giving details of reactive power compensation in simple way and the study we had and on base of it d capacitor we designed... and some references are also there to get more details of reactive power and its compensation
Introduction Literature Survey Problem Identification Objective Of The Project Project Analysis And Design Project Implementation Conclusion Future Work Suggested Reference CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Power Factor correction (PFC) is applied to electric circuits as a means of minimizing the inductive component of the current and thereby reducing the losses in the supply. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Power factor (PF) is the name given to the ratio of the active or usable power measured in kilowatts (KW), to the total power (active and reactive) measured in kilovolt amperes (KVA).ie: Power Factor = KW / KVA. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Electrical power in an AC circuit has three components: real power (P), reactive power (Q) and apparent power (S). </li></ul><ul><li>Real power is considered to be the work producing power measured in watts (W), or kilowatts (kW). Real power produces the mechanical output of a motor. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive power is not used to do work but is needed to operate equipment and is measured in volt‐amperes‐reactive (VAR) or kilovar (kVAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Apparent power (also known as demand power) is comprised of (vectorial sum) both real and reactive power and is measured in units of volt‐amps (VA) or kilovolt‐amps (kVA). </li></ul>
DISADVANTAGES OF LOW POWER FACTOR <ul><li>Increases heating losses in the transformers and distribution equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce plant life. </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade costly equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease energy efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase electricity costs by paying penalties. </li></ul>
Power factor correction capacitors; Essentials & Cautions- M.H.Shwehdi, M.R.Sultan Dept. of Electr. Eng., King Fahd Univ. of Pet. & Miner., Dhahran Date of Current Version : 06 August 2002 Page(s): 1317 - 1322 vol. 3 Optimal selection of capacitors-IEEE: S.Sudehararajan & A Pahwa Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS Date of Current Version : 06 August 2002 Page(s): 1499 - 1507
Optimal Reactive Power Planning and Compensation Effects on Transmission Loss Components K. Barot; H. Bhattacharya, Power & Energy Syst. Group, Univ. of Waterloo. Date of Current Version : 23 July 2007 Page(s): 1 - 7 Universal input single-phase single-stage power supply with power factor correction and automatic voltage clamping Chongming Qiao; Smedley, K.M. Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., California Univ., Irvine, CA Date of Current Version : 07 August 2002 Page(s): 907 - 913 vol.2
High-capacity hybrid power filter for harmonic suppression and reactive compensation in the power substation Lina Wang An Luo Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing Date of Current Version : 10 January 2005 Page(s): 215 - 220 Vol.1
<ul><li>LPF is a main problem that our industries face in today’s world. There are many factors that leads to LPF. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of our project is reactive power compensation using automatic capacitor banks. </li></ul>
We using automatic capacitor PFC, because fixed capacitor has following disadvantages…… <ul><li>Manual operation(on/off) </li></ul><ul><li>Not meet the require kVAr under varying loads. </li></ul><ul><li>Can result leading power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Cause over voltage </li></ul><ul><li>Penalty by electricity authority </li></ul>
Types of PFC The choice of the correct power factor correction equipment depends on the type of loads present and by their way of working <ul><li>Individual compensation is most effective if the majority of the reactive power is concentrated on few loads with high power and that work for long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Central compensation is best suited for systems where the load fluctuates through out the day. If the absorption of reactive power is variable, it is advisable the use of automatic regulation than fixed capacitors . </li></ul>
AREA OF FOCUS As a part of our project, we did a case study on Cochin Port Trust and found that the power factor was below 0.9. as per our calculation, at 0.85 pf , the total cost including penalty was Rs. 3,51,394.25 per month . It’s noticed that the total cost got reduced to Rs. 3,32,653.25 per month , after the installation of the capacitor bank that increased the PF to 0.94 . The cost of capacitor was found to be Rs.200/kVAR and the cost of capacitor installation could be replaced in a period of 1 year and 2 months.
SITES MOTORS RATING WORKING PERIOD(hrs) TRUE POWER(kW) TOTAL kWh PUMP HOUSE 1 MOTOR 1 52 HP 3 MOTOR 2 52 HP 3 76.5 229.5 PUMP HOUSE 2 MOTOR 1 37 Kw 3 MOTOR 2 37 Kw 3 74 222 RAIN WATER PURIFING PUMP 5 HP 3 3.8 11.4 AD BLOCK INDUCTION MOTOR 60 HP 6 INDUCTION MOTOR 3.7 Kw 6 47.83 287 FIRE HOUSE PUMP 60 HP 10 44.13 441.3 TELEPHONE EXCHANGE MOTOR 20 HP 24 14.71 353 BELT DRIVE MOTOR 1 7.5 HP MOTOR 2 7.5 HP 6 11 66.2 SUPPLY MOTOR 5 HP 6 3.68 22.1 NORTH END MOTOR 12 Kw 12 12 144 CT CANTEEN MOTOR 12 Kw 16 12 192 12th CROSS ROAD MOTOR 12 Kw 16 12 192 RNAS MOTOR 1 12 Kw 12 MOTOR 2 12 Kw 12 24 288 CLUB MOTOR 12 Kw 14 12 168 HOSPITAL MOTOR 1 12 Kw 24 MOTOR 2 12 Kw 24 MOTOR 3 12 Kw 24 36 864 CISF MOTOR 1 12 Kw 24 MOTOR 2 12 Kw 24 24 576
<ul><li>Total load demand =405.65kW </li></ul><ul><li>Total kWh =4056.50kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Total kW in 1 month =12169.50kW/month </li></ul><ul><li>Total kWh in 1 month =121695.00kWh/month </li></ul><ul><li>Total amount in 1 month =Rs 334661.25/month </li></ul>
TARIFF Cost of energy per unit=2.75Rs/kWh/month
Selection of capacitor for 0.85 pf PF old = 0.85 PF new = 0.94 M =0.367 kVAR cap =165.81kVAR Cost of capacitor= Rs 200 per kVAR Total cost of capacitor, kVARcap =165.81 kVAR * Rs 200 = Rs 33,162. Incentive = Rs 2008.00/month. The capacitor installation cost will be compensated in 33162/2008 =16.51 months =1 year & 2 months .
<ul><li>Here our hardware is of passive……. </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul><ul><li>Passive components are those that do not require electrical power to operate. </li></ul><ul><li>Guaranteed stability </li></ul><ul><li>Passive filters scale better to large signals (tens of amperes, hundreds of volts), where active devices are often impractical </li></ul><ul><li>No power consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive (unless large coils are required) </li></ul>
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION: Advantages <ul><li>Reduced demand charges </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in size of transformers, cables and switchgear in new installations </li></ul><ul><li>Less total plant KVA for the same KW working power </li></ul><ul><li>Automatically switch on/off relevant capacitors steps for consistent power factor </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously sense and monitors the load </li></ul>
CONCLUSION <ul><li>Raising power factor is a proven way of increasing the efficient use of electricity by utilities & end users. Economic benefits for end users may include reduced energy bills, lower cable, transformer losses & improved voltage conditions, while utilities benefit from released system capacity. </li></ul>
FUTURE SCOPE In our project, we have not considered harmonics. In future, we can improve the power factor by adding a reactor circuit with the capacitor bank to eliminate harmonics. As a result, especially the 3 rd harmonic component can be detected and suppressed and power factor in whole can be raised up to a value of 0.99.
REFERENCES <ul><li>Ferreira,A.J.M(2009).MATLAB Codes for finite Element Analysis Springer. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal selection of capacitors-IEEE: S.Sudehararajan & A Pahwa </li></ul><ul><li>Power Factor Correction Capacitors: Essentials and Caution, M.H.Shwhdi. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactive Power Compensation, T.J.E.Miller. </li></ul><ul><li>Power System, J.B.Gupta </li></ul>