Pitt a Whig selected to win F. & I. war, replaced by bro-in-law George Grenville: recoup losses by taxing the Americans. Never had England meddled directly with the internal politics and economy in the colonies thru direct taxes- no actual representative in Parliament. SA Congress opposed tax in Dec. of Grievances. Mob action- loot Gov. Hutchinson’s house, force tax collectors to resign
See power of assemblies eroding under imperial demands, fear fate is natural corruption, state church Anglican Bishop. Townsend taxes less outrageous yet represented the same principle to colonists that confirmed whig theory- sign of tyranny. Sam Adams sends letter to protest new taxes to circulate colonies & inform of injustice, British demand the letter be resinded
Art critique versus the actual events
Some dressed as Mohawk Indians
Committee of Correspondenceagreed something had to be done, meeting of 55 delegates from 12 colonies- most articulate and well respected
Lexington: 70 vs. 700 elite troops (8 die in skirmish) Concord 400 vs. 700 ,retreat, 73 B. killed and 200 casualties A. 49 deadwww.earlyamerica.com/series.html video clips
Problems: 1/3 patriot, 1/3 loyalist, spies (Benedict Arnold), face well trained army but defending land, Br. Entice slaves
Philosophical document as well as political, gov. in course of human events, created by people not by divine rule, change when needs not met, natural laws, necessary and obvious- Enlightenment laws of nature, event made necessary and unavoidable, What events made indep. Unavoidable? No talk of violation of rights as British citizens but appeals to rights of mankind, invokes natural rights, universal rights to…
These are rights gov. secure and protect- they do not grant, give, or take away when this does not take place people can alter or abolish said gov.
Washington/Gideon- providence or luck?
War for Independence1775-1783 Organizing Principle: Prove how after 1763 attempts by the British to exert control over the colonies led to violent, organized and successful resistance. Task: Evaluate the importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebellion
Evaluate the relative importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebel Parliamentary Taxation Violation of civil liberties British military measures Colonial legacy of religious and political ideas
I. Revolutionary Impulse Whig Political ideology Tory: loyalist Whig: patriot 4 Basic Principles: 1. liberty a natural right 2. government protects liberty 3. power corrupts liberty 4. civic virtue protects liberty (self interest sacrificed for the common good) Example: Colonist James Otis -arbitrary taxes= seeds of tyranny Social Contract Theory (Consensus) vs. Absolutism (External Force) Enlightenment Political Philosophers (John Locke) Natural Rights of men are inherent, not granted Governments exist to protect inherent rights, not grant Natural Rights to life, liberty and property Conscience as the most sacred of all property (James Madison) What recourse do the people have if a government loses its legitimacy?
I. Revolutionary Impulse Rhetoric of LIBERTY: Power to win hearts and minds Ex. Patrick Henry “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death” What is freedom (liberty)? Definitions Condition of being free from constraints Liberty of the person i.e .slavery Political independence: civil rights Exemption from unpleasant circumstances Capacity to exercise choice; free will Why is freedom important? Central values in which war was fought Still used today to describe and define America Conscience of mind- Christianity Limits to liberty? Would it apply to non whites? To women? To the lower classes? Will this be a social as well as a political revolution? Professor Warner
II. Road to War-When is Independence Declared? A. Parliamentary reforms Series of direct taxes Stamp Act: sparks widespread protests Constitutional argument over sovereignty: parliamentary or colonial? Unitary form of government throughout Empire B. Colonial Response 1) Address grievances: Ex. James Otis : arbitrary taxes= seeds of tyranny Stamp Act Congress Ex. Patrick Henry: VA Resolutions Tax. w/o rep.= tyranny Constitutional Argument: Actual v. Virtual Representation 2) Sons of Liberty (Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, John Hancock…) Rouse anger of articulate lawyers, merchants & printers 3) Protests: intimidation, looting, effigies, Non-Importation, Circular letters C. Crown Repudiates tax not principle
II. Road to War-When is Independence Declared? D. Townsend Acts: tax on paper, tea, glass Admiralty Courts, colonial assemblies dissolved… E. Influence of Whig political ideology F. Circular Letter- agitation from MA I. Key City Boston: Seeds of Revolt Samuel Adams: Father of the Revolution
III. Boston: Seeds of Revolt What happened? (March 5, 1770) How was this event remembered? Similar incidents of provocation- Hancock’s Liberty Gaspee Affair When is Independence Declared?
III. Boston: Seeds of RevoltWhen is Independence declared? Boston Tea Party (1773) Colonists boycotted taxed tea Matter of principle 10,000 pounds docked in Boston Protest: 150 board ships and dump How does this launch the revolution?
IV. Launching a RevolutionWhen is Independence declared? Parliament’s response to Tea Party: Intolerable Acts Boston under martial law Quebec Act Colonist’s response: MA: de facto government at Concord Stockpile weapons Organize First Continental Congress Congress (1774): To rebel or not to rebel…? Non importation strongly enforced
Side Note Paul Revere's Ride-(1775) Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Listen my children and you shall hearOf the midnight ride of Paul Revere,On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;Hardly a man is now aliveWho remembers that famous day and year… “one if by land and two if by sea…”
V. Course of WarWhen is Independence Declared? 1775- Lexington & Concord British march on L. & C.- face minutemen Significance: first shots fired in course of war “Shot Heard Around the World” Poem by Humiliating retreat for the British
V. Course of the War Strategies British: Need to crush will of the people Northern & Southern Strategy: Take the South: Loyalist support strongest Freed slaves to fight for the British North: land and sea invasion (divide & conquer) Americans: 1)sustain will by avoiding crushing conflicts 2) gain international alliances
V. Course of WarWhen is Independence Declared? 1775 April: first shots fired May: Second Continental Congress June: George Washington (Continental Army) June: Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill Technical defeat, psychological victory 1776 January: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense Attacked notion of ruler above corruption Urged to sever ties Question of legitimacy addressed 3 Committees formed: alliances, Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence July 1776
V. Course of War Is the Declaration Lockean? Locke’s Second Treatise on Government Addresses question of legitimacy When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to separation…” “We hold these truths to be self evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness…” July 4, 1776
V. Course of War “that, to secure these rights…” “deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…” “it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it…” Document identifies: 1st : the violation of natural rights 2nd Lists the violations of British law, rights and traditions Is the Declaration Lockean? Side Note: John Hancock July 4, 1776 Professor Guezlo
V. Course of War 1776 Turning Points Winter retreat- “Times that try men’s souls” Thomas Paine (Dec.) Trenton: Washington Crosses the Delaware 1777 Turning Points (Oct.) Battle of Saratoga Turning point leading to French alliance- Lafayette 1781 Victory Southern Campaign Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown American victory
VI. Outcome of the War Peace Treaty signed in Paris (1783) Provisions: Recognized American Independence Western border at Mississippi Legacy: Debate: Conservative Or radical revolution?
Evaluate the relative importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebel? Parliamentary Taxation Violation of civil liberties British military measures Colonial legacy of religious and political ideas