Brain : control all activities of the body
      • Spinal cord : control the reflex actions
    • It receives impulses form the acceptor/receptor (sensory organs), interpret it and sends new impulse to the acceptor (muscle and gland).
    • Impulse : the electrical signals carrying messages
  • 8. B) PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Function : to transmit impulses from the sensory organ or receptor through the central nervous system to the muscle or the gland.
    • The peripheral nervous system is divided into:
      • Somatic nervous system : control all voluntary actions
        • Spinal nerve : walking, scratching, writing (limbs, skin and abdomen)
        • Cranial nerve : talking, smiling, seeing (head and neck)
      • Autonomic nervous system : controls involuntary actions (internal organs)
  • 9. THE NEURONE
    • A neurone is a basic unit of the nervous system.
    • Function: to carry impulses
    Cell body dendron dendrite myelin sheath Node of ranvier Axon Nerve ending Nucleus cytoplasm
  • 10. NEURONE PARTS AND FUNCTIONS Neurone part Function Cell body Control all activities of the neurone Dendrite Receives impulses from other neurone and transmit them to cell body Dendron Dendrite that carries impulses towards the cell body Axon Dendrite that carries impulses out of cell body Myelin sheath -Insulator on axon that prevents the leakage of impulses -Increases the speed of impulse transmission Nodes of ranvier Small gaps separating myelin sheath
  • 11. TYPES OF NEURONES
    • Neurones are divided into three types based on their functions:
  • 12. COMPARISON OF THREE TYPES OF NEURONE CHARACTERISTICS SENSORY RELAY MOTOR POSITION OF CELL BODY In the middle of neurone At the centre of neurone At the end of neurone LENGTH OF AXON Short Changes Long
  • 13. CHARACTERISTICS SENSORY RELAY MOTOR MOVEMENT OF IMPULSE Sensory organ (acceptor)  central nervous system Sensory neurone  motor neurone in the central relay neurone in the central  muscle (effectors) FUNCTION Carries impulses from sensory organ to central nervous system Transmits impulses from sensory neurone to motor neurone Transmits impulses from central nervous system to effector (muscles and glands)
  • 14. SIMILARITIES OF THE THREE TYPES OF NEURONE
    • Each has a cell body containing nucleus, dendron, dendrite and axon
    • The main role is to receive and transmit impulses
  • 15. REFLEX ACTION (INVOLUNTARY)
    • Definition: automatic reaction by an external stimulus without the involvement of thinking.
    • It takes place in the spinal cord .
    • The path of reflex action is called a reflex arc.
  • 16. SPINAL CORD
    • Connect the brain with the rest of body parts.
  • 17. REFLEX ARC IN THE KNEE-JERK REACTION
  • 18.  
  • 19. FLOW CHART OF A REFLEX ARC Stimulus Receptor Synapses Motor Neurone Relay Neurone Synapses Effector Automatic Response Sensory Neurone
  • 20.
    • Synapse : a tiny space that allow impulse to travel from one neurone to another in one direction
  • 21. 2.4 THE ROLE OF PROPRIOCEPTORS IN MAINTAINING BALANCE AND COORDINATION
    • Kinaesthetic sense enable us to be aware of the movement and position of the limbs to maintain balance.
    • Importance: help in maintaining balance and body coordination.
    • Examples:
      • Playing piano
      • Buttoning shirt without looking
      • Combing hair without looking
  • 22. PROPRIOCEPTORS/STRETCH RECEPTORS
    • Found in muscle, ligaments, tendons and joints.
    • Responsible for kinaesthetic senses to maintain the body balance and coordination without looking at.
    • Detect the movement, change of position, muscle stretching and contraction.
  • 23.  
  • 24. 2.5 HUMAN BRAIN CEREBRUM - control voluntary actions: mental activity,senses and muscle movement -Largest part CEREBELLUM - coordinate body balance -coordinate muscle movement MEDULLA OBLONGATA - connected to spinal cord -control involuntary actions
  • 25.
    • Protected by cranium.
    • Outer layer is grey matter consists of cell bodies.
    • Is highly folded to increase the surface area.
    • Divided into right and left cerebral hemisphere which control opposite side of the body movements.
  • 26. Thinking, memory, learning Motor centre (movement) Touching (sense in skin and muscle) Smell and taste Speech Hearing Vision DIFFERENT CONTROLLING PARTS IN THE BRAIN
  • 27. THE HUMAN BRAIN
  • 28. EFFECTS OF INJURY TO A CERTAIN REGION OF THE BRAIN Motor centre -paralysis Smell and taste -loss in the ability of smell and taste Hearing region -deafness Sight region -blindness Cerebellum -lose body balance Medula oblongata -fatal injury: death
  • 29. VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY ACTIONS DIFFERENCES VOLUNTARY INVOLUNTARY Controlled by desire or not Nervous system involved Part of brain in control Pathway of impulse Speed of response Yes Somatic nervous system Cerebrum Impulse flows through the cerebrum Can be slow down or fast No Autonomic nervous system Medulla oblongata Impulse flows through the medula oblongata Very fast
  • 30. 2.6 HORMONAL COORDINATION
    • Hormones : chemical substances secreted by endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream.
      • Characteristics:
        • Protein
        • Released in small quantities
        • Specific to target organs
        • Slow to respond
    • Endocrine glands ( ductless glands ): coordinate body activities in respond to stimuli by secreting hormones.
  • 31.  
  • 32.
    • PITUITARY GLAND
    • Located at the base of cerebrum
    • Known as master glands, produce more hormones)
    • Controls water absorptions from the kidney
    • Stimulates growth
    • THYROID GLAND (Thyroxine, contains Iodine)
    • Located in the neck region (in front of trachea)
    • Controls the body’s metabolic rate
    • To stimulate growth and mental development
  • 33.
    • PANCREAS
    • Located above the kidney
    • Controls the glucose concentration
    • Insulin (decrease the glucose concentration)
    • Glucagon (increase the glucose concentration)
    • ADRENAL GLAND (adrenaline)
    • Located below the stomach
    • Prepares the body to meet emergency situations
    • To increase heartbeat and respiration
  • 34.
    • TESTIS (testosterone)
    • Protected by scrotum
    • Controls development of secondary sexual characteristics (deepening of the voice, growth of beard)
    • Controls sperms production
    • OVARY (oestrogen, progesterone)
    • Located in the abdomen
    • Controls development of secondary sexual characteristics (development of breasts, menstrual cycle)
    • Controls eggs/ovum production
  • 35. THE EFFECTS OF HORMONAL IMBALANCE Protuding eyeballs Goitre (swelling neck) HORMONES EFFECT OF OVER SECRETION UNDER SECRETION Growth hormone (pituitary) Gigantism (child) Acromegaly (adult) Dwarfism Thyroxine (thyroid) Exophthalmic goitre -Stunted physical and mental (children) -Goitre -Lack of energy (adult)
  • 36. HORMONES EFFECT OF OVER SECRETION UNDER SECRETION Insulin (pancreas) Low blood sugar level (hypoglecemia)- shock and coma High blood sugar level (hyperglecemia) High sugar level in urine (diabetes) Oestrogen (ovary) Early puberty Extreme feminine characteristics Late puberty Progesterone (ovary) - Miscarriage Menstrual disorder Testosterone (testis) Early puberty Extreme masculine characteristics Late puberty Low sperm count
  • 37. 2.7 COORDINATION BETWEEN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM SIMILARITIES NERVOUS COORDINATION HORMONAL COORDINATION
    • Both involve the passing of information and
    • To control and coordinate functions and activities of organs in the body
  • 38. COMPARISON BETWEEN NERVOUS COORDINATION AND HORMONAL COORDINATION
  • 39. DIFFERENCES NERVOUS COORDINATION HORMONAL COORDINATION Impulses are sent through Consists of Speed of impulses Effect Target area Response Nerve fibres Neurones (electrical impulse) Fast Localised, temporary, reversible Muscles, glands Rapid, short-lived Blood circulatory system Hormone (chemical substances) Slow Widespread, permanent, irreversible Target organs only Slow, diffuse, long lasting
  • 40. CONCLUSION
    • The Importance Of Nervous System And Hormonal System Coordination:
    • To ensure body functions such as physical, chemical and physiological responses occur at their optimum level .
    • It ensures that if one system is not able to respond, then the other will compensate.
  • 41. 2.8 EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON BODY COORDINATION AND HEALTH
    • Drugs are externally administered chemical substances that affect the chemical reactions within the body.
  • 42. TYPES OF DRUGS
  • 43. EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE ON BODY COORDINATION stimulates slows down causes affect DRUGS Nervous system Distortion of perception, hallucinations, illusions Energetic, active, erratic, and violent behaviour Slow reaction to stimuli, sleepy, poor muscular coordination Heart beat, breathing rate, blood pressure (eg: stimulants) Heart beart, breathing rate, blood pressure (eg: depressants)
  • 44. 2.9 EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC DRINKS
  • 45.  
  • 46. 2.10 THE IMPORTANCE OF A SOUND AND A HEALTHY MIND Influenced by Definition of mind The ability to think and reason. a) Healthy mind Example: short-tempered, caring, positive attitude, rational , b) Unhealthy mind Example: low self-esteem, hot-tempered THE MIND b) Internal factors Examples: - hormonal imbalance -drug abuse -excessive consumption of alcohol -brain injury a) External factors Examples: - mental stress -social factor