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War for Independence

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  • Pitt a Whig selected to win F. & I. war, replaced by bro-in-law George Grenville: recoup losses by taxing the Americans. Never had England meddled directly with the internal politics and economy in the colonies thru direct taxes- no actual representative in Parliament. SA Congress opposed tax in Dec. of Grievances. Mob action- loot Gov. Hutchinson’s house, force tax collectors to resign
  • See power of assemblies eroding under imperial demands, fear fate is natural corruption, state church Anglican Bishop. Townsend taxes less outrageous yet represented the same principle to colonists that confirmed whig theory- sign of tyranny. Sam Adams sends letter to protest new taxes to circulate colonies & inform of injustice, British demand the letter be resinded
  • Art critique versus the actual events
  • Some dressed as Mohawk Indians
  • Committee of Correspondenceagreed something had to be done, meeting of 55 delegates from 12 colonies- most articulate and well respected
  • Lexington: 70 vs. 700 elite troops (8 die in skirmish) Concord 400 vs. 700 ,retreat, 73 B. killed and 200 casualties A. 49 deadwww.earlyamerica.com/series.html video clips
  • Problems: 1/3 patriot, 1/3 loyalist, spies (Benedict Arnold), face well trained army but defending land, Br. Entice slaves
  • Philosophical document as well as political, gov. in course of human events, created by people not by divine rule, change when needs not met, natural laws, necessary and obvious- Enlightenment laws of nature, event made necessary and unavoidable, What events made indep. Unavoidable? No talk of violation of rights as British citizens but appeals to rights of mankind, invokes natural rights, universal rights to…
  • These are rights gov. secure and protect- they do not grant, give, or take away when this does not take place people can alter or abolish said gov.
  • Washington/Gideon- providence or luck?
  • Transcript

    • 1. War for Independence1775-1783
      Organizing Principle: Prove how after 1763 attempts by the British to exert control over the colonies led to violent, organized and successful resistance.
      Task: Evaluate the importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebellion
    • 2. Evaluate the relative importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebel
      Parliamentary Taxation
      Violation of civil liberties
      British military measures
      Colonial legacy of religious and political ideas
    • 3. I. Revolutionary Impulse
      Whig Political ideology
      Tory: loyalist
      Whig: patriot
      4 Basic Principles:
      1. liberty a natural right
      2. government protects liberty
      3. power corrupts liberty
      4. civic virtue protects liberty (self interest sacrificed for the common good)
      Example: Colonist James Otis -arbitrary taxes= seeds of tyranny
      Social Contract Theory (Consensus) vs. Absolutism (External Force)
      Enlightenment Political Philosophers (John Locke)
      Natural Rights of men are inherent, not granted
      Governments exist to protect inherent rights, not grant
      Natural Rights to life, liberty and property
      Conscience as the most sacred of all property (James Madison)
      What recourse do the people have if a government loses its legitimacy?
    • 4. I. Revolutionary Impulse
      Rhetoric of LIBERTY: Power to win hearts and minds
      Ex. Patrick Henry “Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death”
      What is freedom (liberty)?
      Definitions
      Condition of being free from constraints
      Liberty of the person i.e .slavery
      Political independence: civil rights
      Exemption from unpleasant circumstances
      Capacity to exercise choice; free will
      Why is freedom important?
      Central values in which war was fought
      Still used today to describe and define America
      Conscience of mind- Christianity
      Limits to liberty?
      Would it apply to non whites? To women? To the lower classes? Will this be a social as well as a political revolution?
      Professor Warner
    • 5. II. Road to War-When is Independence Declared?
      A. Parliamentary reforms
      Series of direct taxes
      Stamp Act: sparks widespread protests
      Constitutional argument over sovereignty:
      parliamentary or colonial?
      Unitary form of government throughout Empire
      B. Colonial Response
      1) Address grievances:
      Ex. James Otis : arbitrary taxes= seeds of tyranny
      Stamp Act Congress
      Ex. Patrick Henry: VA Resolutions
      Tax. w/o rep.= tyranny
      Constitutional Argument: Actual v. Virtual Representation
      2) Sons of Liberty (Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, John Hancock…)
      Rouse anger of articulate lawyers, merchants & printers
      3) Protests: intimidation, looting, effigies, Non-Importation, Circular letters
      C. Crown Repudiates tax not principle
    • 6. II. Road to War-When is Independence Declared?
      D. Townsend Acts: tax on paper, tea, glass
      Admiralty Courts, colonial assemblies dissolved…
      E. Influence of Whig political ideology
      F. Circular Letter- agitation from MA
      I. Key City
      Boston: Seeds of Revolt
      Samuel Adams: Father of the Revolution
    • 7. III. Boston: Seeds of Revolt
      What happened?
      (March 5, 1770)
      How was this event remembered?
      Similar incidents of provocation-
      Hancock’s Liberty
      Gaspee Affair
      When is Independence Declared?
    • 8. III. Boston: Seeds of RevoltWhen is Independence declared?
      Boston Tea Party (1773)
      Colonists boycotted taxed tea
      Matter of principle
      10,000 pounds docked in Boston
      Protest: 150 board ships and dump
      How does this launch the revolution?
    • 9. IV. Launching a RevolutionWhen is Independence declared?
      Parliament’s response to Tea Party:
      Intolerable Acts
      Boston under martial law
      Quebec Act
      Colonist’s response:
      MA: de facto government at Concord
      Stockpile weapons
      Organize First Continental Congress Congress (1774):
      To rebel or not to rebel…?
      Non importation strongly
      enforced
    • 10. Side Note
      Paul Revere's Ride-(1775)
      Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
      Listen my children and you shall hearOf the midnight ride of Paul Revere,On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;Hardly a man is now aliveWho remembers that famous day and year…
      “one if by land and two if by sea…”
    • 11. V. Course of WarWhen is Independence Declared?
      1775- Lexington & Concord
      British march on L. & C.- face minutemen
      Significance: first shots fired in course of war
      “Shot Heard Around the World” Poem by
      Humiliating retreat
      for the British
    • 12. V. Course of the War
      Strategies
      British: Need to crush will of the people
      Northern & Southern Strategy:
      Take the South: Loyalist support strongest
      Freed slaves to fight for the British
      North: land and sea invasion (divide & conquer)
      Americans:
      1)sustain will by avoiding crushing conflicts
      2) gain international alliances
    • 13. V. Course of WarWhen is Independence Declared?
      1775
      April: first shots fired
      May: Second Continental Congress
      June: George Washington (Continental Army)
      June: Battle of Bunker (Breed’s) Hill
      Technical defeat, psychological victory
      1776
      January: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
      Attacked notion of ruler above corruption
      Urged to sever ties
      Question of legitimacy addressed
      3 Committees formed: alliances, Articles of Confederation, Declaration of Independence
      July 1776
    • 14. V. Course of War
      Is the Declaration Lockean?
      Locke’s Second Treatise on Government
      Addresses question of legitimacy
      When in the course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to separation…”
      “We hold these truths to be self evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness…”
      July 4, 1776
    • 15. V. Course of War
      “that, to secure these rights…”
      “deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed…”
      “it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it…”
      Document identifies:
      1st : the violation of natural rights
      2nd Lists the violations of British law, rights and traditions
      Is the Declaration Lockean?
      Side Note: John Hancock
      July 4, 1776
      Professor Guezlo
    • 16. V. Course of War
      1776 Turning Points
      Winter retreat- “Times that try men’s souls” Thomas Paine
      (Dec.) Trenton: Washington Crosses the Delaware
      1777 Turning Points
      (Oct.) Battle of Saratoga
      Turning point leading to French alliance- Lafayette
      1781 Victory
      Southern Campaign
      Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown
      American victory
    • 17. VI. Outcome of the War
      Peace Treaty signed in Paris (1783)
      Provisions:
      Recognized American Independence
      Western border at Mississippi
      Legacy:
      Debate: Conservative
      Or radical revolution?
    • 18. Evaluate the relative importance of the causes that impelled the colonists to rebel?
      Parliamentary Taxation
      Violation of civil liberties
      British military measures
      Colonial legacy of religious and political ideas

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