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Transcendental Physics


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  • 1. Pill-i its i^ralli^n^thii ! ttii IHl il W H fiiiiiliii;; iliiiii: jniiHll;!
  • 2. IQlilY IIBRAKI •joh>7"frye CHINESE- LIBRAP.Y
  • 3. Jit UB»
  • 6. ;TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. ^n Srrount of ^xprrimrntal 3?nof5:tigaticns. JFrom tJjr Scicnttttr ^Trratisrs JOHAXX GAEL FEIEDEICH ZOLLNEE, I Professor of Physical Astronomy at the University of Leijysic : Member of the Royal Saxon Society of Sciences ; Foreign Member of the Royal Astronomical Society of London of the Imperial Academy of Natural Philosophers at Moscow : Honorary Member of the Physical Association at Franlfort-on-the-Main . of the " Seient(^^ Society of Psychological Studies," at Paris: and of the " British National Association of Spiritualists," at London. (ZCransIateu from tije (Serman, iuitl) a iprefacc anH appcntJices, bp CHAELES CAELETOX MASSEY, OF I.IKCOLSS INK, BARRISTER-AT-I.AW. LONDON:W. H. HAEEISON, 33 MUSEUM STEEET, W.C. 1880.
  • 8. CONTENTS.Translators Preface . xviiAuthors Dedication to Mr. William Crookes, F.R.S. . . xlv CHAPTER I.Gausss and Kants Theory of Space — The Practical Application of the Theory in Experiments with Henry Slade —True Knots pro- duced upon a Cord with its ends in view and sealed together . i CHAPTER IT.Magnetic Experiments — Physical Phenomena— Slate-Writing under Test Conditions 22 4 CHAPTER III.Permanent Impressions obtained of Hands and Feet — Proposed — Chemical Experiment Slades Abnormal Vision Impressions — in a Closed Space — Enclosed Space of Three Dimensions open to Four-Dimensional Beings 48 CHAPTER IV.Conditions of Investigation — Unscientitic Men of Science — Slades Answer to Professor Barrett 62 751656
  • 9. — A roNTENTS. < M.MTKK Pruiliictiitn «f Knots in iin KntllcHH Strin;; — Further Experinientn — HantlH— DiHnppcnrnnco and HenpiH^nranco of Miitorinlisiition of Solid OhjrctM — A Table Vanislu-s, and afterwards IVscondo from tlio Cciliii;; in Full Li<rlit ....... CILMTKi; "lIiutiretiial ("onsidcralions— Irojccted Exporinient* for InMtf uf — The the Konrth DinioMsioii Schn|icnhaiici.« rnexpectod " Traiisrciident Iatc " in ..... Nature and Life 93 CHAITEH VII.Aarious Instance-" of the .so-ealled ras.«a;.e of Matter throu;,di Matter 103 Cli.MTHU III.The Phenomena suitable for Scientific Research —Their Ueprodue- tion at Different Times and Places — Dr. Fricses and Professor Wa;,niers E.xperinients in Confirmation of the Authors . 130 CHAPTKl! IX.Theoretical; "The Fourth Dimension — Professor Hares E.vpcri- mcnts— Further Experiments of the Autiior with Siade — Coins Transferred from Closed and Fastened Hoxcs — Clairvoyance 149 CHAITKi: X.An Experiment for Sceptics —A Wager — Slades Scruples— Rebuke by the Spirits — An Unexpected Result— Captious Oltjections . . . . . , •75 CII.MTKK XI.Writing through a Table —A Test in Slate-Writing conclusively Disproving Slades Agency 191
  • 10. — CONTENTS. XI CHAPTER XII. fAliK Fault " in the Cable— A Jet of Water— Smoke— " Fire Every- where" — Abnormal Shadows — Explanation upon the Hypo- thesis of the Fourth Dimension — A Seance in Dim Li^lit Movement of Objects —A Luminous Undy 204 CHAPTER XIH.Plunomena Described bv Others 219 A r P E N I) I C E S.Appendix A.— Tlie Value of Testimony in Matters Extraordinary 237Appendix B. — Evidence of Sanuiel Bellachini, Court Conjurer atAppendix Berlin C—Admissions ...:..•• by John Nevil Maskelynr, and otlitr 259 Professional Conjurers 262Appendix D. -Plate X 265
  • 11. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.Frontispiece. — The room at Leipsic in Avhich most of the Experi- ments were conducted.Plate I.— Experiment with an Endless String .... 15 ,, II. —Leather Bands Interlinked and Knotted under Pro- fessor ZoUners Hands 83 ,, III. —Experiment with an Endless Bladder-Band and Wooden Rings 107 ,, IV.—Result of the Experiment ...... 109 ,, V. — Ditto, on an Enlarged Scale iii ,, VI. — Experiment with Coins in a Secured Box . . 160, 161 ,, VII. — The Representation of Conditions under Avhich Shite- Writing was obtained . . . . . -193 ,, VIII.— SI ate- Writing Extraordinary 200, 201 ,, IX. — Slate-Writing in live Different Languages , . 230,231 X. — Details of the Experiment with an Endless ,, Wooden Rings ........ Band and 266 s
  • 13. — " These things, O Asclepius, will appear to be true if thou understaudeth them, but if thou understaudeth them not, in- credible. For to understand is to believe, but not to believe is not to understand." The Divine Pimander. TRANSLATORS PREFACE.* Teanscendental Physics " is the title of the thirdvolume of Professor ZoUners Scientific Treatises.Some of the parts comprised in the following trans-lation belong to the earlier volumes, where the factsrecorded are introduced in connection with theauthors phj^sical speculations. It is with some con-cern that the translator has been compelled to foregoa full presentation of the latter ; but it is hoped thatenough is given to show their bearing upon facts,the public recognition of which is the principal objectin view. With such assistance as is afforded by theauthors occasional explanations, the English readermust be left to grapple, as best he can, with theunfamiliar conception of the fourth dimension ofspace. Professor Zollner traces this hypothesishistorically in the writings of some of the mosteminent philosophers and mathematicians ; but itwas not possible to disengage this account from othermetaphysical and scientific disquisitions, or from con-troversial topics, in which it is involved. A verygeneral abstract is given in the first chapter, which b
  • 14. XVlil TRANSLATOKS a reprint, by permission of Mr. Crookes, F.R.S.,of au article puMislied iu the Quarievhj Journal ofScience, of April 1S7S, on the appearance of the firstvolume of the authors treatises. The writer ventures to hope that this Englishversion of facts so well-attested may be read by thoseto whom the intellectual worth and achievements ofthe principal witnesses are already known. But forthe information of the general public, the followingj^articulars concerning them are here given. Professor Zollner, the author and chief deponent,in whose house many of the facts he records occurred,was born in 1834, and is thus in the mature vigourof his intellectual life. He is Professor of Physicsand Astronomy in the University of Leipsic, and hastaken place in the front ranks of the scientific menof Europe. He has published many works, amongwhich are Sketches of a Universal Photometry of theStarry Heavens, Physical Nature of the HeavenlyBodies, The Nature of Comets, and these treatises. "William Edward AVeber, born 1804, i^ ^ Professorof Physics, and known as the founder, in commonwith his brother, of the doctrine of the Vibration of Forces. He has published an exhaustive work on Electro-Dynamic Measurement (4 vols. 1 846-1 854). No scientific reputation stands higher in Germany than that of Weber. Professor Schcibncr, of Leipsic University, is a well-known and highly distinguished mathematician. Gustave Theodore Fechner, born iSoi, is eminent
  • 15. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XIXas a natural pliilosopher, and is likewise Professor ofPhysics at Leipsic. Among his works are The Soulof Plants, The Zendavesta, The Things of the Future^Elements of Psycho-Physics, The Problem of the Soul,and About the Life Hereafter. It is not surprising that the testimony of thesemen, publicly given to such facts as those describedin the following pages, has caused much excitementand controversy in Germany. The indisposition tosee in the alleged phenomena of Spiritualism, asregards their reality and independence of knowncauses, a simple question of evidence, has been every-where apparent. Nevertheless, it is just from thispoint of view that the public must, by degrees, bebrought to regard the subject. The irrelevance ofany other mode of treating it will sooner or later berecognised. The value of human testimony is deter-minable by known criteria, which can only be appliedby a critical examination of the statements made,having regard also to what is ascertained about thewitnesses. Supposing the veracity and intelligenceof the latter to be above suspicion, we have to con-,sider what were their opportunities for exact obser-vation, with reference, of course, to the nature of thefact observed. The latter, indeed, is the main point,because we know that the faculty of accurate obser-vation differs widely in different people, and wecannot have the same confidence in this specialcapacity of the witness that we may have in hisgeneral intelligence. For example : during the pro-
  • 16. XX TRANSLAToKS IKKFACE.secutioii of Shulc nt Bow Street in 1876 by ProfessorLaiikester, the latter tleclared himself unable to sayon which side of a slate, pressed by Slade against theunder surface of the table, a certain writing wasproduced ; remarking, that the slate might havebeen reversed on witlidrawal by sleight of hand, andthat it was part of the art of a conjurer to effectsuch a change without observation. That there was "some force in this su^Tjijestion could not be denied ;and had a witness in support of Slade stated thatthe writing, produced under the conditions described,appeared on the side of the slate which was pressedagainst the table, the accuracy of his observation,and therefore the value of his testimony, might havebeen challenged on this ground. How far a similarcriticism is applicable to any of the facts hererecorded by Professor Zollner, to any of them, atleast, which he lays stress upon, and thinks it worthwhile particularly to describe, the reader must judgefor himself. But take, for instance, those of whichcircumstantial accounts are given at pages 14, 34, and91, and contrast them, in relation to this all-importantpoint, with the one just mentioned. If in the lattercase, average powers of observation might possiblybe baflBled, in the others, the nature of the phenomenawas such, that so far as Slades physical instrumen- tality in them is in question, the suggestion that it * The writer tested it afterwards, by making Slade withdraw the slatevery slowly, inch hy inch, as soon as the sound of writing ceased, whenthe writing appeared in successive lines on the upper surface of the slate(that a^^aiust the table).
  • 17. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. Xximight have eluded observation will be felt to trans-gress tbe limits prescribed by candour and commonsense. Tlie evidence of testimony is tlie evidence of tbesenses, or, to speak more accurately, of sense-impres-sions as interpreted by the mind, one degree removed.The only elements of fallacy possibly added by testi-mony to original observation are such as may resultfrom defects of veracity, defects of memory, defects ofjudgment as to what is material to be mentioned,and defects of language, or the understanding ofit by the recipient of the testimony. In short,the peculiar infirmity of proof by testimony is theuncertainty whether it conveys to the mind an exactor sufficient transcript of the fact as it was perceivedby the original observer. For whatever concernsdefects of observation belougs to the j)erception, andnot to the transmission of facts by testimony. Evenif we could be satisfied that we had got a perfect copyof the original objective impression made upon thewitness, we still could not be sure that the fact soconveyed to us would not have contained more orless for ourselves had we been in his place. In allmatters requiring skilled observation, it is obviousthat the testimony of an expert has far higher valueas evidence for those who are not experts than theirown observations would have. In considering what is the particular risk of anyof the above-mentioned fallacies of testimony, exceptthe first, attaching to a statement of facts, the same
  • 18. XXll TRANSLATORS PREFACE.remark is applicable as has been already made inspeaking of the value of original observations. Assum-ing the veracity of the witness, we must have especialregard to the nature of the facts, and of the state-ments concerning them. Are the latter so full,precise, and intelligible, as to evince that the witnessis speaking from a strong recollection, with a clearnj^preciation of what is necessary to be known, andwith a faculty of expression sufficient to convey dis-tinct and unmistakable meanings to an ordinaryunderstanding ? In order to know whether the state-ments are really sufficient in these respects, we have toconsider what is the fact to he proved from the parti-cular facts described, — as in the following accounts thefact to be proved is, that Slade had no active physicalparticipation in the production of what occurred. Justas the probative force of original observation dependson the supposition that no circumstance which couldhave escaped ohservation would impair the demonstra-tion, so the probative force of testimony (veracitybeing granted) is additionally less in so far only as asimilarly important circumstance, actually observed,could have escaped the memory, or be regarded inthe judgment of the witness as too unimportant formention. As the faculty of observation differs indifferent persons, so also differ the memory and intel-liirence. But as there are limits, which it would becontrary to all experience to suppose exceeded, to thefallibility of observation, so, likewise, we cannot ascribeto memory and intelligence, in reference to deliberate
  • 19. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXUlstatements, defects so gross that we sliould infer withfar more probability intentional untruth. The validity of testimony to facts of such a nature,that conceivable errors of observatiou, memory, andjudgment may be left out of account in concludingfrom them, is thus reduced to a question of veracity.There is no issue so studiously shirked as this by thepeople who heap contempt on all evidence in favourof occult phenomena. The imputation of lying is feltto be too crude, coarse, and unintelligent a way outof the difficulty. And so we hear a great deal of thefolly and credulity of the witnesses, and of their unac-quaintance with the wiles of the conjurer, but hardlyat all of their mendacity. And yet no testimonies,taken singly at least, to such things are worth much,unless the issue can be narrowed to this of veracity.If there is any chance or possil)ility, consistently withthe witnesses truth, of the whole thing being only amore or less skilful trick, the testimony is scarcelyworth adducing at all. It will be seen that this demand, that trickery andconjuring shall not be suggested at large, withoutregard to the nature of what occurs, or to the condi-tions of its occurrence, as affording or not affordingopportunities for the exercise of these arts, does notrequire from the critic of the evidence an expositionof the particular modus operandi of the supposed con-jurer, which only the latter could supply. No one,for example, is called upon to explain the modusoperandi of Psychos performances at the Egyptian
  • 20. XXIV TRANSLATORS PREFACE.Hall, or, as the alternative, to atlmit that some occultagency is concerned in them. It is enough that onMessrs. Maskelvne and Cookes own stage, commiinica-tion with the automaton, by moans known to science,is possible, thou;;h Mr. Maskelyno stands at a dis-tance from it, and no assistant is visible. Ikit trans-port Mr. Maskelyne and his automaton to a privatehouse, to a room which the conjurer has never enteredbefore, or which he has had no facilities for adapting tohis purposes ; let him be unaccompanied by any assist-ant, and stand aside under close observation whilePsycho plays his intelligent hand at whist with someof the company, or works out the sums in arithmeticwhich they set him. There would then arise a questionfor science the importance of which it could not affectto undeiTate. For on the assumption that irr.Maskelyne was directly and consciously instrumentalin what occurred, it must be that he had discovereda method of applying and directing natural forces ata distance,* while apparently himself inactive, whichwould be capable of the most practically importantuscs.t If, now, the production of the true knots in an end-less string, the rending of Professor Zollners bed-screen, the disappearance of the small table and itssubsequent descent from the ceiling, in full light, ina i>rivate house, and under the observed conditions, • That Psycho is not worked by Mr. Ma.skeljTie himself from the stagehy means of a ma^iict lias been repeatedly demonstrated. t See Appendix C.
  • 21. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXVof wliicli the most noticeable is the apparent pas-sivity of Slade during all these occurrences, are to beascribed to any conscious operation of his, we canhardly avoid attributing to him scientific discoveries,or the possession of secrets of nature at least equallyremarkable. But in that case he could, and it wouldclearly be his interest to produce these and similarastonishing effects with constant regularity. Pro-fessor Lankester would have witnessed them no lessthan Professor Zollner, and Slade would long agohave amassed a fortune by his exhibitions. The factthat he cannot command these phenomena, at leastthe most striking of them, at will, points to conditionsof their production varying with his own physicaland mental states, and probably with those also ofthe persons resorting to him. And this is the reasonwhy these phenomena, though as capable of verifica-tion by scientific men and trained observers (bywhom they have in fact been repeatedly verified), asby any one else, are not exactly suitable for scientificverification. There is a clear distinction between thetwo things. Scientific verification supposes that theconditions of an experiment are ascertained, thatthey can be regularly provided, and the experimentrepeated at pleasure. One hears occasionally of offersfrom men of science to investigate and attest certainphenomena of Spiritualism, selected by themselves,provided they can witness them under conditions oftheir own prescribing. These, in some cases well-meant overtures, proceed on the assumption that the
  • 22. XXVI TRANSLATORS PREFACE.l>lionomonn, if gcnuiiio, reqiiirc nothing but the merephysical presence of the medium, and that it is onlynecessary to take adcfpiate precautions (no matter^vhat these are) against deception hy tlie latter, inorder to obtain a scientific demonstration. Whensuch an offer is rejected or neglected, the inference ofcourse is drawn that tlje ** phenomena" only occur whenfacilities for their fraudulent production are allowed.Yet it is equally consistent with the mediums know-ledge that the conditions (of which he is himselfignorant) cannot be controlled, and with his con-sequent indisposition to be put upon a formal trialwhich may result in failure and discredit. Syste-matic investigation of this subject by men of scienceis much to be desired, but it must not be undertakenin a magisterial spirit, with the imposition of a test,and the demand of an immediate result. The onlyclaim which spiritualists make upon scientists is tliatthey shall not, in entire ignorance and contempt ofthe evidence, sanction and encourage the public pre-judice by their authority.* But even this claim can-not be preferred with confidence. Since the Councilof the Royal Society refused, by its rejection of JIr.Crookess paper, * On the Experimental Investigationof a new Force," to be informed of the evidence, itmust be considered that the Fellows of that distin-guished body do, in general, dispose of the questionon a priori grounds, and hold that no quantity or For example, by (lcscril)inp; Spiritualism as "a kiud of intellectualwhoredom."— Irofcssor Tyndall.
  • 23. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXVUquality of Iniinan testimony can suffice to establishfacts of this description, or even ii prima facie case infavour of them. So far as this peremptory rejectionappeals to the principle of incredulity expounded inHumes celebrated Essay on Miracles, it shows an utterignorance of the reasoning by which that monstrousfallacy, and the contradictions in which its authorinvolved himself, have been repeatedly exposed.This has never been better done than in the intro-duction to Mr. Alfred Eussel Wallaces book, entitled" Miracles and Modern Spiritualism." There is, how-ever, another proposition commonly put forward todispose a iJriori of unacceptable testimony, substan-tially, but not logically, equivalent to Humes, andwhich embodies a fallacy no less demonstrable, thoughso widely prevalent as to necessitate particularexamination. This proposition is, that evidence, tocommand assent, should be proportional to the pro-bability or improbability of the fact to be proved.Two years ago the writer dealt with it at some lengthin a paper read before the Psychological Society, andwhich is reprinted in an Appendix at the end of thisvolume.* Inasmuch as the fallacy in question, andthe loose and inaccurate phrases, applied to the wholeclass of facts now in evidence, are in the nature ofpreliminary objections to the testimony about to beadduced, the reader is urgently referred to that essay,which cannot be conveniently comprised within thelimits of a preface. * Appendix A. "On the value of testimony in matters extraordinaiy."
  • 24. -XXVlll TRANSLATORS PREFACE. Every opponent who recognises the oLligalion ofdealing seriously with evidence, whether by explicitlyohjocting to its admissibility, or by questioning its in-trinsic value, must be fairly and squarely encountered.To writers in the press who never miss an oppor-tunity of discrediting Spiritualism, by derisive articleson the "exposures," real or reputed, of mediums,and on the occasional follies of spiritualists, only al)assing word can be spared. To the present writer, atleast, so-called Spiritualism represents no religiouscraze or sectarian belief, but an aggregation (not yetto be called a system) of proven facts of incalculableimportance to science and speculation. Those whoso regard the subject would be unmoved in theirconvictions of its truth and importance though itwere proved that every medium was a rogue, andthat many spiritualists were their willing dupes.Much of the evidence on which they rely has pro-ceeded on tljat very assumption, and on the precau-tions which wore accordingly taken, lii none of itwhich is imparted to the public does the element ofpersonal confidence in the medium enter in thesmallest deforce, thoufjh that feelinfr doubtless doesand must often exist, especially when the manifes-tations occur, as they often do, in private families,and with persons whose characters are beyond allsuspicion. As regards the medium, Henry Sladc, with whomProfessor Zollners investigations were carried on, allthe world knows, or did know a few years ago, that he
  • 25. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXIXwas convicted at Bow Street Police Court, under thefourth section of the Vagrant Act, of using " subtlecrafts and devices, by palmistry or otherwise," todeceive Professor E. Kay Lankester, F.R.S., and cer-tain others ; that he was sentenced by Mr. Flowers,the magistrate, to three months imprisonment withhard labour ; and that the conviction was afterwardsC[uashed on appeal to the Middlesex Sessions, for aformal error in the conviction, as returned to tliatCourt. Professor Zollner gives the whole report of thevarious proceedings from beginning to end, at length,in his book, but it has not been thought necessaryto reproduce it here. It may be stated generallythat Professor Lankester had two sittins^s withSlade, at each of which he believed himself to havedetected the mode in which the writing was producedon the slate. On the second occasion he was accom-panied by a friend. Donkin, whose evidence Dr.agreed with his own. The modus operandi, accord-ing to these gentlemen, was this Slade took one of :his own slates, and held it for a time, concealed fromthe view of his visitors, between himself and the table,before placing it " in position," that is, pressedagainst the under surface of the corner of the table,for the pretended purpose of obtaining " Spirit-writing." During this interval the observers de-tected sounds as of writing, and observed motions ofSlades arm, suggestive that he was employed in writ-ing on the slate, held, probably, between his legs.As to other " messages," obtained while the slate was
  • 26. ZXX TRAXSLATOUS position, tluy supposed Slatlc to iudite them liymciius of a bit of pencil stuck in the nail of one ofhis fingers. At length, after hearing writing as firstdescribed, Professor Lankester snatched tlie shitefrom Blades hand as soon as it was phiccd againstthe table, and found the message already inscribedupon it. Such was the clumsy trick — if trick indeed proceed-ings so imperfectly disguised can be called —of whicha man who, if not a " medium," is unquestionably themost wonderful conjurer and illusionist in the world,was convicted, by inference, to use the magistratesexpression, " from the known course of nature," Andthere the matter miiiht be left to the readers reflec-tions. Some few additional facts must, however, bostated. Previous to Professor Laukcsters visit to him,Slade had been two months in London, being on hisway to St. Petersburg, where he was under an engage-ment with a scientific committee of the ImperialUniversity of that city. During this time he hadbeen giving sittings to all comers, including nota few of literary and scientific attainments. Wemay safely conclude that the great impression he hadproduced was not the result of proceedings such asthose described by his accusei*s. Among those namedin the information against him, and whom he wascharged, contrary, it was understood, to their expresswish, with having deceived, were several well-knowngentlemen. Dr. W. B, Carpenter, F.R.S., being one.Only one of these gentlemen, Mr 11 H. Huttou, was
  • 27. TRANSLATOR S PREFACE. XXXIcalled as a witness by the prosecution. His evidencewas on the whole favourable to the accused. Ofother witnesses called by the prosecution, notone professed to have detected trickery, though allseemed to suspect it. For the defence, it was pro-posed to call a number of witnesses of education andintelligence, for the purpose of giving evidence of —phenomena slate-writing and other witnessed by —them in Slades presence, of a character and underconditions wholly inconsistent with any agency ofhis. Four only were allowed to give evidence, oneof them being Mr. A. R. Wallace, the eminentnaturalist. The present writer had been called bythe prosecution (he being counsel in the case foranother defendant), but believes that his evidencecould not have been entirely satisfactory to that side.The effect of the evidence for the defence wasdescribed by the magistrate from the bench as " over-whelming ; " but in giving judgment he expresslyexcluded it from consideration, confining himself totlie evidence of the complainant, Professor Lankester,and of Dr. Donkiu, and basing his decision upon" inferences to be drawn from the known course ofnature " —a main question in the case being whetherthere are not some operations in nature not "generallyknown." An attempt had been made, with thewholly irregular assistance of Mr. John NevilMaskelyne, the professional conjurer, to show thatthe table used by Slade, and which was produced inCourt by the defence, was a " trick table," and
  • 28. XXXll TIIANSLATOU S rUEFACE.expressly constructed to assist iu the effects at thesCitnccs. This attempt utterly broke down. In orderto allow room for the slate to be placed in theposition usual for obtainini^ writinf^, a single centralsupport was used for the tlap of the table instead ofside ledges. A wedge inserted at the pivot of thissuj^port had been pointed out as a most suspiciousfeature ; it was explained by the carpenter that hehad inserted it himself, without orders, for the simplepurpose of remedying a defect in his own construc-tion of the table. Professor Lankester, in his evidence,had described the tal)le, before its production in.Court, as without a frame, and as thus enabling Siadeto move his legs and knees under it with greaterfacility. It turned out that the table had a frameof rather greater depth than usual. 1he table wasimpounded, and remained for several months in thecustody of the Court, and open to inspection andexamination for concealed magnets, and so fortli.None were discovered, and the table is now at therooms of the British National Association of Spiri-tualists, at 38 Great Russell Street, where it can beseen by the curious. Nothing was more prejudicial to Slade, or moretended to produce the impression that he was animpostor than his ascribing the ** messages " on hisslates to spirits of the dead. " AUie," his deceased "wife ; Professor Lankesters fictitious " Uncle John :the random names that came, and the messages ofrecognition to which they were signed, naturally
  • 29. TKANSLATORS PREFACE. XXXUlseemed to the public, little accustomed, or, in thiscase, disposed to distinguish issues, even more indica-tive of fraud than the direct evidence. The writer,from the intimate knoYledge he acquired of Slade, issatisfied that the latter really believed in the identityof his " spirits." Nor was this belief at all unnatural.A large proportion of his visitors do obtain writingsigned by the names of deceased friends of whomusually Slade has never heard ; this being often thecase with strangers visitino him for the first time.That there is any "pumping " process applied to hisvisitors before sitting for the writing is utterly untrue.This suggestion was put forward as part of the caseof the prosecution in the opening statement ; and ithad its efiect on the public mind ; but not oneparticle of evidence was adduced in support of it ; onthe contrary, all the witnesses, upon cross-examina-tion, admitted that no questions were put to them, norwas any attempt made to draw them into conversa-tion before the sittings ; and it was on this groundthat a charge of conspiracy against Slade and anotherdefendant, Simmons, broke down and was dismissed.It was a suo-aestion CO which seems to have been madesimply because, on the assumption that Slade was anhabitual impostor, it ought to have been true, andperhaps it was expected that something of the sortwould turn up in the evidence. To the writer, it has always appeared that thepresence of a departed friend, in proprid persond, isvery insufficiently proved by communications pur-
  • 30. XXXIV TKAN.SLATOU S PUKFACE.I)ortiug to be thus (Icrivcd, even when all knowledge1)} the nicdium of the name of the deceiosccl, or of thecircumstances callrd to the recollection of the sur-vivor by way of identification, can be conclusively dis-proved. We are so profoundly ignorant of the deepermysteries of life, that in this region we arc notentitled to accept an explanation as true simplyIjeciiuse it is sufficient, and because we cannot repre-sent to ourselves any other. Usually, in the writersexperience invariably, in these communications anyattempt to pursue the test by further probing thememory and intelligence of the supposed spirit resultsin failure. And the frequency of admittedly deceptivecommunications proves at least that there are mixedinfluences abroad, and that the hospitality of themediums spiritual neighbourhood is shared by veryquestionable guests. Some time before the com-mencement of the proceedings against Slade, thewriter, being extremely sceptical of spirit-identity,wrote a fictitious name on the back of a slate (care-fully concealing the side on which he wrote, and themotions of the peucil), and handiug the slate, cleanside uppermost, to Slade, requested that tlie indi-vidual whose name was written would communicate,if present. Slade took the slate without reversingit, and laid a morsel of pencil upon it ; then at oncejtressed it against the under surface of the corner ofthe table, so that the clean side was in contact withthat surface, the side on which the name was writtenbeing the lower one. Writing was heard directly,
  • 31. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXXVand the slate being withdrawn and immediatelyinspected, on its upper side was found a kind littlemessage of friendly remembrance signed by thefictitious name. Never was the writer more satisfiedof Slades integrity than on this occasion, and thecircumstance is only mentioned here to show how dis-tinct are issues which were confused in the Slade pro-secution. Such experiments, however, are regarded byspiritualists as highly objectionable. They believe,and they have some grounds in experience for theirbelief, that fraud in the investigator will, by asubtle attraction, elicit fraud in the manifestations.Some go further, and maintain that the stronganimus of prejudice, unconsciously but powerfullywilling the very appearances it expects, may mes-merically control the sensitive medium, and force hisactions in the direction it dictates. But to return from this disgression : Immediately after the conviction was quashed, Pro-fessor Lankester applied for and obtained a fresh sum-mons against Slade, as it was stated, **in the interests (He had already, in the * Times," describedof science."the proceedings of the British Association as havingbeen "degraded" by the introduction of the subjectof Spiritualism, on which Professor Barrett had read apaper.) But meanwhile, Slade had broken down underthe pressure of anxiety, and the agitation caused bypublic contumely and his own indignant sense ofwrong. He had resolutely refused to listen to sugges-tions that he should leave the country, by consent of
  • 32. — —XXXVl TRANSLATORS PREFACE.his bail, before the appeal case came on. As tlic timeapproached, ho had a slight attack of bruin-fever, aswas certified by two physicians. During its continu-ance he wjis occ.Lsionally delirious, and the writer sawhim in this condition. Partially recovered, he withditli«ulty draggid himsc.lf to the Court; he appearedapathetic and almost unconscious during its criticalproceedings. It was the belief of his friends thatfurther persecution would him outright; but killindependently of this, immediate change of scene anda.«sociations was imperatively necessary to his recovery,lie left Entrhuid with his niece o and with his friend!Mr.Simmons a day or two after the appeal case wasdetermined. From The Hague, after a rest of a fewmonths, he addressed, through jIr. Simmons, thefollowinir offer to his accuser O : * Professor E. R. Lankester —Dear Sir, —Dr. Sladcliaving in some measure recovered from his very severeillness, and his engagement to St. Petersburg havingbeen postponed (by desire of his friends there) till theautumn, desires me to make the following offer : " He is willing to return to London for the expressand sole purpose of satisfying you that the slate-writ-ing occurring in his presence is in no way producedby any trickery of his. For this purpose he willcome to your house unaccompanied by any one, andwill sit with you at your own table, using your owu.slate and pencil ; or, if you prefer to come to his room,it will suit him as well.
  • 33. translators preface. xxxvii " In tlie event of any arrangement being agreedupon, Slade would prefer that the matter sliould bekept strictly private. "As be never can guarantee results, you sball givehim as many as six trials, and more if it shall bedeemed advisable. And you shall be put to no chargeor expense whatever. " You on your part shall undertake that during theperiod of the sittings, and for one week afterwards,you will neither take nor cause to be taken, norcountenance legal proceedings against him or me.That if in the end you are satisfied that the slate-writing is produced otherwise than by trickery, youshall abstain altogether from further proceedingsagainst us, and suffer us to remain in England, ifwe choose to do so, unmolested by you. "If, on the other hand, you are not so satisfied,you shall be at liberty to proceed against us, after theexpiration of one week from the conclusion of the sixor more experiments, if we are still in England. Youwill observe that Slade is willing to go to you withoutwitnesses of his own, and to trust entirely to yourhonour and good faith. " Conscious of his own innocence, he has no maliceagainst you for the past. He believes that you werevery naturally deceived by appearances w^hich to onewho had not previously verified the phenomena undermore satisfactory conditions may well have seemedsuspicious. Should we not hear from you within tendays from this date, Slade will conclude that you
  • 34. XXXVlll TRANSLATORS PREFACE.have declined his offer. — I have the honour to 1)0, Sir,your ohcdient servant, J. Simmons." " 37 Spui Stbkct, The Haouk, i/ay jth, 1877. ]«) this hltor no nnswer was ever received. After a h)ng rest on the Continent, Sladc was ableto jjive the wonderful s6anccs recorded in this volume.He went on to St. Petersburg and fulfilled his engage-ment there. Returning to London for a day or twoin 1878, he embarked for Australia, and made a greatimpression in the colonies. He returned to Americaby San Francisco last year, and is now^ once more iiiNew York. During his travels after leavinfj England,he is said to have suffered from a partial paralysis,induced by his troubles here. "With Slade, as with no other medium known tothe writer, the conditions of investigation arc essen-tially simplified by the fact that he invariably sitswith his visitors in a full light. " In the interests ofscience " it is greatly to be desired that he may beable to revisit London, liberated by an imj^rovedstate of public opinion from all danger of molestation.We who urge the truth of these things are onlyanxious that the investigation should be conductedin the light of day, and by the most competentpersons. So strong is this feeling, that it is believeda fund would easily be raised for the purpose ofbringing Slade over to England and placing him inthe hands of a scientific committee who shouldexamine this question of the slate-writing with the
  • 35. TRANSLATORS PREFACE. XXX IXfacilities suo^orested iu the offer of Slade to ProfessorLankester. That the Slade prosecution was designedto deal a blow at SjDiritualism, or rather at the seriousinvestigation of facts which are usually included inthat term, will hardly be doubted. But without inthe least questioning that Professor Lankester hadin his own belief, as in that of the vast majority ofthe public, the strongest justification for the course hetook, it is to be trusted that a truer appreciation ofthe interests of science will shortly prevail. ProfessorZoUner in these volumes, speaking from the point ofview of a true man of science, expresses his indigna-tion at these transactions in England, and at theunmeasured abuse of Slade in the German press, instrong terms. The translator has thought it betterto omit all this, leaving the facts to speak for them-selves, and in the assurance that hereafter, if not atpresent, public opinion will pronounce a just judgmentupon them. Professor Zollners polemic, referred to in hisdedication to Mr. Crookes, has a far wider scope andapplication than will be apparent from the followingtranslation. He has set himself, in the course ofthese treatises, to encounter with unspariug forcecertain tendencies among men of science, and in thePress, which he regards as demoralising in the highestdegree. All particular reference to these subjects ishere avoided. This is almost exclusively a volumeof evidences, and the introduction of other topics ofcontroversy might not be favourable to the judicial
  • 36. xl TIlANSLATOIls PUEFACE.calmness with which the former should be considerccl.Ncvcrthcles.% the belief may bo avowed that thesubstantiation of the facts before us, in scientific andpublic opinion, cannot fail to liiivi-, iiulircctly, arevolutionary effect on many dcpartuK-nts of specula-tion and practice. All that i.s asked at present, how-ever, is a fair judgment on the facts themselves,without regard to the possible extent of their signifi-cance. For further, and very striking evidences ofthe phenomenon of writing l)y unknown agencies,the reader is referred to a small volume entitled" Psychography," by M, A. (Oxon): (Harrison, London,1878). Although the popular suggestion, that the pheno-mena of Spiritutdism arc merely conjuring under falsepretences, will not find acceptance with any one whoseriously considers the evidence, it has been thoughtworth while to meet it additionally by the testimoniesof some well-known experts in the arts of illusion.These will be found in Appendices B and C ; theevidence of Bellachini, Court conjurer at Berlin, whowas employed to conduct a systematic investigationof the phenomena in Sladcs presence, is especiallyremarkable. The literary niorit of the following translation isof such infinite unimportance in coniparison with thematter that the writer hardly cares to disarm criticismon this point, provided the substantial accuracy ofthe rendering is not impugned, lie is quite sensibleof its other defects, and has only to plead that he is
  • 37. teanslators pbeface. xlialmost entirely self-tauglit in German, having nevervisited countries in which it is spoken, or studied forany length of time under a master. He has onlyundertaken the work because it seemed that other-wise it would not be done at all, or at least not yet.Nor has he any pecuniary interest in it. He nowgives it to the English j)^^blic, in the hope that itmay conduce to a more rational appreciation and toa juster treatment of evidence on this subject thanhas hitherto prevailed.
  • 39. AUTHORS DEDICATION To WILLIAM CEOOKES, RE.S.With the feeling of sincere gratitude, and recogni-tion of your immortal deserts in the foundation of anew science, I dedicate to you, highly honoured col-league, this Third Volume of my Scientific Treatises.By a strange conjunction our scientific endeavourshave met upon the same field and of a of light,new class of physical phenomena which proclaim toastonished mankind, with assurance no longer doubt-ful, the existence of another material and intelligentworld. As two solitary wanderers on high mountainsjoyfully greet one another at their encounter, whenpassing storm and clouds veil the summit to whichthey aspire, so I rejoice to have met you, undismayedchampion, upon this new province of science. Toyou, also, ingratitude and scorn have been abundantlydealt out by the blind representatives of modernscience, and by the multitude befooled through theirerroneous teaching. May you be consoled by theconsciousness that the undying splendour with whichthe names of a Newton and a Faraday have illus-
  • 40. ,XlVl Al rUdltS DKIUCATKiN.tratecl the history of the English people can beobscured by nothing, not even by the political declineof this great nation : even so will your name survivein the history of culture, adding a new ornament tothose with which the English nation has endowedtlie huniau race. Your courage, your admirableacuteness in experiment, and your incomparable per-severance, will niise for you a memorial in the heartsof grateful posterity, as indestructible as the marbleof the statues at Westminster. Accept, then, thiswork as a token of thanks and sympathy poured outto you from an honest German heart. If ever theideal of a general peace on this earth shall be realisedthis will assuredly be the result not of politicalspeeches and agitations, in which human vanityalways demands its tribute, but of the bond ofextended knowledge and advancing information, forwhich w^e have to thank such heroes of true scienceas Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Faraday,Wilhelm Weber, and yourself.* =5= -:= * In the first place it is necessary that the truthshould be regardlessly outspoken, in order to encoun-ter lies and tyranny, no matter under what shapethey threaten to impede human progress, with energyand effect. In this sense 1 beg you to judge mycombat against scientific and moral offences, not onlyin my own, Init also in your country. * Hero fdllow references to subjects of controversy foreign to the pnr-jmsc uf this translatictii, and whicli occnpy much of this, as of the pre-ceding volumes of the treatises.
  • 41. — authors dedication. xlvii Every polemic, even the justest, has in it some-thing uncongenial, like the sight of a battle or of abloody battle-field. For hereby is man remindedimpressively of the imperfections and faults of hisearthly existence. And yet are gathered the noblestblossoms of the human heart, in its self-renouncingdevotion of the dearest to the Fatherland, round thegraves of the fallen warriors. The poetry and his-tory of all peoples glorify these blood-saturated spotswith their noblest breath, and the returning springsees crosses woven with roses and ivy, where a yearbefore the battle raged. So, hereafter, will thisliterary battle-field appear to the generation growingup. They will have understood the moral necessityof the strife, and in the morning splendour of a newepoch of human culture will have forgotten therepulsiveness {das Unsympathische) of my polemic. But united England and Germany may always re-member the words of your great physicist. Sir DavidBrewster, who, in his " Life of Newton," reminds usof the indestructibility and immortality of the worksof human genius : " The achievements of genius, like the source fromwhich they spring, are indestructible. Acts of legis-lation and deeds of war may confer a high celebrity,but the reputation which they bring is only local andtransient ; and while they are hailed by the nationwhich they benefit, they are reproached by the peoplewhom they ruin or enslave. The labours of science,on tlie contrary, bear along with them no counterpart
  • 42. xlvui ArrnoKs I)i:i»I("ati«»n,of evil. Tlioy tire the liberal bequests of great mindsto every indiviilual of their race, and wherever theyare welcomed ami honoured, they become the solaceof private life, and the ornament an<l bulwnrk of thecommonwealth." With these consolatory words of one of your cele-brated countrymen, accept, my honoured friend, thepresent work as a token of the sincere esteem of theAuthor. LeipsIC, October itl, 1879.
  • 43. " : TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. Chapter jTir^t ON SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. "^^gausss and Kants theory of space—the practical application of the theory in experiments with henry slade— true knots produced upon a cord with its ends in view and sealed together.In the first treatise tlie author shows that both New-ton and Faraday were advocates of the theory of * This first chapter consists of an article which appeared in the Quar-terly Journal of Science, April 1878, and is reprinted here by permissionof Mr. William Crookes, F.R.S. The facts are from " Wissenschaft-liche Abhandlungen von Joh. Carl Friedrich ZoUner, Professor derAstrophysik an der Universitat zii Leipzig. Erster Band. LeipzigL. Staackmann, 1878. (With portraits and facsimiles of Newton, Kant,and Faraday. 8vo, 732 pages.) CONTENTS. 1. On Action at a Distance. 2. Emil du Bois Reymond and the Limits of Natural Knowledge. 3. Newtons Law of Gravitation, and its Derivation from the Static Effects of Electricity. 4. The Laws of Friction, and their Deduction from the Dynamic Effects of Electricity. 5. As to the Existence of Moving Electric Particles in All Bodies. 6. Adhesion and Cohesion as deducted from the Dynamic Forces of Electricity. 7. 8, 9. The Mechanical, the Magnetical, and the Electrical Effects of Light and of Radiant Heat. 10. Radiometrical Researches. 1 1, 12. On the Theory of Electric Emission and its Cosmical Application. 13. Thomsons Demons and the Phantoms of Plato. A
  • 44. 2 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.tliroct action at a (.listance through a vacuum, inoppositiou to theyi^ws of many modern scientificmen In tjbe Ittit txcotise, which is of the highestinterest, tlie author (Tescribes experiments which liemade in Leipzig, in December 1877, with Mr. Henry81adc, the American. These experiments were onlythe practical application of Gausss and Kants theoryof space, which these two eminent men imaginedmijrht contain more than three dimensions. Theauthor will try to give to the readers of theQuarterhj Jou7^}al of Science an idea of thistheory, though he must of course refer to the workitself for a more ample explanation of it. In accordance with Kant, Schopenhauer, andHelmholtz, the author regards the application of thelaw of causality as a function of the human intellectgiven to man d 2^^^ioii, i.e., before all experience.Tlie totality of all empirical experience is communi-cated to the intellect by the senses, i.e., by organswhich communicate to the mind all the sensualimpressions which are received at the surface of ourbodies. These impressions are a reality to us, andtheir sphere is tw^o-dimensioual, acting not in ourl)ody, but only on its surface. We have only attained the conception of a worldof objects with three dimensions by an intellectualprocess. What circumstances, we may ask, havecompelled our intellect to come to this result ? If a
  • 45. — — ON SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. 3cliild contemplate its hand, it is conscious of itsexistence in a double manner — in tlie first place by-its tangibility, in the second by its image on theretina of the eye. By repeated groping about andtouching, the child knows by experience that hishand retains the same form and extension throughall the variations of distance and positions underwhich it is observed ; notwithstanding that the formand extension of the image on the retina constantlychange with the difiereut position and distance ofthe hand in respect to the eye. The problem is thusset to the childs understanding, How to reconcileto its comprehension the apparently contradictoryfacts of the invariahleness of the object, together"with the variableness of its appearance. This is onlypossible within space of three dimensions, in which,owing to perspective distortions and changes, thesevariations of projection can be reconciled with theconstancy of the form of a body. So, likewise, in the stereoscope, the representationof the corporeality i.e., of the third dimensionsprings up in our mind when the task is pre-sented to our intellect to refer at once two differentplane pictures, without contradiction, to one singleobject. Consequently our contemplation of a three-dimen-sioned space has been developed by means of thelaw of causality, which has been implanted in us
  • 46. :4 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.d pnori, and wo have come to the idea of the thirddimeusiou in order to overcome the apparent incon-sistency of facta, of the existence of which experiencedaily convinces us. The moment wc o1)sene in three-dimensionedspace contradictory facts, i.e., facts which wouldforce us to ascribe to a body two attributes or qualitieswhich hitherto we thought could not exist together,— the moment, I say, in which we should observesuch contradictory facts in a three-dimensioned body,our reason would at once be forced to reconcilethese contradictions. There would be such a contradiction, for example,if we were to ascribe to one and the same object atonce mutability and immutability, the most universalattribute of a body being the quantity of its ponder-able matter. In conformity wuth our present experi-ence we consider this attribute as unalterable. Assoon, however, as phenomena occur which proveit to be alterable, we shall be obliged to generaliseour representation of the ideality of a body so asto bring the observed change in the quantity of itsmatter in accordance with its hitherto-imaginedunchangeableness. On page 235 of his book the author quotes thecelebrated mathematician Riemanu, who says in hiswork Concerning the Hypotheses upon ichich Geo-metry is founded —
  • 47. ON SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. 5 " The explanation of these facts can only be found by starting from the actual theories of the appearance. of all phenomena which are con- firmed by experience, and of which, as they now are, Newton has laid the foundation. Urged forward by facts, which we cannot explain through our hitherto- conceived theo- ries, we slowly remodel our conceptions. If phenomena occur which, according to our conception, were to be expected with proba- bility, our theories are confirmed, and our confidence in them is founded upon this con- firmation by experience. If, however, some- thing occurs which we do not expect, which according to our theory was improbable or impossible, the task is imposed on us to remodel our theory, in order to make the observed facts cease to be in contradiction with our improved theory. The completion of oujj, system of ideas forms the explanation of the unexpected observation. Our concep- tion of nature by this process grows slowly to be more complete and more just, at the same time it retreats more and more beneath the surface of appearances." I now proceed to apply the higher conception ofspace to the theory of twisting a perfectly flexiblecord. Let us consider such a cord to be represented
  • 48. — — TIEANSCENDENTAL a h, showing us, when stretched, a developmentof space in one dimension (a h)If the cord is bent so that during this action its partsalways remain in the same plane, a development ofspace in tivo dimensions will be required for thisoperation. The following figure may be given tothe cord : (a Sand all its parts, if conceived of infinite thinness,may be considered as lying in the same plane, i.e.,in a development of space in two dimensions. If theflexible cord, without being broken, has to be broughtback into the former figure of a straifjht line, in sucha manner that during this operation all its partsremain in the same plane, this can only be effectedby describing with one end of the cord a circleof 360°. For beings with only <i(;o-dimensional perceptionsthese operations with the cord would correspond towhat we, with our /^?e<-dimensional perception, calla knot to the cord. Now if a being, limited onaccount of its bodily organisation to the conceptionof only two dimensions of space, possessed, neverthe-less, the ability of executing by his will operationswith this cord which are only possible in the space
  • 49. —— ON SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. 7of three dimensions, such a being would be able toundo tbis two-dimensional knot in a much simplerway. Merely the turning over of part of tbe cordwould be required, so that after the operation, whenall parts again lie in the same plane, the cord wouldhave passed through the following positions : By the same operations, but in an inverted sense,such a being would be able again to form the knotwithout needing that circumstantial process, duringwhich all parts of the thread have to remain in the^^tO- dimensional space of perception. If this consideration, by way of analogy, is trans-ferred to a knot in space of three dimensions, it willeasily be seen that the tying as well as the untyingof such a knot can only be effected by operations,during which the parts of the cord describe a line ofdouble curvature, as shown by this figure We three-dimensional beings can only tie or untiesuch a knot by moving one end of the cord through360° in a plane which is inclined towards that otherplane containing the two-dimensional part of theknot. But if there were beings among us wlio wereable to produce by their will four-dimensional move-
  • 50. —8 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.mcnts of material 8u))stances, they could tie anduntie such knots in a much simpler manner by anoperation analogous to that described in relation toa two-dimensional knot. It is by no means necessary — nay, not evenj)rohahh — that such beings should have a contem-l)lative consciousness of these actions of their will.For all our conceptions in relation to the movementsof our limbs, and to those produced by their meansin other bodies, have been acquii-ed by us solely byway of experience. Having observed from childhoodthat a voluntary movement of our limbs is alwaysconnected with a corresponding change in ourvisional impressions, accompanying the action of ourwill, it is only in this way that we are now able toconnect the movements of our body or of otherobjects with a corresponding conception of suchmotion. Berkeley demonstrated this truth in the year 1 709,in his Essay Towards a new Theory of Visionand in his Principles of Human Knowledge. Inthe last-mentioned treatise he remarks, on the rela-tion of our visional perceptions to the sensations oftouch : ** So that in strict truth the ideas of sight, when we apprehend by them distance, and things placed at a distance, do not suggest or mark out to us things actually existing at a dis-
  • 51. — ; ON SPACE OP FOUR DIMENSIONS. 9 tance, but only admonish us what ideas of touch will be imprinted in our minds at such and such distance of time, and in consequence of such or such actions." —Berkeley, Prin- ciples of Human Knowledge (Frasers Edi- tion, vol. i. p. 177). Lichtenberg, in 1799, expresses himself in likemanner when he says : * To perceive something outside ourselves is a contradiction ; we perceive only within us that which we perceive is merely a modifica- tion of ourselves, therefore, tmthin us. Because these modifications are independent of our- selves, we seek their cause in other thino^s that are outside, and say there are things hegond us. We ought to say prceter nos ; but for * |37flp^er we substitute the preposition * extra, which is something quite different, i.e., we imagine these things in the space outside ourselves. This evidently is not per- ception, but it seems to be something firmly interwoven with the nature of our sensual perceptive poAvers ; it is the form under which that conception of the * jprceter nos is given to us —the form of the sensual." The want of these conceptions w^ould necessarilybe felt by us, if in some individuals, and these onlyoccasionally, the will should be capable of producing
  • 52. —lO TRANSCENDENTAL IHYSICS.}»hysical movements, for whose geomctro-mathematicaldefinition a four-dimensional Rystem of co-ordinatesis neccssar} To my knowledge Gauss was the first to direct,from the point of view of the " Geometria Situs,"his attention to the theory of the twistings of flexiblecords. In his manuscripts left behind (Gausss Werke,Vol. V. p. 605) we find the following remarks : * Of the Geometria Situs which Leibnitz foresaw, and on which to tlirow a feeble glance was allowed only to a few mathematicians (Euler and Vandermoude), we, after a lapse of 150 years, know and possess hardly more than nothing. One of the principal problems on the boundary of the Geometria Situs and the Geometria Magnitudinis will be to calculate the number of the twistings of two closed and endless cords." In my first treatise, On Action at a Distance, Ihave discussed in detail the truth, first discovered byKant, later by Gauss and the representatives of theanti-Euclidian geometry, viz., that our present con-ception of space, familiar to us by habit, has beenderived from experience, i.e., from empirical facts bymeans of the causal principle existing a priori in ourintellect. This in particular is to be said of thethree dimensions of our present conception of space.If from our childhood phenomena had been of daily
  • 53. — ON SPACE OF FOUR DIMENSIONS. IIoccurrence, requiring a space of four or more dimen-sions for an explanation which should be free fromcontradiction, i.e., conformable to reason, we shouldbe able to form a conception of space of four ormore dimensions. It follows that the real existenceof a four-dimensional space can only be decided byexperience, i.e., by observation oifacts. A great step has been made by acknowledgingthat the possibility of a four-dimensional developmentof space can be understood by our intellect, although,on account of reasons previously given, no corre-sponding image of it can be conceived by the mind.(Dass die moeglichkeit eines vierdimensionalen Raum-gebietes hegrifflich ohne Widerspruch denkhar, wennauch nicht anschaulich vorstellhar ist.) But Kant advances one step farther. From thelogically recognised possibility of the existence ofspace having more than three dimensions, he inferstheir " very probably real existence " when he verb-ally remarks : "If it is possible that there be developments of other dimensions in space, it is also very probable that God has somewhere produced them. For His works have all the grandeur and variety that can possibly be comprised." " In the foregoing I have shown that several worlds, taken in a metaphysical sense, might exist together, but, at the same time, here is
  • 54. —12 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. the condition, which, according to my belief, is the ouly one wliich makes it probable that several such worlds really exist." — (Kauta Works, vol. V. p. 25.) I may further cite the following observations ofKant : " I confess I am much inclined to assert the existence of immaterial beings in this world, and to class my soul itself in the category of these beinfrs." " We can imagine the possibility of the existence of immaterial beings without the fear of being refuted, though, at the same time, without the hope of being able to demonstrate their existence by reason. Such spiritual beings would exist in space, and the latter notwith- standing would remain 2)enetrable for material beings, because their presence would imply an acting power in space, but not a filling of it, i.e., a resistance causing solidity." " It is, therefore, as good as demonstrated, or it could easily be proved, if we were to enter into it at some length ; or, better still, it will he l^roved in the future —/ do not know where and when — that also in this life the human soul stands in an indissoluble communion loith all the immaterial beings of the spiritual ivorld; that it produces effects in them, and
  • 55. EXPERIMENTAL ILLUSTRATIONS. I 3 in exchange receives impressions from them, without, however, becoming humanly conscious of them, so long as all stands ivell." " It would be a blessing if sucb a systematic con- stitution of the spiritual world, as conceived by us, bad not merely to be inferred from the —too hypothetical —conception of the spiri- tual nature generally, but would be inferred, or at least conjectured, as probable from some real and generally acknowledged observation." — (Kants Works, vol. vii. p. 32.) I have already in the above-cited treatise discussedsome physical phenomena, which must be possiblefor such four-dimensional beings, provided that undercertain circumstances they are enabled to produceeffects in the real material world that would bevisible, i.e., conceivable to us three-dimensionalbeings. As one of these effects, I discussed at somelength the knotting of a single endless cord. If asingle cord has its ends tied together and sealed, anintelligent being, having the power voluntarily toproduce on this cord four-dimensional bendings andmovements, must be able, without loosening the seal,to tie one or more knots in this endless cord. Now, this experiment has been successfully madewithin the space of a few minutes in Leipzig, onthe J 7th of December 1877, at 11 oclock a.m., inthe presence of Mr. Henry Slade, the American.
  • 56. 14 TUANSCENDKNTAL PHYSiaS.The accompanying engraving (Plate I.) sLows tbeBtrong cord with the four knots* in it, as wellas the position of my hands, to which Mr. Sladesleft hand and that of another gentleman were joined.While the seal always remained in our sight on thetable, the unknotted cord was firmly pressed by mytwo thumbs against the tables surface, and theremainder of the cord hung down in my lap. I haddesired the tying of only one knot, yet the fourknots —minutely represented on the drawing —wereformed, after a few minutes, in the cord. The hempen cord had a thickness of about i milli-mbtre ; it was strong and new, having been boughtby myself. Its single length, before the tying ofthe knots, was about 148 centimetres; the lengththerefore of the doubled string, the ends having beeujoined, about 74 centims. The ends were tiedtogether in an ordinary knot, and then — 2)rotrudingfrom the knot by about 1.5 centims. — were laid oua piece of paper and sealed to the same with ordinarysealing-wax, so that the knot just remained visibleat the border of the seal. The pajier round the sealwas then cut off, as shown in the illustration. The above described sealing of two such strings,with my own seal, was cHucled by myself in myapartments, on the evening of December i6th, 1877, • In the enlarged drawings the knots have been represented by mis-take symmetrical ; tlicy were tied ou one side, iu accordance with thebuiull ligurc of the cord.
  • 57. Plate L
  • 58. OCCULT FORMATION OF KNOTS. 1/at 9 oclock, under the eyes of several of my friendsand colleagues, and not in the presence of Mr. Slade.Two other strings of the same quality and dimen-sions were sealed by Wilhelm Weber with his seal,and in own rooms, on the morning his of the i ytliof December, at 10.30 a.m. With these four cords Iwent to the neighbouring dwelling of one of myfriends, who had offered to Mr. Henry Slade thehospitalities of his house, so as to place him exclu-sively at my own and my friends disposition, andfor the time withdrawing him from the public. Theseance in question took place in my friends sitting-room immediately after my arrival. I myself selectedone of the four sealed cords, and, in order never to losesight of it before we sat down at the table, I hung itaround my neck—the seal in front always within mysight. During the seance, as previously stated, Iconstantly kept the seal — remaining unaltered —before me on the table. Mr. Blades hands remainedall the time in sight ; with the left he often touchedhis forehead, complaining of painful sensations. Theportion of the string hanging down rested on mylap, — out of my sight, it is true, — but Mr. Bladeshands always remained visible to me. I particularlynoticed that Mr. Blades hands were not withdrawnor changed in position. He himself appeared to beperfectly passive, so that we cannot advance theassertion of his having tied those knots by his con- B
  • 59. 81 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.scious will, l)ut only that they, under thcac detailedcircumstances, were formed in his presence withouttnsihle contact, and in a room illuminated by brightdaylight. According to the reports so far published, theabove experiment seems also to have succeeded inVienna in presence of Mr. Slade, although underless stringent conditions.^* Those of my readerswho wish for further information on other physicalphenomena which have taken place in Mr. Bladespresence, I refer to these two books. I reserve tolater publication, in my own treatises, the descriptionof further experiments obtained by me in twelveseances with Mr. Slade, and, as I am expressly author-ised to mention, in the presence of my friends and col-leagues, Professor Fechner, Professor Wilhelm Weber,the celebrated electrician from Gottingen, and HerrScheibner, Professor of Mathematics in the Uni-versity of Leipzig, who are perfectly convinced ofthe reality of the observed facts, altogether excludingimposture or prestidigitation. At the end of my first treatise, already finishedin manuscript in the course of August 1877, I calledattention to the circumstance that a certain numberof physical phenomena, which, by " synthetical con- • Mr. Sladea "Aufcnthalt in Wicn: Ein ofTenor Brief an nicincFieunde."Wien : I. C. Fificher & Co., 1878. "Dcr InilividnalisinuH iu Liclitcdcr Bi()lo;;ie und riiilosuphio dcr (acgcuwurt vou Laz;ir B. IlcUcubach."WitU : Brauuiiiller, 1876.
  • 60. — 9 OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE. 1elusions a priori," miglit be explained through thegeneralised conception of space and the platonichypothesis of projection, coincided with so-calledspiritualistic phenomena. Cautiously, however, Isaid : " To those of my readers who are inclined to see in spiritualistic phenomena an empirical con- firmation of those phenomena above deduced in regard to their theoretical possibility, I beg to observe that from the point of view of idealism there must first be given a precise definition and criticism of objective reality. Indeed, if everything perceivable is a concep- tion produced in us by unknown causes, the distinguishing characteristic of the objective reality from the subjective reality (phantasma) cannot be sought in nature, but only in accidental attributes of that process, producing conceptions. If causes unknown to us pro- duce simultaneously in several individuals the same conception, only subject to those dis- tinctions which depend upon difierences in the position of the observers, we refer such conception to a 7eal object outside of us ; tbis conception not taking place, we reler that conception to causes ivithin us, and call it hallucination. " Now, whether the spiritualistic phenomena
  • 61. ;30 TRANSCENDENTAL rHYSICS. belong to the first or to the second category of these conceptions, I do not venture to decide, so far never having witnessed such phenomena. On the other hand, I do not }), witli regard to men like Crookes, AVallace, and others, such an exalted opinion of my own intellect, as to believe that I myself, under similar conditions, should not be subject to the same impressions." (Written in August 1877.) This supposition received, four months after mywriting it down, a full confirmation by the above-mentioned experiments with the American, Mr.Henry Slade. In making them I was intent upongiving full consideration to the above-cited distinc-tion between a subjective phantasma and an objectivefact. The four knots in the above-mentioned cord,with the seal unbroken, this day still lie before meI can send this cord to any man for examination ; Imight send it by turn to all the learned societies ofthe world, so as to convince them that not a subjec-tive phantasma is here in question, but an objectiveand lasting efiect produced in the material world,which no human intelligence, with the conceptionsof space so far current, is able to explain. If, nevertheless, the foundation of this fact, deducedby me on the ground of an enlarged conception ofspace, should be denied, only one other kind of
  • 62. — SLADE AND HIS ACCUSEES. 21explanation would remain, arising from a moral modeof consideration that at present, it is true, is quitecustomary. This explanation would consist in thepresumption that I myself and the honourable menand citizens of Leipzig, in whose presence several ofthese cords were sealed, were either common impostors,or were not in possession of our sound senses sufficientto perceive if Mr. Slade himself, before the cordswere sealed, had tied them in knots. The discussion,however, of such a hypothesis would no longerbelong to the dominion of science, but would fallunder the category of social decency. Some other still more surprising experimentsprepared by me with a view to further testing thistheory of space — ^have succeeded, though Mr. Sladethought their success impossible. The sympathisingand intelligent reader will be able to understand mydelight caused thereby. Mr. Slade produced on meand on my friends the impression of his being agentleman : the sentence for imposture pronouncedagainst him in London necessarily excited our moralsympathy, for the physical facts observed by us in soastonishing a variety in his presence, negatived onevery reasonable ground the supposition that he inone solitary case had taken refuge in wilful imposture.Mr. Slade, in our eyes, therefore, was innocentlycondemned — a victim of his accusers and his judgeslimited knowledge.
  • 63. Cfjaptcr ^cconD. MAGNETIC KXrKUIMEKTS— PHT8ICAL PHENOMENA—8LATE-WRITIKO UNOEB TEST CONDITIONS.The facts tcstiBed to by Mr. Wallace and otherwell-known Englishmen, as observed by them in thepresence of Sladc, I can fully confirm on the groundof an investigation of more than eight days with thelatter in my own house. As witnesses of the pheno-mena then observed, and about to be particularlydescribed, I am expressly authorised to cite myfriends Professor Fechner, Professor Wilhelm Weber,and Professor W. Scheibner. On the 15th November 1877, at five oclock in theafternoon, Slade came to Leipzig for the first time,and took a room in the Palmtree Hotel (Pahnhaiim),which had been ordered for him by two of my friends,at whose invitation he had come here from Berlin.AlthouGfli I was not a stranorer to the literature ofSpmtualism, I had hitherto declined to occupy myselfpersonally with its asserted phenomena, because, inthe first place, I was quite satisfied to leave these forthe present in the hands of two such excellent andunprejudiced observers as Crookes and Wallace ; and,
  • 64. — SLADes first visit to LEIPZIG. 23secondly, because my time was abeady fully occupiedwitli my physical researches. Still, I had no reasonfor refusing the request of my friends to use so con-venient an opportunity as the present, and at least tohave a look at Slade. I therefore accompanied mytwo friends on a visit to him on the evening of hisarrival, without the least intention, however, of takingpart in a sitting, or even of arranging one. Slade came alone to Leipzig. He had left hisniece (the daughter of his deceased wifes sister) aswell as his secretary, Mr. Simmons, and his daughterwhich three persons accompanied him on his travelsin Berlin, at the Hotel Kronprinz ; these personsare, therefore, wholly unknown to me. The personal impression which Slade made uponme was a favourable one. His demeanour was modestand reserved, and his conversation (he spoke onlyEnglish) was quiet and discreet. The conversationsoon turned upon Laukester s accusation, and hismanner and language indicated moral indignationat the proceedings against him in England. Tochange the subject, I asked him whether he had evertried to influence a magnetic needle, for I rememberedthat Professor Fechner had observed a similar pheno-menon with Erdmann, late professor of chemistryat the Leipzig University, in the presence of a certainMadame Euf, a sensitive whom Reichenbach had in-troduced to those gentlemen.
  • 65. 24 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. To give my readers here tbc interesting result of tliat investigation, the following is quoted from Fecli- ners small pamphlet, " Recollections of the Last Days of the Science of Od and its Authors," which appeared two years ago (Leipzig, Breitkopf k Iliirtcl, 1876), under the heading, " Exjieriments with Madame Ruf." Fechner^s Magnetic Experiments with a Sensitive. " Saturday, 4tli July i S67. — Early to-day Herrvon Breichenbach surprised me with a visit. To myrepeated refusal by letter to join in his experiments,after I had been unable to obtain a commission frommy colleagues to examine the same, and the experi-ment with the pendulum had come to nothing, hehad replied that he would come notwithstanding,and would even bring with him a sensitive to showme the experiments, without claiming from me apublic judgment upon them, naturally presuming thatI would not avoid giving it if called upon by him forit, supposing only that I had first convinced myself. " I received him very coldly, explained to him againthat I had desired to abstain from a participation inhis experiments, of which nothing would come evenfor himself : but as he was there, I went with him tohis hotel, where he introduced to me his sensitive, alarge but rather lean w^oman, between forty and fiftyyears old, who might once have been handsome ; and
  • 66. PROFESSOR FECHNERS EXPERIMENTS. 25I saw a table on which he had laid out all possiblepreparations —magnets, sulphur and metals melteddown in pipes, a raw and a boiled egg, and so forth,as far as I knew. " The sensitive explained that she was not quite well,and her sensibility was not very highly developedthis day. "An experiment which Eeichenbach himself con-ducted, while I was with him at the hotel, surprisedme, and I did not know what to make of it. Acommon box-compass, with a needle some incheslong, under glass, was placed on the table. He causedthe sensitiAe to move a finger to and fro before oneof the poles (not over the glass, but in front of thecase), and thereby the needle began to oscillate, asif an iron or magnetic rod had been similarlypassed before the same pole. These oscillations werenot inconsiderable, and the experiment succeeded witheach repetition, even when Eeichenbach was in otherparts of the room, and also when the finger alter-nately approached and removed from the pole. Tryingthe experiment in like manner, myself, the needleremained quite motionless. Eeichenbach said thephenomenon was weak that day ; at times thesensitive had drawn the magnetic needle completelyround. I examined the finger in its extent and underthe nails as closely as possible, caused the arm to bebared to above the elbow, in order to discover any iron
  • 67. 26 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.(•r puncture through which neetUcs could be passedunder the skin ; in vain. However, I reserved my-self for re-examinatiou of this experiment. "July 13th. — Since the hist experiments, the sensi-tive had fallen into such a condition of insensibility,that Reichenbach, as he wrote me, could stick needlesdown to the blood in her limbs without her feelinganything. Early to-day he came to me, and said hissensitive was not sufficiently recovered for a repeti-tion of the experiments with the horse-shoe, bar-magnet, or pendulum ; but the deviation of themaf]fnetic-ueedle, which had ceased durinfj her stateof insensibility, again succeeded ; and he begged meto satisfy myself of it immediately, as he was notsure of the continuance of the existing conditions.So I went with him. The magnetic experiments, towhich I confined myself, were so successful, that myunderstanding, so to speak, was in suspense, notwith-standing I endeavoured to exclude all possible meansof deception. " In the foregoing experiments, the sensitive hadsat in front of the magnetic needle ; this time I madeher sit at the side. If the sensitive had had a macfnetunder her clothes, a suspicion which could be enter-tained and was all the more to be reckoned with,as it had been very seriously suggested from highlyrespectable quarters, this would have establishedquite different conditions of motion of the needle
  • 68. PROFESSOK FECHNERS EXPERIMENTS. 27 from the former, and rendered generally impossible the regular phenomena which I observed ; and evenwithout the pointing of the finger must of itselfhave produced irregularities in the motion of theneedle, — nothing of which happened. Such a sus-picion after this could not be maintained. I through-out examined whether the motion of the magneticneedle indicated attraction or repulsion, and it gene-rally appeared that whatever part of the left or righthand or of the arm was applied, the south pole ofthe needle was repelled, the north pole was attracted ;notwithstanding Reichenbach, who appears to haveinstituted the experiment with the magnetic influ-ence quite superficially, to my question, whether thepolar characteristics were distributed to the right andleft respectively, so that the one attracted what theother repelled, equilibrium resulting from their jointaction, had replied that would indisputably so ap-pear ; whereas, in fact, right and left were quite alikein this respect, only the left seemed to act morestrongly than the right. A proof, at any rate, thatReichenbach himself had nothing to do with anytrick ; the phenomenon contradicting his theory, andhe being unable to give any definite explanation ofit. Reichenbach stood throughout so quietly and atsuch a distance that there was nothing to guardagainst from him ; and as to the sensitive, I neverremarked a motion of the body to support the
  • 69. 38 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Buspicion that she had a magnet under licr clothes,by the motion of which tlie results were broughtabout. ^Moreover, I frequently made her try theexperiment only with the finger, expressly biddingher keep her whole body at the same time as quietas possible ; nor could I, with the closest attention,perceive that she disobeyed me. "After all, one cannot suppose that the woman hadstuck needles under the skin in all her fingers, andup to the elbow ; and, moreover, only magneticneedles, and these everywhere with a like directionof the pole. Again, as to the suspicion that she con-trived the magnetic phenomena of the needle by themotion of a magnet under the clothes, that is entirelyexcluded, for the reason that the incrciise or disturb-ance of the oscillations of the needle, according tothe approximation or removal of the finger (with thejirinciple of which act the sensitive was unac-quainted, Reichenbach himself not knowing the rightapplication), were exactly such as they must havebeen supposing a magnetic property in the finger ; aresult which could not have been produced by art,even if the sensitive had known the principle. "July 14th. — At eleven oclock this morning Irepeated the experiment with the magnetic needle,in company with Professor Erdmann, whom I hadin the meanwhile been able to induce to take part init. It resulted as before, and Professor Erdmann
  • 70. ; PROFESSOR FECHNERS EXPERIMENTS. 29was impressed as well as myself. Any means ofdeception could be discovered to-day as little as onformer occasions. I had before asked the sensitivewhether she had not iron about her, and she had saidshe had not, but neither she nor I had then thoughtof her crinoline ; to-day, however, she mentioned ofher own accord that the experiment succeeded justas well without the crinoline as with it, and offered,as she then had it on, to take it off, which she didin the room. And in fact, the experiment was ascompletely successful as before. Moreover, it will atonce be seen that the earlier-described results, evenif possibly influenced by the crinoline, would muchrather have been disturbed in their regularity thaninduced by it. In addition, Reichenbach declaredthat he was ready to let the experiment be under-taken by ladies whom we might appoint, the sensitivebeing wholly divested of her clothes. ^Postscript. —The following day the woman becameso ill that Reichenbach was obliged to send her backand even later on, she was not fit for the experi-ments. At her second visit here I recommended her,if the magnetic power returned to her, to introduceherself to some physicist or physiologist by profession,for the purpose of experimentation, and she mightthus become a celebrated person ; but I have heardnothing more of her. " Yet are the magnetic results obtained with Madame
  • 71. 30 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Ruf generally so novel (unenoartct), that with regardto the hitherto proved impossibility of reproducingthem witli others, every doubt of their genuinecharacter must bo permitted. Was there actuallyno deception in tlicni ? That Reichenbach himselfwas incapalile of wilful deception every one willadmit, wlio from personal intercourse with him, orfrom reading his writings, knows that he was muchtoo possessed with the reality of the fads adducedby him to hold it necessary to resort to any artificesin support of their credibility ; and that even thesensitive herself was not intentionally deceiving,may be inferred from the fact that she throughoutpresented herself only as a passive instrument ofReichenbach in the experiments, and manifestedrather a passive than an active interest in them, asappears from the above accounts. But even shouldthe intention to deceive be presupposed either in himor her, I am absolutely at a loss how such deceptioncould have held out against the altered conditions ofthe experiments, as I have described them. Couldthe experiments have been continued, doubtless yetother means of control would have been instituted ;hut at least, for my own 2^art, I confess myself con-vinced already by that which I have been able tocommunicate hereupon. It may be thought an hal-lucination on my part, and indeed I asked myselfrepeatedly whether I saw rightly ; but Professor
  • 72. 1 PROPOSED EXPERIMENTS WITH SLADE. 3Eidmann, whom uDfortunately, since his departure, Ican no longer call as a witness, must have shared itlikewise." The above fact, established by two well-knownreliable witnesses (Professor Fechner and ProfessorErdmann), of an influence exercised by a humanbeing upon a magnetic needle, is so remarkable, andstands so wholly outside our ordinary experience,that it must be a matter of the highest interest toevery true investigator of nature to be able to con-firm and repeat this fact with another individual. Itherefore put the question to Mr. Slade, whetherhe experienced anything similar in himself. Sladeanswered me that last Sunday ( 11 th November1877) he had been examined as to this peculiarity bya Berlin professor (whose name he did not remem-ber), and on that occasion, the power which he didnot know himself to possess, of diverting a magneticneedle and putting it in lively oscillation, had mani-fested itself. This account first awakened in me thedesire to experiment with Mr. Slade in like manneras Fechner had done ten years before with the above-mentioned Madame Euf. As I was expecting Fechner and Wilhelm "Weberon the following evening (Friday, 1 6th November) ata small party of friends who assembled every week atmy house, I invited Mr. Slade to come and take acup of tea with us. I explained to him that we
  • 73. 32 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.sliould 1)C quite satisfied if lie could produce nothingbut the divergence of a magnetic needle under condi-tions which would preclude all notion of suspicioneven for the most distant bystanders. Slade acceptedmy invitation, and was even ready to come at onceto my house in company with one of my friends. Iwished to make sure of the experiment that evening,in order to guarantee its success the following dayin the presence of my friends. This intention I, ofcourse, did not intimate to Slade. Arrived at my dwelling, my friend asked whetherI had a compass at hand. I brought a celestialglobe in the stand of which a compass was fixed, andplaced it on the table. At our request Slade movedhis hand horizontally across the closely-fitted glasscover of the magnet case. The needle remainedimmovable, and I concluded from this that Slade hadno magnet concealed beneath his skin. On a secondtrial, which was made immediately afterwards, in themanner stated, the needle was violently agitated in away which could only be the result of strong mag-netic power. This observation decided my position towards Mr.Slade. I had here to do with a fact which confirmedthe observations of Fechuer, and was, therefore, worthyof further investigation. The next evening (Friday, November i6th, 1877)I placed a card-table, with four chairs, in a room
  • 74. PHYSICAL MANIFESTATIONS. 33wliicli Slade had not yet entered. After Fecbner,Professor Braune, Slade, and myself were seated, andhad placed our interlinked hands upon the table,there were raps on the table. Two hours previouslyI had bought a slate and marked it ; on this the writ-ing began in the usual manner. My pocket-knife,which I had lent to Slade to cut off a fragment ofpencil, was laid upon the slate, and while Slade wasplacing the slate partially under the flap of the table,the knife was suddenly projected to the height of onefoot, and then thrown down upon the table, but, toour extreme surprise, was open. The experimentwas several times repeated with like result, and forproof that the knife was not projected by any move-ment of the slate, Slade laid at the same time as theknife a bit of slate-pencil on the slate, and, to fix itsposition, made a small cross on the place. Imme-diately after the knife had been projected, Sladeshowed us the slate, on which the bit of pencilremained unmoved near the mark. The double slate, after being well cleaned and apiece of pencil placed in it, was then held bySlade over the head of Professor Braune. Thescratching was soon heard, and when the slate wasopened, a long piece of writing was found upon it. While this was going on, a bed which stood in theroom behind a screen suddenly moved about two feetfroin the wall, pushing the screen outwards. Slade
  • 75. 34 TRAKSCEXDENTAL PHYSICS.waa more than four feet distant from the bed, had liisback turned towards it, and liis legs crossed, alwaysvisible, and towards the side away from the bed. Ithen returned the bed to its original place. A second sitting took place immediately withProfessor Weber, Scheibner, and myself. Whileexperiments similar to those first described werebeing successfully made, a violent crack was sud-denly heard, as in the discharging of a large batteryof Leydeu jars. On turning, with some alarm, in thedirection of the sound, the before-mentioned screenfell apart in two pieces. The strong wooden screws,half an inch thick, were torn from above and below,without any visible contact of Slade with the screen.The parts broken were at least five feet removedfrom Slade, who had his back to the screen ; buteven if he had intended to tear it down by a cleverly-devised sideward motion, it would have been neces-sary to fasten it on the opposite side. As it was, thescreen stood quite unattached, and the grain of thewood being parallel to tlie axis of the cylindricalwooden fastenings, the wrenching asunder could onlybe accomplished by a force acting longitudinally tothe part in question. We were all astonished at thisunexpected and violent manifestation of mechanicalforce, and asked Slade what it all meant ; but heonly shrugged his shoulders, saying that such pheno-mena occasionally, though somewhat rarely, occurred
  • 76. A SPIRIT APOLOGY. 35in his presence. As lie spoke, he placed, while stillstanding, a piece of slate-pencil on the polished sur-face of the table, laid over it a slate, purchased andjust cleaned by myself, and pressed the five spreadfingers of his right hand on the upper surface of theslate, while his left hand rested on the centre of thetable. AVritino^ bec^an on the inner surface of theslate, and when Slade turned it up, the followingsentence was written in English : " It was not ourintention to do harm ; forgive what has happened."We were the more surprised at the production of thewriting under these circumstances, for we particu-larly observed that both Slades hands remained quitemotionless while the writing was going on. The above-mentioned phenomena, which we wit-nessed at our first meeting with Slade, appeared tome and my friends so extraordinary, and so much atvariance with all our former conceptions, that WilliamWeber and myself resolved to give some of our col-leagues the opportunity of testifying to them. Wetherefore went the next day to Professor C. Ludwigand informed him of the facts. The interest which hetook in the subject encouraged me to invite two otherfriends to come to my house the next day (Sunday,November 1 8th), to judge for themselves in the presenceof Slade. I proposed my colleagues, Herr GeheimrathThiersch, surgeon, and Herr Wundt, Professor of Philo-sophy, in which choice Herr Ludwig fully concurred.
  • 77. —36 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. On Sunday, the iSth November, at three oclockin tlic afternoon, these three gentlemen met at myhouse. I liad purchased the previous day a iieiuwalnut-wood card-table from a cabinetmaker in thistown, named J. G. Rittcr, and liad put it in theplace of the table used at the former sitting. Theslates, single and folding, which we placed at Bladesdisjiosal were bought by myself and my friends, andwere marked by us. There were present at thestance only Ilerr Geheimrath Thiersch, C. Ludwig,and Professor Wuudt : after half an hours sitting,they left the room. Of the phenomena observed bythem I will only mention that related to me by HerrThiersch, viz., a successful experiment similar to myown with my pocket-knife, and, in addition, thatbetween the folds of a double slate, which Slade heldin his rijrlit hand over the table in view of all, threesentences were written in the English, French, andGerman languages, each one in an entirely diflferenthandwriting. The slate remains in my possession,and affords opportunity for investigation with regardto the question of previous preparation. It is to be understood that the present relation offacts in no way presupposes a judgment in the mindsof my colleagues as regards the causes of the pheno-mena. I perfectly agree with the Imperial Court con-juror, Herr Bellachini, whose testimony concerningSlade begins with the following words :
  • 78. FURTHER PHENOMENA. 37 " I hereby declare it to be a rash act to form anyconclusion with regard to the objective mediumisticperformances of the American, Mr. Henry Slade, evenwith the minutest observation, after one sittingonly." [See Appendix B.] Slade returned the same afternoon, about sixoclock, to Berlin. All that had been observed inhis presence apj)eared to me and my friends to be ofso interesting a nature, and so entirely worthy offurther investigation, that we thankfully and will-ingly accepted the offer of my friend, Mr. Oscar vonHoffmann, to invite Slade to spend a longer time inLeipsic as his guest, that he might be thus with-drawn from all publicity, and placed entirely at ourdisposal for the purposes of scientific research. Inconsequence of this invitation, Slade came a secondtime alone to Leipsic, on Monday, loth December1877, and took up his appointed quarters in thehouse of my friend. Next morning (Tuesday, nth December) at half-past eleven Slade came to my house. This was highand detached, and I had placed the above-mentionedcard-table in a corner-room which had four largewindows, three to the south, and one to the west.Professor W. Weber, Professor Scheibner, Slade, andI, seated ourselves forthwith at the card-table, whichwas quite detached, and placed in the middle of theroom. "Weber was opposite to me, Scheibner at the
  • 79. 3o TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.left, Sladc at the right. "Wliilc our eight hands wereupon tlie tabic, in contact, and Blades feet, crossedsideways, were continually observed by tlie sitter atthe side next liim, a large hand-bell which had beeni>ut under the table suddenly benran to rins:, and wasthen violently projected before all our eyes aboutten feet distance horizontally upon the floor. Aftera short pause, in which phenomena similar to thosealready described took place, a small note-table, fixedto a door-post by a movable iron support, begansuddenly to move, and so violently, that a chairstanding in front of it was thrown down with a greatnoise. These objects were behind Slade, and at leastfive feet from him. At the same time, and at thelike distance, a book-case, loaded with many books,was violently agitated. A small paper thermometer-case was laid on the slate, which Slade held halfunder the edge of the table. This disappeared, sothat Slade could show the slate empty ; after aboutthree minutes it came again into view upon the slate.Both here, and in the following account, I take nonotice of the continually repeated writing betweenthe slates. On the same day, the same persons assembled inthe same room for a second sitting. W. Weberplaced on the table a compass, enclosed in glass, theneedle of which we could all observe very distinctlyby the bright candlelight, while we had our hands
  • 80. EXPERIMENTS WITH A COMPASS. 2)9joined with those of Slade (which were both visible,and over a foot distant from the compass). After aboutfive minutes the needle began to swing violently inarcs of from 40° to 60°, till at length it several timesturned completely round. Slade now got up, andAvent from the table to the window ; he hoped thatthe movements of the needle (which were especiallyremarkable by reason of the frequent sudden revolu-tions and the resting points) would be continued inhis absence : this, however, did not happen. Butwhen, standing, he again put his right hand withours (always joined to his) in motion (Slades hand,however, remaining at least a foot and a half fromthe compass), the peculiar agitations of the needlesuddenly recommenced, and were finally changedinto rotations. In order to repeat some observations with an accor-dion, in the presence of Home (which were made andpublished by Crookes and Huggins), besides the above-mentioned large hand-bell, an accordion had beenbrought by one of my friends. The bell was placedunder the table, as in the morning, and Sladegrasped the keyless end of the accordion (which hehad never had in his hands before, but saw now forthe first time) above, so that the side with keys hungdown free. "While Slades left hand lay on the table,and his right, holding the upper part of the accordionabove the table, was visible to us all, the accordion
  • 81. 40 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.began sudclouly to pluy, and at the same time thebell on tlie floor to ring violently. The latter couldthus not be touching the floor with its edges duringthe ringing. ITorcupon Slade gave the accordion toProfessor Scheibner, and re(juested him to hold it in themanner above described, as it might possibly happenthat the accordion would play in his hand also, with-out Slade touching it at all. Scarcely had Scheibnerthe accordion in his hand, than it began to play atune exactly in the same way, while the bell underthe table again rang violently. Slades hands mean-while rested quietly on the table, and his feet, turnedsideways, could be continually observed during thisproceeding. Encouraged by tlie success of this exactly-des-cribed experiment, Slade renewed the repeatedattempt, hitherto in vain, to obtain writing on aslate held by another, and not touched at all byhimself. He therefore handed to Professor Scheibnerone of the slates purchased by myself and kept inreadiness, requesting him to hold it at first with hisleft hand under the table, while Slade held it firmlyat the edge with his rifjht hand : Scheibner couldthus always judge from a pull or pressure whetherSlade was holding the slate close under the table.Scheibners right hand and Slades left rested mean-while on the table. After waiting vainly for a shorttime, Slade remarked that he felt a damj) body
  • 82. 1 APPARITION OF A HAND. 4touching the hand that held the slate, and at thesame time Professor Scheibner also testified to thesame sensation, which he likened to the touch of apiece of damp felt-cloth. Scheibner then withdrewthe slate, which in fact was freely moistened on theupper side, both in the centre and at the edges fora breadth of from two to three inches, as were alsothe hands, both of Scheibner and Slade, which hadheld the slate. While we were conjecturing in what conceivablemanner this moistening could have happened, and allour hands were on the table, there appeared suddenlya small reddish-brown hand at the edge of the table,close in front of W. Weber, and visible to us all,which moved itself vivaciously and disappeared aftertwo seconds. This phenomenon was several timesrepeated. In order, conclusively, to establish the elevationabove the floor of one body sounding against another,I had suspended a steel-ball, of about three-quarters ofan inch diameter, by a silk thread inside a cylindricalglass-bell of one foot in height and one-half foot dia-meter. The bell so formed was placed under the tableinstead of the other bell, and very soon there began alively tinkling with unmuffled tones as the steel-ballstruck against the glass side. As Slades hands wereon the table, and his feet were observed ; and even incase of an application by the latter, the tone of the bell
  • 83. 42 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.would have been afTected by the contact of anotherbody ; this phenomenon couhl only be broughtabout by an elevation of the bell to freedom fromcontact. On the next day, tlic 13th December 1877, Sladeproposed to us himself that we should make adirect observation of the movement of the saidbell under the table, and thereby make sure that thismovement happened without any contact on hispart. With this view we sat at a distance of aboutfour feet from the table ; by means of candles suit-ably placed we could conveniently observe everythingwhich happened under the table. The glass-bell wasnow jilaced under the table, and indeed towards theside facing us, about in the line between the twofeet of the table which were nearest us. Slade sat onthe opposite side, and had his feet, visible to us all,drawn back under his chair, so that they were aboutthree feet from the bell. After a short time the bell,without any touching on Slades part, began movingviolently, rolling about in an oblique position uponthe lower glass edge, the steel ball thereby grindingagainst the glass side. On this ev^ening occurred writing between a doubleslate, bound cross-wise by a tight knot, and laid ona corner of the table, and which 7io one touched.This result may be compared with that obtained atSSt. Petersburg, recorded in an English journal, The
  • 84. — — SLADE AND THE GRAND DUKE CONSTANTINE. 43Spimtualist of March ist, 1878, which contains thefollowing paragraphs under the title, "Dr. BladesSeances with the Grand Duke Constantine : " " On Wednesday last week, Dr. Slade, accompaniedby M. Alexandre Aksakow and Professor Boutlerof,gave a seance to the Grand Duke Constantine. TheDuke gave them a cordial reception, and after a fewminutes conversation, the manifestations began withgreat power. The Duke held a new slate, alone, andobtained independent writing upon it. "The Grand Duke Constantine has before thisshown his appreciation of new branches of science.AVhen Lieutenant Maury was obliged to flee from theUnited States during the late civil war, the Dukerecognised the —then scarcely appreciated —value ofhis researches on the physical geography of the seaand oceanic currents, so oflered him a home and awelcome in Russia. " Dr. Slade is fully engaged in St. Petersburg, andsometimes obtains messages in the Russian language.At one of his sittings last week he obtained writingin six languages upon a single slate." The above fact is additionally confirmed by thefollowing public testimony by M. Aksakow, ImperialPrivy Councillor : " I can, as a witness, testify that the writing wasproduced upon a slate which the Grand Duke aloneheld under and close to the table, while Slades hands
  • 85. —44 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.were on the tabic and did not touch the slate. Sladehas since had the honour of being invited to twostances by the Grand Duke. Aksakow." The above ex[)criment, described as succeedingwith the Grand Duke Constantine, was never success-ful in my sittings, altiiough Mr. Slade with thisobject has repeatedly given the slate to be heldalone by Professor W. Weber and Professor Scheib-uer. On the other hand, tliat of the evening inquestion (ijtli December 1877) which succeededwith AV. Weber and me was yet more remarkable.Two slates were bought by myself, marked, and care-fully cleaned. They were then —a splinter of aboutthree millimbtrcs thickness from a new slate-pencilhaving first been put between them —bound tightlytogether, cross-wise, with a string four millim5tresthick. They were laid on, and close, to the corner of acard-table of walnut wood which I had shortly beforepurchased myself. While, now, W. Weber, Slade,and I sat at the table, and were busied with magneticexperiments, during which our six hands lay on thetable, those of Slade being two feet from the slate,very loud writing began suddenly between theuntouched slates. When we separated them, therewas upon one of them the following words, in ninelines, ** We feel to bless all those that try (?) to in-vestigate a subject so unpopular as the subject ofSpiritualism is at the present. But it will not
  • 86. TEST EXPERIMENT IN SLATE- WRITING. 45always be so unpopular ; it will take its place amongthe . . . (?) of all classes and kinds." The slate hadthe mark (H.2) previously placed by me upon it.There can be no talk here of a trick or of antecedentpreparations. In addition, the large hand-bell which was laid onthe floor at the side of the table opposite to me, wasplaced quietly and slowly in my left hand, which Iheld close under the table ; during this proceedingalso, Slades hands were both visible, and his feetwere under our control. Finally, Mr. Slade himselfproposed an experiment which should serve as proofthat the slates were not previously prepared and thewriting already present on them, invisibly, beforethe apparent production of it. He took as usual theslate which came to hand, laid a bit of slate-pencil ofthe size of a pea upon it, and asked me, while he pushedthe slate half under the edge of the table (so that hishand could be continually observed), what should bewritten upon it. I said " Littrow, Astronomer." Theusual scribbling began immediately, and when Sladedrew out the slate, the two above words were per-fectly distinct upon it, with the letters widely apart.If Slade did not write the words himself (at thetime), which from the position of his hand and ofthe letters upon the slate w^as impossible, so likewisecould these words certainly not have been producedby means of a previous preparation of the slate, since
  • 87. —46 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.the words themselves had occurred to me f|uitcsuddenly for the first time. Friday, 14th December 1877 (i to 11.40 a.m.).To-day, first one of the slates kept always in readi-ness, which I myself selected and cleaned, was laidopen with a bit of slate-pencil upon the floor underthe taljle. Now, while Slade had both his handslinked with ours upon the table, and his legs, turned.sideways, were continually visible, writing, loudlyperceptible by us all, began on the slate lying be-low. "When we raised it, there were on it the words"Truth will overcome all error 1" Next, two magneticneedles, a larger and a smaller one, both completelyenclosed in glass cases, were placed close in front ofAV. AVeber. Our hands were linked upon tlie tablewith those of Slade in the usual manner, and wereat least one foot from the magnetic needle. Suddenlythe small needle began to oscillate violently, till it gotinto constant rotation, while the larger one showedonly slight agitations, which appeared to proceed froma shaking of the table. Since here, forces were mani-festly at work (no matter what their origin) which wereable to act upon the magnetism of bodies, I suggestedto Slade the attempt, permanently to magnetise an un-magnetic stecl-ncedle. Slade hesitated at first, andseemed to think our success doubtful. However, hewas at once ready to consent to the proposition. Ifetched a large number of steel knitting-needles, and
  • 88. MAGNETIC EXPERIMENT. 47W.Weber and I chose from them one which,immed{atelybefore the experiment (on the table at which we sat),was ascertained by means of the compass to be whollyimmagnetised, inasmuch as both poles were attracted.Slade laid this needle upon a slate, held the latterunder the table just in the same way as for writing,and after about four minutes, when the slate withthe knitting-needle was laid again upon the table,the needle was so strongly magnetised at one end(and only at one end) that iron shavings and sewing-needles stuck to this end ; the needle of the compasscould be easily drawn round in a circle. The origin-ated pole was a south pole, inasmuch as the northpole of the (compass) needle was attracted, the southpole repelled. The needle is still in my possession,and can at any time be tested.
  • 89. ( 48 ) Cljaptcr CfjtrD.PXRUAKSyT IMPRESaiONS OBTAINKD Of HAKD9 AND FEET— PE0PO8KD CHEmCAL EXPEHrMKNT— HLADES ABNUKUAL VISION— 11IPUESSI0N8 IN A GLOBED SPACE — KNCLOaSD bPACK OF THKKS DIUKNSIONH OPKN TO POUB-IUUEMblONAL BEINGS.As almost regularly at all the sittings (while Sladeshands rested on the table, visible to all present,and his feet, in the sideways position frequentlymentioned, could be at any time observed) we feltthe touch of hands under the table, and, as aboveremarked, had even seen these transiently under thesame conditions, I desired to institute an experimentby which a convincing proof of the existence ofthese hands could be afforded. I therefore proposedto Mr. Slade to have placed under the table a flatporcelain vase filled up to the edge with wheat "flour, and that he should then request his " spiritsto put their hands in the flour before touching us.In this manner the visible traces of the touchingmust be shown on our clothes after the contact, andat the same time Slades hands and feet could beexamined for remains of flour adhering to them.Slade declared himself ready at once for the proposedtest. I fetched a large porcelain bowl of about one
  • 90. A TEST WITH FLOUE. 49foot diameter and two inclies deep, filled it evenlyto the brim with flour, and placed it under the table.We did not trouble ourselves at first about theeventual success of this experiment, but continuedfor over five minutes the magnetic experiments,Slades hands being all the time visible upon thetable ; when suddenly I felt my right knee power-fully grasped and pressed by a large hand under thetable for about a second, and at the same moment, asI mentioned this to the others and was about to getup, the bowl of meal was p-^shed fo-rward from itsplace under the table about fcur feet on the floor.Upon my trousers I had the impression in meal of alarge strong hand, and on the^ meal-surface of thebowl were indented the thumb, and four fingers withall the niceties of structwe and folds of the skinimpressed. An immediate examination of Sladeshands and feet showed not the slightest traces offlour, and the comparison of his own hand with theimpression on the meal proved the latter to be con-siderably larger. The impression is still in mypossession, although through frequent shakings thedelicacy of the lines is becoming gradually obliteratedby the falling together of the particles of meal. Slade was highly pleased at the success of themagnetic experiments, particularly the magnetisingof the knitting-needle, an attempt which we oftcurepeated on the following day with always the like D
  • 91. 50 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.result. He expressed in warm terms his liappineps,that lie had, for the first time, succeeded in interestingmen of sincere inclination to truth for his peculiarendowments, in such a degree that they had resolvedto institute scientific experiments with him. I was now sufticiently encouraged, gradually toset on foot those experiment.s which I had preparedfrom the stand-poiut of my theory of a space of fourdimensions. Since the magnetic experiments hadproved that under the influences which invisiblysurrounded Slade, the molecular currents, present inthe interior of all bodies, could be turned, that is,altered in their position (whereon, according toAmperes and Webers theory, the magnetising ofbodies principally depends), I entertained the hopethat an experiment indicated in the first volume ofmy Scientific Treatises would succeed ; viz., the con-version, by a four-dimensional diversion of mole-cules of tartaric acid, which diverts the plane ofpolarised light to the right, into racemic acid, whichdiverts it to the left. To this end I had kept inreadiness one of JMitchells simple polarising saccharo-meters, the tube of which contained a concentratedsolution of tartaric acid. The diversion of the planeof polarisation amounted to about 5°. I intendedthat the glass tul)e (200 millimetres long and 15 outerdiameter), filled with the solution, should be laid onthe slate, the latter being held by Slade under the
  • 92. ABNORMAL VISION. 5 Itable, as in the case of the knitting-needles wbich wereto be magnetised ; in the expectation that after theexperiment I should see the tartaric acid changed intoracemic acid. Wishing first to explain to Mr. Sladethe meaning of the experiment, I began by pointingout to him in the apparatus itself, after removing thetube, the optical effect of two crossed Nicols prisms.I desired him, while sitting in his chair, to fix his eyeon the front prism, and then to look with the apparatusat the clear sky (the experiment took place at my houseat II. 45 in the morning of the 14th December 1877),while I slowly turned the front Nicol. I now askedSlade, when the two prisms were about crossed, if heobserved the gradual darkening of the field of view.To my great surprise, he said he did not. I supposedhim to be deceived by the side light, and thereforedisposed the two prisms from the front at right angles,so that neither I nor my friends could see through atall. Slade still asserted that he did not perceive theleast change in the clearness of the sky ; and as proofhe read an English writing, placed before the twocrossed Nicols, covering his left eye, as we saw, withhis left hand. I was not, however, contented withthis proof of the fact. Next morning, when we wereagain assembled at my house, I had two very large Nicols prisms (for the production of a greater field of view) fixed to turn closely one over the other, and a large circular screen, which completely covered the
  • 93. 52 TIlANSCENDENTAL PnYSTCS.BJ^Wit of tlje observer, so placed in connection witli tlieprisms, that external objects could only be perceivedthrough tlio two Nicols prisms. I then took anEnglish book, Tyndalls Faraday as a Discoverer,and in Sladcs absence markod by interlineations thefollowing words on page 8i : — "The burst of poweruhich had filled the four preceding years with anamount of experimental work unparalleled in thehistory of Science." "When I again made Slade lookthrough the two crossed Nicols at the sky, andhe declared, as on the day before, that he did notremark the least change in the clearness of the skywhen the prisms were turned, I requested him tosit on a chair, and to read to me the underlinedwords from the book, held at a distance of about twofeet from his sight. To the great astonishment ofus all, he immediately read the above w^ords withperfect accuracy. When, about ten minutes later, Iheld the two prisms crossed again before Slades eye,he was no longer able to sec, and the experimentwas not more successful in the evening of the sameday by candlelight. He informed me that in themorning, soon after the experiment in question, hehad perceived "an influence," to which he ascribedthe change of his condition. In connection with whatlias been quoted above, from Professor Fechner, wuthreference to the change in the magnetic condition ofa sensitive, this alteration in Slades oj^tical powera
  • 94. FALL OF OBJECTS. 53may afford an interesting confirmation of tlie transitorycharacter of such anomalous organic functions. Theoriginally intended experiment with the tartaric acidwas discontinued in consequence of the above extra-ordinary observations. I purposed to carry it out at afuture investigation of Slades peculiarities. On Saturday, the 15th December 1877, at eleven inthe morning we assembled again at my house. Whilewe were taking a small breakfast, standing in mywork-room, and I was talking to Slade near my book-case, some twenty feet from the stove, about the ex-periment with the crossed Nicols prisms (which Sladedesignated a "clairvoyant experiment"), there fellsuddenly from the ceiling of the room a piece of coalthe size of a fist. A similar incident happened half-an-hour later, when my colleague Scheibner, in con-versation with Slade, was on the point of leaving thesitting-room ; a piece of wood, instead of coal, fallingsuddenly from the ceiling. On the morning of theI ith December w^hen we stood talking, after the sitting,and I was standing near Slade, we suddenly saw mypocket-knife, fortunately shut, fly through the air, andstrike the forehead of my friend Scheibner with someforce, the scar remaining visible on the following day.Since at the time of the incident I was conversingwith Slade, and the latter had his back turned to myfriend at a distance of about ten feet, Mr. Slade, atany rate, could not have thrown the knife at my
  • 95. 54 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.friends head. I only cito this incident because itappears to me to Ixjlong to the same class as tlieabove-mentioned facts. Those experiments seem to me far more important,liowever, in which permanent impressions of contactwere left behind, as was tlie case with the impressionof tlie hand in the bowl of flour. With this view I stuck half a sheet of common letter-paper upon a somewhat larger board of wood ; it wasthe cover of a wooden box, in wliich Herr Merz hadsent me some large prisms for spectroscopic purposesfrom Munich four days before. By moving the paperover a petroleum lamp without a cylinder it was spreadall ov( r with soot (lamp black), and then placed und«^rthe t;ible at which W. "Weber, Slade, and I had takenout seats. Hoping to obtain upon the sooted paperthe impress of the hand, as on the previous day, weat first directed our attention again to the majr-netic experiments. Suddenly the board was pushedforward with force under the table about the distanceof one meter, and on my raising it, there was on itthe impression of a naked left foot. I at once desiredSlade to stand up and show me both his feet. Hedid this most willincflv ; after he had drawn off hisshoes, we examined the stockings for any adheringparticles of soot, but without finding anything of thesort. Then we made him put his foot on a measure,from which it appeared that the length of his foot
  • 96. IMPRESSION OF A FOOT. 55from the heel to the great toe was 22*5 centimetres,whereas the length of the impression of the foot be-tween the same parts amounted only to i85 centi-metres. Two Jays later, on the 17th December 1877, ateight oclock in the evening, I repeated this experiment,only with the difference that instead of a board 46centimetres long by 22 broad, a slate was used,whose surface, not covered by the wooden frame, was 41 5 centimetres broad and 22 long. Upon thisfree surface I stuck a half sheet of letter-paper (Bath)cut down to exactly the same dimensions. Immedi-ately before the sitting, I myself, in the presence ofwitnesses, sooted the paper in the manner above des-cribed. The slate was then, as before the board, laidunder the table at which we sat, with the sooted sideuppermost. Upon a given sign we got up after aboutfour minutes, and upon the slate was again the im-pression of the same left foot which we had obtainedtwo days earlier upon the board. I have had this im-pression reproduced photographically on a reducedscale. I learned subsequently, from my colleague Coun-cillor Thiersch, that the method of taking impressionsof human limbs on sooted paper was already fre-quently applied for anatomical and surgical purposes.In the judgment of Herr Thiersch, who had taken agreat number of such impressions of feet of different
  • 97. 56 TKANSCENDLNTAl. IllVSlCS.persons for comparison with that obtained by us, theimpression produced in the presence of Mr. Shule isthat of n mans foot wliioli had been tightly compressedby the make of the shoo, so tliat, as often liappens,one toe is pressed over the two next, and thus onlyfour toes touch the sooted surface on imposition of thefoot, as is also the case on the photograpl). IlorrThiersch showed me the impression of a human foot inwhich likewise only four toes appeared in the way de-noted. To fix these soot-impressions, it is only requisiteto pass them through a thin alcoholic solution of shell-lac. With reference to the greatly abbreviated lengthof the foot in proportion to its breadth, Herr Thierschremarked that this could be efTectcd by not puttingdown the heel and the fore part of the foot at thesame time. In fact, he showed me an impression ofa foot in which a nearly similar abbreviation had beenproduced in this way. If ui)Oii these observations itshould be supposed that Mr. Slade had himself pro-duced the impression by putting on his foot in thisway, it must first be assumed that he was able todraw oflf and on his shoes and stockings withoutapplication of his hands (which were all alongobserved by us upon the table) ; and secondly, that hewas so expert in the imposition of his foot on anarrowly limited space (the surface of the slate), that,without seeing this surface, he could, nevertheless,always hit upon it with accuracy. Tiiis, certainly,
  • 98. SLADE NOT AN EXPERT. 57would presuppose a large practice in Mr. Slade for tlieobject intended, and thereby it must be conjecturedthat lie bad been used to bring forward this experi-ment. Putting aside bis lively astonishment and hisassurance that such phenomena had never yet beenobserved in his presence/" up to the present time I amnot aware of any published accounts of Mr. Sladesproduction of similar facts, t That Slades stockingshad not been cut away underneath for this purpose— as was conjectured by some "men of science" inLeipzig, who in unimportant things accept ourphysical observations with absolute confidence, but inreference to the foregoing have not hesitated to in-struct us in the elementary rules for instituting exactobservations — of that, as already mentioned, we satis-fied ourselves immediately after the experiment. Meanwhile, to meet all such doubts (and the at-tempts at explanation are scarcely less wonderful thanare the facts themselves), I proposed to Mr. Slade anexperiment which, according to the theory of the four- * With reference to this statement, the translator may ohserve that hehashiniself had many sittings with Slade, previous to that time, has receivedaccounts of the phenomena occurring in his presence from many -who havehad equal or greater experience of them, and has read many records ofthem ; yet the above, and nearly all other of the special experimentsdescribed in the text (Professor Zollners), are "wholly new to him. t To appreciate the importance of this, with reference to the suggestionthat Slade is an expert, it is necessary to bear in mind that he has beenfor years following his vocation as a medium in the light of the manyutmost publicity ; the Spiritualist journals (which are numerous) ofAmerica and England having printed innumerable accounts of hisstances. —Te.
  • 99. 5^ TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.dimensional apace, must easily Buccccd. In fact, ifthe cflects observed by us proceed from intelligentbeings occupying {ivelche sick hefinden), in tlie((hsolute space, places which in (ho direction of thefourth dimension lie near the places occupied by Mr.Siade and us in the three-dimensional space,* andtherefore necessarily invisible to us, for these beingsthe interior of a figure of three-dimensional space,enclosed on all sides, is just as easily accessible as isto us, three-dimensional beings, the interior of a surfaceenclosed on all sides by a line —a two-dimensionalfifTure. A two-dimensional beinfj can representto itself a straight line with only one perpen-dicular (Nonnale) in the respective two-dimensionalregions of space (to which it belongs phenomenally)."We, on the contrary, as three-dimensional beings, • The conception of the juxtaposition of different, infinitely extendedregions of space (Raiimgehktc) necessarily ]>rc8npposos the conception ofthe next hij,her region of space. Tlius a two-dimensional being couldinilced conceive any nuniljer of parallel infinite straight lines that is, ;infinitely extended spaces (liaumgcbictc) of one dimension, but theinfinite jilanc in which it moves, as we with our bodies in the infinitelyextcndcil //(rcfdimcnsional space, could rcjircscnt to itself only oticc,although we, as three-dimensional beings, know that there can be anynumber of infinitely extended parallel planes, which according to a per-pendicular direction, that is, according to the third dimension, can bearranged in juxtaposition. All these planes would represent infinitelyextended two-dimensional worlds, whose occurrences in each region ofspace are completely 8ei)aratcd from those in another. If, however, undercertain anomalous conditions, a two-dimensional being of the one planewere causally connected with more two-dimensional beings of anotherT)lanc, so that these beings by movements according to the third dimen-sion could produce effects in the two-dimensional region of the first plane,this would seem just as wonderful to the moving beings in the latter asdo to us the effects witnessed in the neighbourhood of Mr Slade.
  • 100. A HYPOTHESIS AND AN EXPERIMENT. 59know that there are infinitely many perpendiculars{Normale) to a straight line in space, which collec-tively form the two-dimensional geometrical place ofthe perpendicular plane of that straight line. Analo-gously, we can conceive only one perpendicular to aplane ; a being of four dimensions would, however, beable to conceive infinitely many perpendiculars toa plane, collectively forming the three-dimensionalplace Avhich in the fourth dimension stands perpendic-ular to that plane. By our nature as three-dimensionalbeings we could form for ourselves no representa-tion of these space relations, although we are in theposition to discover ideally (hegiifflich), by analogy,the possibility of their real existence. The realityof their existence can only be disclosed through yac^sof observation. In order to obtain such an observed fact, I took abook-slate, bought by myself; that is, two slates con-nected at one side by cross hinges, like a book forfolding up. In the absence of Slade I lined bothslates within, on the sides applied to one another, witha half sheet of my letter-paper which, immediatelybefore the sitting, was evenly spread with soot inthe way already described. This slate I closed, andremarked to Mr. Slade that if my theory of the exist-ence of intelligent four-dimensional beings in naturewas well founded, it must be an easy thing for them
  • 101. 6o TRANSCENDENTAL place on the iutcrior of the closed slates the impres-sions of feet hitherto only produced on the openslates. Slade laughed, and thought that this wouldbo absolutely impossible ; even his " spirits," whichhe questioned, seemed at first much perplexed withthis proposition, but finally answered with the stereo-typed caution, "We will try it." To my great sur-prise, Slade consented to my laying the closed book-slate (which I had never let out of my hands afterI had spread the soot) on my lap during the sitting,so that I could continually observe it to the middle."*^We might have sat at the table in the brightly-lightedroom for about fiv^e minutes, our hands linked withthose of Slade in the usual manner above the table,when I suddenly felt on two occasions, the one shortlyafter the other, the slate pressed down upon my lap,without my having perceived anything in the leastvisible. Three raps on the table announced that allwas completed, and when I opened the slate therewas within it on the one side the impression of Sirightfoot, on the other side that of a left foot, and indeedof the same which we had already obtained on thetwo former evenings. My readers may judge for themselves how far it ispossible for me, after witnessing these facts, to con- • In the previous experiments the board and the slate had been laidopen upon the floor under the table.
  • 102. 1 A CLUE TO RESEARCH. 6sitler Slade either an impostor or a conjurer. Sladesown astonisliment at this last result was even o o-reaterthan my own. Whatever may be thought of the cor-rectuess of my theory with regard to the existence ofintelligent beings in four-dimensional space, at allevents it cannot be said to be useless as a clue toresearch in the mazes of Spiritualistic phenomena.
  • 103. ( 62 ) Chapter JTourth. ooNDmoNs or invkstioation— unscientific men ok science— blades AN8WEB TO PROFESSOR BAURKTT.Passing over tlic numerous other pliysical plicnomeiia,such as violent movements of quite unattached chairsniid tlic like, since the same have been so oftenobserved and circumstantially described by others, Imay next discuss the question how far it is justifiableand reasonable in dealing with new phenomena, thecauses of which are entirely unknown to us, to imposeconditions under which these new phenomena shouldoccur. That for the production of electricity by fric-tion on the surfaces of bodies the driest possible air isrequisite, and that in a damp atmosphere these experi-ments fail entirely, are also experimental conditions,which could evidently not be prescribed a priori, buthave been discovered only through careful observa-tions among those relations under which Nature inindividual cases willingly otfors us these phenomena.Just therein, indeed, consists the acuteness and skillof an observer, that without arbitrary meddling withthe course of the phenomena, he so prepares his obser-vations that the conclusions drawn from them excludethe possilnlity of every error and every deception.
  • 104. — THE KNOWLEDGE OF OUR IGNORANCE. 63Would it have been possible to dictate conditiongunder wliich the fall of meteorolites should be observed,upon those who first asserted the reality of thosephenomena ? On entering new provinces one mustalways take to heart the words of Virchow, which heuttered at the last meeting of scientific men at Munich,in his speech " Upon the Freedom of Science in theModern State." " That which I pride myself on is just the know-ledge of my ignorance. Since, as I imagine, I knowwith tolerable accuracy what it is that I do not know,I always say to myself, when I have to enter upon aprovince as yet closed to me, Noiv must thou begin ! "again to learn How far Herr Virchow himself, when the occasionis forthcoming, makes use of the teachings of modestywhich he imparts to others, we may learn from thefollowing ^vords of Herr State Counsellor Aksakow :^ "The attempts which I caused to be made by Herr"Wittig in Berlin for a scientific examination of Mr.Slade by Professors Helmholtz and Virchow havefailed ; and I will take this opportunity to show byan example how right I was in speaking of the diffi-culties which we still have to experience with thelearned, even when it is a question of simply putting • monthly journal devoted principally to the Psychische Studien, phenomena of the soul-life. Publishedinvestigation of the little-knownand edited by Alexander Aksakow, Russian Imperial Counsellor of State, —at St. Petersburg, January number, 1878.
  • 105. 64 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.tlic modiumistic phenomena to tlie proof, and thissolely by reason of their disinclination for this pro-vince of investigation. Thus, Hcrr Virchow is willingindeed to see Mr. Sladc, but only upon the terms thatthe latter submits himself to all conditions whichHerr Virchow shall please to lay upon him. Herenow man of science {Gelchrtcr) who, not knowing is aeven the A B C of the phenomena which he under-takes to make an object of his study, at the outsetimposes upon them his own conditions of observa-tion ! Could a similar method have been at allapproved or endured in the study of any branch ofnatural science whatsoever ? ... So the first falsestep ! And then what w^ere these conditions ? ]Ir.Slade should allow Professor Virchow to bind hishands and feet, and to place an observer two feetfrom the table. These are the conditions required bya German man of science of great renown, and, never-theless, how * illogical and inconclusive ( unlogischund heweis-unhrdftUj ) are they ! Take it that Mr.Slade submits to these conditions, and the seayice issuccessful. Plerr Virchow will be the first, and withhim the whole great multitude, thence to concludethat he had tied hadJy, that his sentinel had observedhadli/, and that the adroitness of the conjuror hadtaken him at a disadvantage. At a second seanceHerr Virchow will bind the medium in a differentmanner, and will a])point two sentinels ; the same
  • 106. ARBITRAEY COXDITIOXS. 65result, the same conclusion ! At the third seance hewill discover yet another system of fastening and pre-cautions much more elaborate and ingenious ; the *same result, the same conclusion, and so on for ever ! * Even if the above supposition is thought unjust to Professor Viicliow(as itperhaps is), it is one -which Slailes past experience made a reason-able ground for the rejection of the Professors conditions. "When Sladewas in London in 1876, a distinguished man of letters -was anxious toobtain writing in a new book-slate furnished with a padlock, and lockedbefore it was brought to the stance. Slade declined the attempt, greatlyto the dissatisfaction of thegentleman referred to, -svhose distrust on thisaccount was reflected in the tone of his evidence at Bo-w Street, on thecharge against Slade by Professor Lankester, though otherwise he waswitness to inexplicable manifestations. On my urging Slade subsequentlyto comply, he told me that this very test had once been successfullyallowed, but that the fact getting known, it had led to other new contri-vances being devised and insisted on, with an utter disturbance of theusual conditions. He never could be sure beforehand that askance wouldsucceed (the manifestations being wholly out of his o^^n power or control),and the failure of a test imposed by the investigator was regarded asmore suspicious than many merely weak and inconclusive seances underordiuarj^ conditions. (See also Slade s letter to the Times, page 67 post.)There is amongst Spiritualists, that the influ- also the fact, Avell recognisedence of some persons is far more favourable to the evolution of phenomenathrough mediums than that of others. One investigator will witness themost extraordinary manifestations at his first seance, whereas anotherwill be long in obtaining anything like satisfactorj evidence, as was thecase with myself before I saw This interaction of medium and Slade.sitter is a fact that should never be left out of sight ; especially in esti-mating testimony to facts far exceeding our own or general experience ofsimilar phenomena. It by no means followed from Professor Zolluerssuccess in nearly all the experiments he instituted with Slade, thatanother man of science, of perhaps altogether different constitution,physical or psychical, would be equally fortunate. The true cause ofscientific complaint against Prof. Virchow appears to be that he wouldnot even in the first instance witness the phenomena under the ordinaryconditions of their occurrence assuming that there could be only one ;mode of demonstrating them to be genuine, or that, out of many modes,that which occurred to him must also be agreeable to nature. Probablyhe only thought how he could baffle a conjurer, not entertaining thepossibility that the very course and nature of the phenomena themselvesmight put the hj-pothesis of conjuring out of the question. — Translatok. B
  • 107. —66 TUANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Mr. Shidc (lid well to decline lien* Vircbows condi-tions; for ill in)j)08iijg tlicm the latter Lad given]>ru()f of an utter ignorance of the suliject which heprofessed iiis willingness to engage in. The historyof all the systems of fastening by which mediumsliave been tortured would alone fill a thiek volume.The Martijrolofjtj of Mediums is a book of the future.. . . Professor Virchow need only open the book byColonel Olcott PtopJe from the other World— at page39, to see a pictorial representation of the tortures towhich mediums have been subjected in the name ofscience and truth. There is represented the mediumEddy, with every finger of the hand separatelyfastened by a string nailed to the floor. Eddyshands are in consequence of these bindings, to whichthey have been subjected for years, quite disfigured.And have all these bindings ever convinced any one ?The conditions dcvi.sed by Professor Virchow wouldhave the same fate. " Blades great merit is to have simplified the con-ditions of his seances in such a manner that it issuflicient for any one to come to him armed only withhis sound senses and with his sound reason to be convinced — if he will be convinced. In ftict, the phenomena take place in full light, and while the mediums hands and feet are held," or, also, when the * Tliftt is, •wlicn Sialic tlocs not liimself linld the slate partly iiixlcr the tabic. He ia always williiiy to use ucw blatcs, Irouyht by the visitor,
  • 108. " — — SLADEs reply to professor BARRETT. 6/medium does not even toucli the object upon whichthe mediumistic phenomena are accomplished, andwhile the observer does not cease to hold both hishands, and to see with his own two eyes ! Whatmore is necessary ? I cannot refrain from setting down here the letter,full of sound manly sense, which Mr. SUide sent tothe Times in London, in reply to some points raisedby Professor Barrett of Dublin :Dr. Slades Answer to some Points of the Letter OF Professor Barrett. * LoNiJON, 8 Upper Bedford Place, ^^ Se%Uemher 22nd, iZj6. *SiR, —In Professor Barretts statements publishedin the Tiines to-day I think he erred (I hope unin-tentionally) in saying : — Slade failed to procure thewriting on a slate enclosed, along with a fragment ofpencil, in a sealed, box ; he also failed when I used abox with a tortuous passage to allow the introductionof such bits of pencil as suited his fancy ; he declinedto try and get writing within a hinged slate thatwas sealed, but succeeded when the hinged slate wasunfastened ; and again he failed, according to theon -which writing is often obtained above the tahle. The full light is aninvariable condition. The most conclusive tests cannot, however, be in-sisted on arbitrarily, at once, always, and by any one, but are usuallygiven in the course of a few sittings. Tkanslator.
  • 109. ;68 TRANSCENDENTAL rnYSIC3.writer of an article in the Spectator^ when a springlock was used. "Instead of trying to obtain writing on the Pro-fessors boxed slates, I declined using them at all. Iassured him they would not be used, and gave himmy reasons for objecting. lie urged me strongly tomake the experiment, and placed the box containingthe slate on the table, where it remained undisturbeduntil he put it on the slate, which I held, with thebox on it, under the table for a short time, when,as I had hoped, nothing occurred. This he calls afailure. " ]rr. Simmons says that Professor Barrett, onentering the drawing-room after the sitting, told himthat Dr. Slade had refused to use the boxed slatesthat he had left them in the room where the sittingwas held, hoping he (Dr. Slade) would make the trialat some future time. " Having liad at least fifteen years experience indemonstrating the fact of various phenomena occur-ring in my presence, I claim to know something ofthe conditions required. At the same time I do notknow how they are produced. I do not object topersons bringing an ordinary slate, either single orfolding, but I do object to using locks, boxes, or seals,for this reason — I claim to be as honest and earnestin this matter as those who call upon me for the )xv-pose of investigation. Therefore I shall continue to
  • 110. SLADEs reply to professor BARRETT. 69object to all such worthless appliances whenever theyare proposed. Mark the following, which Professor Barrett alsosays : — Taking a clean slate on both sides, I placedit on the table so that it rested above, though it couldnot touch, a fragment of slate-pencil. In this posi-tion I held the slate firmly down with my elbow.One of Slades hands was then grasped by mine, andthe tips of the fingers of his other hand barely touchedthe slate. While closely watching both of Sladeshands, which did not move perceptibly, I certainlywas much astonished to hear scratching going on,apparently on the under side of the slate, and whenthe slate was lifted up I fouud the side facing thetable covered with writing. He also says a similarresult was obtained on other days ; further, an emi-nent scientific friend obtained writing on a clean slatewhen it was held entirely in his own hand, both ofSlades being on the table.* "The above being true, would the fact of the writ-ing being produced by some agency foreign to myselfhave been more strongly established had it occurredon the Professors boxed slate ? I think the readerwill agree with me in saying it would not. * On the other hand, had it so occurred and a state-ment of it been published, it would only have servedas an incentive for others to conjure up some planwhereby they might prevent an occurrence of phe-
  • 111. 70 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.uomcna, instead of being content to witness them inthe simple manner in wliich they do occur. To mymind it woukl be as reasonable to sever the wire andthen ask the operator to send your message, as it isto violate the conditions which experience has taughtme are essential in these experiments in order to ob-tain successful results ; and when the investigatorcomes in the spirit of a seeker for truth instead oftrying to prove me an impostor, I shall be most happyto unite with him in the further pursuit of theseexperiments. — Very truly yours, "Henry Slade." The above letter, in which the so severely calum-niated American medium recalls — in a manner no lessurjicut than civil — to the recollection of our modern"men of science" the first rules of experimentationin natural science, may suffice for the present to aflfordthe reader an idea of the intellectual w^orth of theman who was sentenced to three months imprison-ment with hard labour, on the charge of fraud broughtagainst him by a young " man of science."
  • 112. ( 71 ) CJapter jTtftl).* —PRODUCTION OF KNOTS IN AN ENDLESS STRING FURTHER EXPERIMENTS MATE- — RIALISATION OF HANDS — DISAPPEARANCE AND REAPPEARANCE OF SOLID — OBJECTS A TABLE VANISHES, AND AFTERWARDS DESCENDS FROM THE CEIL- ING IN FULL LIGHT.The establisliment {Constatirung) of physical facts fallswitliin the domain of the physicist ; and if men of suchdistinguished eminence as Wilhelm Weber, Fechner,and others, after thorough experimental investigation,publicly attest the reality of such facts, it is evidentlynothing but an act of modern presumption for un-scientific people, at their pleasure, to accept as factsabsurd conjectures concerning the possibility oftrickery without more inquiry, and thus to deny thecapacity of these men for exact observations. I have already described in detail the conditionsunder which the knots [represented in Plate I.]occurred in the string fastened by a seal, in the pres-ence of Mr. Slade, without the string being touched.Every possibility that these knots were in the stringalready, before the sealing of the ends, and had onlybeen brought to another part of the same by pushing,is hereby definitely excluded. * Wiss. Abh., Vol. ii., part 2, p. 905.
  • 113. ;72 TllANSCE.VDENTAL PHYSICS. It will ill the first place interest my readers tolearn that this experiment succeeded four mouths laterin London in presence of another medium. Underthe title, " Remarkable Physical Manifestations," Dr.Nichols has published the following in two letters tothe London Sj/lritualist of April 12th and 19th,1878:— Remarkable Physical ^Ianifestatioks. " It may seem tiresome to you to repeat fiicts, andcumulate evidence, but this appears to be the onlyway to convince the sceptical. Then you are to con-sider that each number of the S/nrituaUst falls intothe hands of some who have seen no other. So I giveyou some fa(;ts new to me, though they may be familiarto you and most of your readers. " Busy at my writing the other day in my study, atabout two P.M. tlie housekeeper came with her eyes round with wonder, and begged me to go instantlyto the drawing-room over my head. It seemed anurgent case, and I ran upstairs and found every chairbut three turned upside down ; the large and heavysofa lying forward in the room, legs upward; and theupright pianoforte prone upon the carpet, flat uponits face. The windows are sixteen feet from the ground ; noperson in the house had visited the room that morninguo one could by any possibility have come in from
  • 114. ; MANIFESTATIONS IN A PHYSICIANS HOUSE. 73tlie street to do this work, and it certainly was notdone by any of the inmates of the house ; at my deskI can hear every footstep in the drawing-room ; in aword, it is certain that no visible being had done it.It required two strong men to lift up the pianoforteand restore it to its proper position. The houleverse-ment seems to have been accomplished while most ofthe family were at lunch, between one and two oclockwith them were Mr. W. Eglinton and Mr. A. Colman.Mrs. Nichols was with them at table, and reports that,as they were conversing, loud raps responded, and theheavy table, loaded with dishes, when no one touchedit, rose up some inches from the floor, and so remained,while she stooped down to see that all its feet were inthe air. This is common enough in the presence ofmediums, but the very powerful action in the drawing-room, in the light of mid-day, with no person near,seems to me novel and remarkable. ** I gave you some account, I think, of chairs being threaded on the arms of persons while they werefirmly holding the hands of others. This is as greata wonder as that reported by the German astronomerat Leipsic —the tying of knots in a cord, the ends ofwhich were sealed together. I have seen the chairson the arms of seven persons, whose word I couldperfectly trust, but I wished to make assurance doublysure ; so at a recent stance I tied the two wriststogether with cotton -thread. In three seconds the
  • 115. 74 TRANSCENDENTAL mYSirS.cliair was lianging upon tljc arm of one, and I foundtlic thread unl)roken. I thon held tlie liaiid of ^Ir.Eglinton a.s firmly as possil)lc in mi no, and in aninstant the cLair, one of our cane bottoms with bentbacks, was hanging on my arm. Tliis, beyond alldoubt, was matter passing through matter, butwhether the wood passed through flesh and bone, orflesh and bone through wood, I have not yet been ableto determine. " On Saturday, by special appointment, four of ussat at noon — Eglinton, Colman, Mrs. Nichols, andmyself. Sujiposing there might be writing or draw-ing, I laid a sheet of marked note-paper and pencilon the table around which we sat. It is a smallroom, and sitting in a good light, we heard a slightnoise of something moving, of light raps or knocksin one corner. Looking, we all saw a light cane-bottom cliair, about six feet from the table, tiltingitself upon two legs, rocking backward and forward,tilting back and balancing on its hinder legs, answer-ing our questions with its movements ; and finally, atour request, it walked forward on two of its legs andplaced itself at the table, pressed against my kneecaressingly, and behaved in all respects like a chairgifted with sense and locomotion. It was a weirdspectacle ; but it was also a very interesting fact,seen for ten or fifteen minutes by four persons, with-out the possibility of trick or hallucination. I ex-
  • 116. THE KNOT EXPERIMENT REPEATED. 75amined the chair carefully, though it was quite need-less to do so, for no conceivable machinery could,under the circumstances, have produced the pheno-menon. " Then the light was turned off for a minute or so,during which we heard rapid movements of a pencil,and on relighting the gas, we found on the markedsheet of paper the portrait of a deceased friend, and aletter of more than a page in the well-known hand-writing of a beloved child whose spirit often visits ns.I have now from her hand five elaborate drawings andfour letters, no one of which occupied two minutesnnder absolute test conditions. No livinor artist o couldmake them in from ten to twenty times the time occu-pied in their production. " Your readers may be glad to know that, on thenight of April 7th, we had repeated, in my house, inthe presence of six persons, including Mr. AV. Eglin-ton and Mr. A. Colman, Professor ZoUners marvel oftying knots in a cord, the ends of which were tied andsealed together. I have the sealed cord, which I pre-pared myself, with the knotted ends firmly sealed tomy card, on which the fingers of every person presentrested while five knots were tied, about a foot apart,in the central portion of the cord. I have no doubtthat this splendid manifestation can be repeated atany time under like conditions. April I2th, 1878."
  • 117. —76 TRANSCENT)ENTAL PnYSICS. Tying Knots in an Endless Corn. To th« Editor of iht " SpirUuaUtt ," April igth, 1878. " Sir, — I am sorry to learn that my account of therepetition in London of the great Leipsic experimentof tying knots in a cord whose ends were firmly sealedtogether, was not so accurate as should have been therecord of so astounding a phenomenon. "Permit me to say, therefore, that after reading theaccount by Professor Zollner in the Daily TeJcoraph,I asked, at the first opportunity, our spirit-friend, Joey, if he could do the same thing here. Hesaid, We will try. ** I then cut four yards of common brown twinesuch as I use for largo book packets^from a freshball, examined it carefully, tied the two ends togetherby a single knot, which included both, then passedeach end through a hole in my visiting card, tied asquare knot, and firmly sealed this knot to the card,and asked a gentleman to seal it with his seal ring.On this card I also put my signature and the date.The loop of the string, whose two ends were thussealed on the card, I again examined, and found itfree from knots. "Six persons, including Mr. Eglintou and Mr.Colman, sat round a small table. The sealed cardwas placed ou the centre of the table, and the fingers
  • 118. KNOT EXPERIMENT WITH ANOTHER MEDIUM. J]of eacli person present placed upon it, while the loophung down upon the floor. " This position was maintained for about a minute,when raps were heard, and I examined the string.The ends were firmly fastened and sealed as before,and five single knots were tied upon it, about a footapart — on the single endless string, observe, whoseperfect fastening had never left my sight— where theynow remain. " It is certain that no mortal man could have tiedthese knots —equally certain that all the philosophersand all the magicians of Europe cannot now untiethem under the same conditions. " Here is a fact which can be proven in any courtof justice, and for which any conceivable number ofdimensions of space cannot acount. " T. L. Nichols, M.D. " 32 FopsTONE Road, London, S.W." I now pass on to relate, from my numerous success-ful experiments with Mr. Slade, during his furtherpresence in Leipsic, from 4th to loth May 1878,those in the first place which represent a modificationof the experiments with knots, and which may beregarded as an experimental confirmation of thereality of a fourth dimension of space. At his third residence in Leipsic, Mr. Slade hadagain received the hospitable invitation of my friend
  • 119. 78 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Oscar voii IfulVmann, and therefore lived iii bis house(luring the time from the 2ntl to the loth May. Toprotect him from the rudeness of the learned andunlearned public (scientific and unscientific people),as well as of the press, and to prevent a possiblerepetition here of his expulsion l^y the police * at thedemand of the public, we had taken care, as at hissecond visit in December of hist year, wholly toseclude him from the public. As regards the following experiments witli Mr.Slade, I describe them in the first place for j^^jj^ici^fs,that is, for scientific men who are competent tounderstand my other physical investigations andexperiments, to which, during the space of twentyyears, I have given publicity in scientific journals.Such men alone are able to form an independentjudgment, on the ground of my antecedent work, asto how far confidence should be extended to me as aphysical experimentalist. For though the theoreticalconsiderations —by w^hich the facts of observation soimparted by me during that space have been con-nected hitherto —deviate in many respects from myown, the facts themselves so observed by me Ijave upto this time received only confirmation in theirentirety. As regards such men, also, who on theground of my labours heretofore are able to formtheir own independent judgment on my reliability and * That had happened at Vienna.— Tr.
  • 120. — CONFIDENCE DUE TO TRAINED EXPERIMENTORS. 79credibility, I am relieved from the useless trouble ofdescribing more minutely and circumstantially thanis necessary for intellectual and scientific men, theconditions under which the following phenomenawere observed by me. Suppose, for example, Iobserved during a physical investigation (as in thatconcerning the electric fluid) deviations of themagnetic needle under hitherto unusual conditions.If now a physicist, wishing to bring my observationsinto contempt, were to suggest that I had perhapsaccidentally had a magnetic knife on the table, orhad not duly taken into account the daily varia-tions of the earths magnetism, such suppositionsmight be entertained with respect to a student orbeginner in the province of physical observations,but I myself should feel them, coming from ascientific colleague, as an insult, and should hold itbeneath my dignity as a physicist to reply totliem.^ I assume entirely the same position in describingthe following experiments Avith Mr. Slade, which I * The above protest recalls that of Mr. Crookes, in referring to a Home, he had possibly allowedsuggestion that, in his researches with Mr.the latter to supply a board forming an essential part of the apparatusemplojed, " Is it seriously expected," says Mr. Crookes, "that I should answersuch a question as did Mr. Home furnish the board ? Will not mycritics give me some amount of common sense ? credit for the possession ofAnd can they not imagine that obvious precautions, which occur to themas soon as they sit down to pick holes in my experiments, are notunlikely to have a^so occurred to me in the course of prolonged andpatient investigation t " Tr.
  • 121. So transcp:ndental physics.cotuluctcd partly alono, partly in company with myabove-named friend Oscar von HdfTinaim, as indescribing the greater number of my former physicalinvestigations. With respect to the preposterous demand, on enter-ing a new, and to us wholly unfamiliar, province ofphysical phenomena, to impose d ^)7/ori conditionsunder which these phenomena ^oufjht" to occur, Irefer to the strictures contained in the above letter ofSlade, and in the previous remarks of Ilerr Aksakowto Herr Geheimrath Virchow at Berlin on the firstprinciples of exact investigation. After this necessaryjircface I pass on to describe some experiments whichI had devised with a view to the confirmation of myspace-theory. The experiments formerly described (i/tli Decem-l»er 1S7S) with the knotted cord suggest two expla-nations, according as one supposes a sj^ace of threeor of four dimensions. In the first case there musthave been a so-called passage of matter throughmatter ; or, in other words, the molecules of whichthe cord consists must have been separated in certainplaces, and then, after the other portion of cord hadbeen passed through, again united in the same posi-tion as at first. In the second case, the manipulationof the flexible cord being, according to my theory,subject to the laws of a four-dimensional region ofspace, such a separation and re- union of molecules
  • 122. 1 KNOTTING TOGETHER OF LEATHER BANDS. 8would not be necessary. The cord would, however,certainly undergo during the process an amount oftwisting v/hich would be discernible after the knotswere tied. I had not paid attention to this circum-stance in December last year, and had not examinedthe cords with regard to the size and direction of thetwist. The following experiment, however, whichtook place on the 8 th of May this year, in a sitting ofa quarter of an hours duration with Mr. Slade in awell-lighted room, furnishes an answer to the abovequestion in favour of the four-dimensional theorywithout separation of material particles. The experiment was as follows : — I took two bandscut out of soft leather, 44 centimetres long, and from5 to 10 millimetres broad, and fastened the ends ofeach together, as formerly described with the cords,and sealed them with my own seal. The two leatherbands were laid separately on the card-table at whichwe sat ; the seats were placed opposite to one another,and I held my hands over the bands (as shown on Plate11.) Slade sat at my left side, and placed his righthand gently over mine, I being able to feel the leatherunderneath all the time. Slade asserted that he sawlights emanating from my hands, and could feel a coolwind over them. I felt the latter, but could not seethe lights. Presently, while I still distinctly felt thecool breeze, and Slades hands were not touching mine,but were removed from them about two or three
  • 123. 82 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.decimetres, I felt a movement of the leather bandsunder my hands. Then came three raps in the table,and on removing my hands the two leather bandswere knotted together. The twisting of the leatheris distinctly seen in Plate II (copied from a photo-graph.) The time that the bands were under myhands was at most three minutes. A pair of uncon-nected strips of leather are also represented on thePlate for clearness of apprehension. Much pleased, I examined the connected strips ofleather for a long time with my friends. I then tooka slate myself, and held it with my right hand underthe table, in order to repeat the experiment whichhad succeeded with the Grand Duke Constantino ofEussia.^^ AVliilc now, as I did so, Slades hands, con-tinually visible to me, lay quietly on the table, thereappeared suddenly a large hand close in front of me,emerixins: from under the ed<Te of the table. All thefingers of the hand moved quickly, and I was able toobserve them accurately during a space of at leasttwo minutes. The colour of the hand was pale andinclined to an olive-green. And now while I con-tinually saw Slades hands lying before me on thetable, and he himself sat at the table on my left, theabove-mentioned hand rose suddenly as quick as anarrow, still higher, and grasped with a powerful pres-sure my left upper-arm for over a minute long. As Ante, p. 43.
  • 124. Plate II.{Copied from a Photojraph.)
  • 125. — VISIBLE AND TANGIBLE HANDS. 85my attention was wholly occupied in the observationof the strange hand, and the grip upon my left upperarm happened so suddenly, forcibly, and unexpectedly,I am not able to say anything concerning the condi-tion of the arm which connected the hand with theedge of the table. When this hand had disappeared— Slades hands lying on the table after as beforeI was so violently pinched on my right hand, whichduring these four minutes was all along holding theabove-mentioned slate under the table, that I couldnot help crying out. With this manifestation theextraordinary sitting closed. To complete the account of the phenomena ofvisible and tangible human hands which occurred theyear before in presence of my friends and colleagues,Fechner, W. Weber, and Scheibuer, I may mention inaddition that on the morning of the 15th December1877, at half-past ten oclock, while W. AVeber and Iwere again engaged with Slade in the above-mentionedmagnetic experiments, suddenly Webers coat was un-buttoned under the table, his gold watch was takenfrom his waistcoat pocket, and was placed gently inhis right hand, as he held it under the table. Duringthis proceeding, which occupied about three minutes,and was described exactly in its particular phases byWeber, Mr. Slades hands were, be it understood,before our eyes upon the table, and his legs crossedsideways in such a position that any employment of
  • 126. 86 TR A NSCKN DENTAL PHYSICS.tliem was out of the question. The sitting took placein my resilience, in the corner room lighted by fourlarge windows, as already described. Those who seek to explain the phenomena describedhere, and proved also at other places by reliableobservers, of visil>lo and tangible human limbs, bysuppositions of possible deception by means of gutta-percha hands, and so forth, treat the matter withoutconsideration, since they judge of phenomena whichthey have neither seen nor examined referably to theconditions of their occurrence. That such visible andtangible human limbs can, under suitable circum-stances, leave behind visible impressions, as, forinstance, on flour or sooted paper, will no longerappear surprising after the last-mentioned facts.* Should the foregoing experiments have affordedproof that there are, outside our perceptible world ofthree dimensions, things furnished with all the attri-butes of corporeity which can appear in three-dimen-sional space and then vanish therefrom, without ourbeing able, from the standpoint of our present space-perception, to answer the questions whence theycome and whither they go, then should the followingexperiment complete this proof, by establishing theappearance and disappearance of bodies which do, in • I may lierc call attention to the results obtained in London by one ofour countrjmcn, Hcrr Christian Keinicrs, and published in " PsychisrheStudieti," which results, obtained partly in the presence of Mr. AlfredRuiisel Wallace, justify the boldest expectations for the future.
  • 127. — " DISAPPEAEANCE OF PONDERABLE OBJECTS. 87fact, belong to our three-dimensional world of space.I have already mentioned (p. 38) the disappearanceand reappearance of a small cardboard thermometer-case, and also (p. 53) the sudden appearance of a pieceof coal and of wood at a particular place where thesebodies had not previously been. Similar and almostmore surprising phenomena happened during Sladesresidence at Vienna. Baron Yon Hellenbach writesme as follows : "The disappearance of the book was only super-ficially treated in my pamphlet,"^^ since therein I onlyconcerned myself with those occurrences which tookplace beyond the reach of Slades limbs, as I wished tomeet the thoughtless objection, "He did it somehow."The thing happened in the following manner : Sladelaid a book and a bit of pencil (at a spot exactlymarked) on the slate, which he then conveyed underthe surface of the table. The book vanished, andhaving often been looked for everywhere, fell severaltimes from the ceiling of the room upon the tablebetween the globes of the three-branch chandelier.Once it struck the chain off the roller by which thechandelier was drawn up. A projection by the handunder the table is altogether impossible, since a pro-jected book cannot describe this curve. Slades upper * "Mr. Slade s Besidence in Vienna. An open letter to my friends.(Anonym.), Vienna. Printed and published by T. C. Fischer & Co.,1 878. Compare also Individualism in the Light of the Biology and Philo- * sophy of the Present," by Lazar B. Hellenbach, Vienna, 1878 (Braumiiller).
  • 128. 88 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.aufl under arm were visible and quiet, and a projectionby the foot would as certainly have been remarked asthe rise of the book. The experiment was too oftenrepeated, and our attention was too great. I regardas very important a demonstration on your part of asimilar disappearance ; for if the seen and felt ascentof the slate at my foot proves an unpcrceivedmechanical agency, and the production of knots inthe endless cord a. foiir-cUmcnsional agency, so wouldthe entrance and exit of an object prove anotherspace-dimension, as it were iu our immediate neigh-bourhood, in so stupendous a manner, that it coulduot be for a moment doubted in my opinion, which isthat our illusion of consciousness is nothing but athree-dimensional intuition of a more-dimensionalworld, brought about by a strange organism. Shouldyour endeavours be similarly successful, I beg youkiudly to inform me. B. Hellenbach." I had received the above letter at eiirlit in themorning of the 5th May. "Without having mentionedit to Slade or to Herr 0. von Hoflfmann, I expressedthe wish, at the sitting which took place with Mr.Slade at eleven oclock, to have the opportunity ofobserving again, as iu December of the year before, thedisappearance and reappearance of a material body insome very striking manner. Ready at once for theexperiment, Slade requested Herr von Hoffmann to
  • 129. A BOOK VANISHES AND REAPPEARS. 89give him a book ; the latter thereupon took fromthe small bookshelf at the wall a book printed andbound in octavo. Slade laid this upon a slate, heldthe same partly under the edge of the table, andimmediately withdrew the slate again luithout the hook.We searched the card- table carefully everywhere, out-side and inside. So also we searched the small room,but all in vain ; the book had vanished. After aboutfive minutes we again took our places at the table forthe purpose of further observations ; Slade oppositeme, Von Hoffmann between us on my left. We hadscarcely sat down when the book fell from the ceilingof the room on to the table, striking my right ear withsome violence in its descent. The direction in whichit came down from above seemed from this to havebeen an oblique one, proceeding from a point aboveand behind my back. Slade, during this occurrence,was sitting in front of me, and keeping both his handsquietly on the table. He asserted shortly before, asusual on occasions of similar physical phenomena, thathe saw lights either hovering in the air or attachedto bodies, whereof, however, neither my friend normyself were ever able to perceive anything. In the sitting of the following day, the 6th May, ata quarter-past eleven, by bright sunshine, 1 was to bewitness, quite unexpectedly and unpreparedly, of a yetfar more magnificent phenomenon of this kind. I had, as usual, taken my place with Slade at the
  • 130. 90 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.canl-taUe. Opposite to me stood, as was often tliecase in other experiments, a small round table near thecard-table, exactly in tlie position shown in the photo-graph (taken from nature) upon Plate III [see page1 06], illustrating the further experiments to be de-scribed below. Tlio height of the round table is 77centimetres, diameter of the surface 46 centimetres,the material birchen-wood, and the weight of the wholetable 45 kilogrammes. About a minute might have])assed after Slade and I had sat down and laid ourhands joined together on the table, when the roundtable was set in slow oscillations, which we couldboth clearly perceive in the top of the round tablerising above the card-table, while its lower part wasconcealed from view by the top of the card-table. The motions very soon became greater, and thewhole table approaching the card-table laid itself underthe latter, with its three feet turned towards me.Neither I nor, as it seemed, Mr. Slade, knew how thephenomenon would further develop,* since during thespace of a minute which now elapsed nothing whateveroccurred. Slade was about to take slate and pencilto ask his "spirits" whether we had anything still toexpect, when I wished to take a nearer view of theposition of the round table lying, as I supposed, under • The movement of heavy objects without any possible contact by81a(lc was so common that m-c looked on the movement of the table asonly the beginning of a further succcssiou of phenomena.
  • 131. 1 A TABLE VANISHES AND REAPPEARS. 9the card-table. To my and Slades great astonish-ment we found the space beneath the card-table com-pletely empty, nor were we able to find in all the restof the room that table which only a minute before waspresent to our senses. In the expectation of its re-appearance we sat again at the card-table, Slade closeto me, at the same angle of the table opposite thatnear which the round table had stood before. Wemight have sat about five or six minutes in intenseexpectation of what should come, when suddenly Sladeagain asserted that he saw lights in the air. AlthoughT, as usual, could perceive nothing whatever of thekind, I yet followed involuntarily with my gaze thedirections to which Slade turned his head, durina; allwhich time our hands remained constantly on the table,linked together (ilher-einander liegend) ; under thetable, my left leg was almost continually touchingSlades right in its whole extent, which was quitewithout design, and owing to our proximity at thesame corner of the table. Looking up in the air,eagerly and astonished, in different directions, Sladeasked me if I did not perceive the great lights. Ianswered decidedly in the negative ; but as I turnedmy head, following Slades gaze up to the ceilino- ofthe room behind my back, I suddenly observed, at aheight of about five feet, the hitherto invisible tablewith its legs turned upwards very quickly floating downin the air upon the top of the card-table. Although
  • 132. 92 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.WO involuntarily drew l>ack our heads sideways, Sladoto the left and I to the right, to avoid injury from thefalling table, yet we were both, before the round tablehad laid itself down on the top of the card-table, soviolently struck on the side of the head, that I feltthe pain on the left of mine fully four hours after thisoccurrence, which took place at about half-j^ast eleven.
  • 133. — ( 93 ) CJaptcr ©irfb. —THEOBETTCAL CONSIDERATIONS PROJECTED EXPERIMENTS FOR PROOF OF THE — POHRTH DIMBNSION THE UNEXPECTED IN NATURE AND LIFE SCHOPEN- — HAUER3 "TRANSCENDENT FATE."The foregoing facts of observation are tlius empiricallyat variance witli the dogma of the unchangeablenessof the quantity of matter in our three-dimensionalworld.* Since, however, that dogma of the constancyof substance cannot derive its dogmatic characterfrom experience, but merely from the principles of ourreason, which are inherent in our mind just as in thect priori law of causality, that is to say, before allexperience : there is thus imposed on our reason thetask of freeing our understanding from the abovecontradiction between the facts of observation and aprinciple of our reason. I have already shown iudetail, in the first volume of these treatises, how veryeasily this problem is solved by the acceptance of afourth dimension of space. The table which dis- * Not altogether : as it might he suggested that the vanished objectsonly assumed a gaseous form —the c^uantity of matter thus remaining thesame, as in the case of combustion. Tr.
  • 134. 94 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.appeared iluring six minutes must nevertbeless haveexisted somewhere, and tlie quantity of the substanceconstituting it must, according to the above principleof reason, have remained absolutely constant. If, "liowever, we can only answer the question " where ?by assigning a place — and it has been empiricallyshown that this place cannot lie in the region of spaceof three dimensions perceptible to us, — it follows of "necessity that the answering of the question " where 1hitherto so easy to us, must be an incomplete answer,and therefore one both requiring and capable of ampli-fication. How by this means also the conception ofjuxtaposition obtains an extension by help of thefourth dimension of absolute space, I have alreadyabove explained at length in a note,^ to which I mayrefer my readers. So also I have already shown in the treatise " OnAction at a Distance," vol. i. p. 269, that the so fruit-ful "Axiom of the Conservation of Energy " retains allits validity for space of four dimensions, while atanother place I remarked, " If one regards the distanceof two atoms and the intensity of their interaction,in our three-dimensional space, as projections of similarmagnitudes from a space of four dimensions, a changewould be effected in the magnitudes, form, and supplyof kinetic energy of the three-dimensional projection(the material body), simply through alterations in the • Ante, p. 58.
  • 135. — THEORETICAL. 95relative positions of the four-dimensional object, with-out these properties in the latter undergoing anychange. The axiom of the conservation of a constantamount of energy thus retains its full validity for spaceof four dimensions, nay, on closer consideration, it iseven the premiss on ichich rests the correspondence ofthe extended conceptions of space to physical occur- *rences" To the considerations offered in the early part ofthis treatise concerning the " actual" or " real " lyingat the ground of space, I may here add the followingwords of Riemann : t " The question of the validity of the postulates ofgeometry in the infinitely little is connected with thequestion of the inner principles of the mass-relationsof space. In this question, which can well be accountedas still belonging to the doctrine of space, the aboveobservation has the application that in a discretediversity (Mannigfaltigkeit) the principle of mass-relations is already contained in the conception of thisdiversity, w^iereas, in a continuous diversity, thisprinciple must come to it from wdthout {cinders ivoherhinzukommen muss). Thus, either the reality under-lying space must form a discrete diversity, or theprinciple of mass-relations must be sought ivithout t Eiemanns collected mathematical and posthumous scientific -works,edited, with the assistance of R. Dedekind, by H. Weber, Leipsio :(Teubner), 1876.
  • 136. 96 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.{aussoJialh *), in binding forces acting thereon (indarauf wirkcnden hindenden Krdften). " The decision of these questions can only be foundby transcending the hitherto empirical conception ofphenomena, of whicli Newton estaljlished the prin-ciple, and, impelled hy facts ivhich cannot he explainedhy it, gradually reforming this conception. Suchresearches, which, like the present, transcend commonconceptions, can only serve to prevent this work beinghindered hy the narrowness of ideas, and advance inknowledge of the connection of things heing impeded hytraditional 2^rejudices. This carries us over into theprovince of another science, that of Physics, which isnot permitted by the nature of our present subject." These words of Riemann prove incontrovertibly thathe, as one of those acute founders of the theory of anextended space-conception, recognised as thoroughlynecessary the introduction (Hinzuziehung) oi physicalelements [Monientc) ; that is, derived from observedfacts, t • The word " ausscrhalb " in relation to the whole circuit of the three-dimensional region of space given perceptibly to us has only one sense,if for the centre of those " binding forces, acting thereon " is presupix)scda fourth dimension. t The recently introduced "conception of solidity" or "rigidity"{dcr Fcstigkcit odcr Starrhcit) is only another expression for this physicalside of the problem. For though the geometrical conception of soliditycan l)C dcjincd .is the unchangcablcness of the distance of the points of asystem of points, yet the intuition underlying this "conception " is onlyderived from experience, ju>t as the conception of motion is abstractedfrom experience. Compare Ilelniholtz " On the Origin aud Meaning ofGeometrical Axioms" {Popular Scientific Essays, November 3rd, 1876). So
  • 137. : PROJECTED EXPERIMENTS. 97 I now proceed to the description of further success-ful experiments in the presence of Mr. Slade, which will partly confirm those already mentioned, partlyestablish them more thoroughly by new modifications. In order to exclude as far as possible the depen-dence of to us inexplicable phenomena upon humantestimony, I desired to devise experiments such thatthe permanent effect, as final result, should be com-pletely unexplainable according to the conceptions wehave hitherto entertained of the laws of nature. Withthis object, I had arranged the following experiment I. Two wooden rings, one of oak, the other of alder-wood, were each turned from one piece."" The outerdiameter of the rings was 105 millimetres, the inner74 millimetres. Could these two rings be interlinkedwithout solution of continuity, the test would beadditionally convincing by close microscopic examina-tion of the unbroken continuity of the fibre. Twodifferent kinds of wood being chosen, the possibilityof cutting both rings from the same piece is likewiseexcluded. Two such interlinked rino;s would conse-quently in themselves represent a " miracle," that is,a phenomenon which our conceptions heretofore ofWilhelm Fiedler," Geometry and Geomechanics, " in the " Fourth YearlyJournal Natural Philosophy at Zurich," 21st yearly vol., of the Society of1876, same number " On Sj^mmetry " by Fiedler, number 2, p. 186 et seq. Both these rings I received in February of this year, through thekindness of Herr G. De Liagre. I take this opportunitj publicly to thankthis gentleman, as also the frequently-mentioned Herr Oscar von Hoff-mann, for their energetic assistance in the experiments with Mr. Slade. G
  • 138. 98 TUA.N^etN DENTAL IlIVSICS.jihysical and organic processes would be absolutelyincompetent to explain. 2. Since among products of nature, the dispositionof whose parts is according to a particular direction,as with snail-shells twisted riglit or left, this disposi-tion can be reversed by a four-dimensional twisting ofthe object, 1 had provided myself with a large numberof such shells, of different species, and at least two ofeach kind. 3. From a dried gut, such as is used in twine-fac-tories, a band without ends (in sich gescldossenes) wascut, of a breadth of from four to five millimetres, anda circuit of 400 millimetres. Should a knot be tied inthis baud, close microscopic examination would alsoreveal whether the connection of the parts of this striphad been severed or not. 4. lu order to demonstrate yet more evidently theso-called penetration of matter, which comes in ques-tion in all these experiments, I had a glass ball,enclosed on all sides, of 40 millimetres diameter, blownby the glass-manufacturer, llerr Gotze, of this place.From a paraffin caudle I had then cut oflf with a sharpknife a piece of such a length that it just fell short ofthat of the interior of the ball. I asked Herr Gotzeif he thought it possible to blow a glass ball of theprescribed size round such a piece of paraffin providedwith sharp edges, without melting the paraffin, at leastat the edges. He replied most decidedly in the nega-
  • 139. SCIENTIFIC PASSIVITY. 99tive ; and even independently of his authority, I believeI do not risk contradiction in asserting that such apiece of paraffin with sharp unmolten edges in theinterior of the said glass ball would be, according toour heretofore limited conception of the laws of nature,an inexplicable miracle. The foregoing preparations sufficiently show whatsort of phenomena I tvished to see in Slades presence.Since, however, in the course of more than thirtysittings with Mr. Slade, I had come to the convictionthat he did not himself " do " the mysterious thingswhich happened near him, I could not rationallydemand of him that he should "show" me all theabove-mentioned experiments. Far more unreasonablestill must I have hence considered the desire on mypart to impose " conditions " on Mr. Slade, under whichhe should effect these to himself inexplicable proceed-ings. I preferred therefore to comport myself towardsMr. Slade and the phenomena occurring in his pre-sence just as I did towards nature in my physicaldiscoveries up to that time, or to the previouslyanticipated fall of meteors, which happened when ourearth crossed the path of Bielas comet, on the 27thNovember 1872. I accordingly remained patient,and in a passive receptive disposition for the thingswhich should come, and left it confidently to nature ofher own free-will to reveal to me as much of hersecrets as seemed fitting to her without blinding my
  • 140. ; — *ICX) TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.intellectual eyes by the spleiKlour of her majesty ;mindful always of Goethes words : " Geheimuissvoll atis lichten Tng Lasst tick Xalnr lUs Sch/eicr$ nicht herauhm, Und teas tie deineni Otigt nuht nfenbaren maff, Das Ztoingttdu ihr nicht ahviit Htbeln uiul mit Schrauhtn. * Inscrutable in noon-days blaze, Nature lets no one tear the veil away And what herself she does not choose Unasked before your soul to lay, You shall not wrest from her by levers or by screws." — Theodore Martin t iraualation. And in fact, I know no better comparison wherebyto indicate the character of the constantly unexpectedoccuiTenccs in their succession and ingenious connec-tion, than the manner in which men are led by fate.Seldom happens just that which we, according to themeasure of our limited understanding, wish ; but if,looking back on the course of some years, we regard • Faust alone, after Wa<?ner had left him with tlie words " Zwar wci^sich rid, doch inucht ich (dies wisscn " (niucli, it is true, I know ; yetwould know all). In the monologue that follows, Faust e-xjiresses hissentiments upon that "Famulus," and doubtless later "professors," inthese wordsi :— * Wie nur dem Kopf nicht alle Huffnunri tchtcindet, Der immerfort an schalem Zcnge klebl ; Mil <ikr(!cr Hand nach Schalzen grdlt, Undfroh iat, wenn er Regcnvcurmer findet." " Strange that all hope has not long since been blighted, In one content on such mere chaff to feed ; Who digs for treasure with a misers greed, And if he finds a muck-worm is delighted." — Theodore Martins translation.
  • 141. SCHOPENHAUER ON FATE. lOIwhat lias actually come to pass, we recognise gratefullythe intellectual superioricy of that Hand which, accord-ing to a sensible plan, conducts our fateu to the truewelfare of our moral nature, and shapes our life dra-matically to a harmonic whole. Volentemfata ducwit,nolentem trcihunt, says an old proverb, often quoted bySchopenhauer. That such a conception of the signifi-cance, and of the inner intellectual connection of ourfate, does not merely spring from an idealism colouredby optimism, but powerfully imposes itself even on apessimist with sufficiently high powers of understand-ing, we have the most striking proof in Schopenhauerstreatise, " On apparent Design in the Fate of the In-dividual" {Uber die anscheinende Ahsichlichkeit im *Schichscde des Einzelnen). He says : " At all events, however, the perception, or ratherthe opinion, that tliis necessity of all that happens isno blind necessity, thus the belief in an evolution ofthe events of life not less methodical than necessary,is a fatalism of a higher kind, though not so easilydemonstrable, and one which perhaps occurs to everyone, sooner or later, at one time or another, and isheld by him, for a time, or ever after, according to hismode of thinking. We might name it transcendentfatalism, to distinguish it from the common anddemonstrahle fatalism. . . . Thus, in regard to par-ticular individual fate, grew up in many that tran- * Parergaand Paralipomena, vol. i. pp. 218, 219.
  • 142. 102 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.sccndent /atohsm, which the ftttentive considerationof his own life, after its thrrad has been spun to aconsiderable •loi>gtJli.- Buggists, perhaps, to every oneonce ; and which has not onlymucli that is consola-tory, but it may be also much that is true ; andtherefore has it at all times been affirmed, even asdoijma. Neither our conduct nor our career is otirwork ; but that, indeed, which nobody supposes to be80— our nature and existence {unser Wesen iinclDasein). For on the foundation of these, and of thecircumstances and external events occurring in thestrictest causal connection, our actions au<l wholecareer proceed with complete necessity. Already ata mans birth, therefore, is his whole career irrevoc-ably determined even in its details, so that a somnam-bule in higli power could predict it exactly. Weshould keep this great and certain truth in view in theconsideration and judgment of our career, our acts andsufferings."
  • 143. — ( I03 ) Chapter ^etientfi*VAEIOUS INSTANCES OF THE SO-CALLED PASSAGE OF MATTER THROUGH MATTER.After this digression, I now go on to tlie descriptionof those physical modifications which have actuallybeen efiected in some of the above objects prepared byme, ivitJwut their having been touched at all hy Slade. On the 3rd May of this year at half-past eight inthe evening, during a sitting in which, besides myself,Herr 0. von Hofi*mann took part, there lay on thetable with other objects two of the above-mentionedsnail-shells. I had bought both of them on the morn-ing of the same day from an Italian shell-dealer, whoofiered his wares for sale at Leipzig fair. The smallershell belonged to a species commonly found here ;the larger to a species which, according to the dealer,is found on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea ; hewrote down the name of it Capo Turhus (Lat. Caputturho) — at my desire. The nearly circular aperture of had a diameter of about 43 millimetres, whilethis shellthe smaller one measured only about 32 millimetresin its greatest extent. On this evening I had, with-out definite design, so capped the smaller shell withthe larger, that the latter, lying with its opening next
  • 144. 104 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.the surface of the table, completely hid the former.This had hui)pened during a sitting iu which whollydifTerent manifestations occurred. When, now, Sladeheld a slate * under the edge of the table in the usualway to get writing on it, something clattered suddenlyon the slate, as if a hard body had fallen on it. "Whenimmediately afterwards the slate was taken out forexamination, there lay upon it the smaller shell whicha minute before I had capped with the larger, asabove mentioned. Since both shells had lain beforealmost exactly in the middle of the table, untouchedand constantly watched by me, here was, therefore,the often observed phenomenon of the so-called pene-tration of matter confirmed by a surprising and quiteunexpected physical fact. Reserving the account ofnumerous other phenomena of this kind to the thirdvolume of my Scientific Treatises,^ I yet mention hereone very remarkable circumstance. Immediately afterMr. Slade drew the slate from under the table withthe smaller shell on it, I seized the shell in orderclosely to examine it for any changes that might havehappened in it. I was nearly letting it drop, so very • In order to dcjirive tlic supgcstion, tliat Mr. Sladc writes himself onthe slate, l»y means a bit of pencil inserted under tlie finger-nails, of ofevery rational foundation, I had provided myself, from the stationeryestablishment of Mylius at this place, vith half-adozen slates having alength of 34 ccntimfctres and a breadth of 15 centimetres (with the fabricmark, A. W. Faber, no. 39). With a slate so much longer than usual, it wasimpossible that Mr. Slade could write with Lis iliigers, while holding theslate, over its whole surface. t Tost
  • 145. AN UNEXPECTED PHENOMENON. IO5hot had it become. I handed it at once to my friend,and he confirmed the fact of its remarkably hightemperature. This fact is, I believe, of physical impor-tance with regard to one circumstance in the follow-ing experiments. On the 9th May, at seven oclock in the evening, Iwas alone with Slade in our usual sitting-room. Afresh wind having blown all the afternoon, the sky wasremarkably clear, and the room, which has a westerlyaspect, was brilliantly lighted by the setting sun. Thetwo wooden rings and the above-mentioned (p. 98)entire bladder band were strung on to a piece of catgutone millimetre in thickness, and i05 metre in length.The two ends of the catgut were tied together by my-self in a knot, and then, as formerly in the case of thestring, secured with my own seal by myself. Plate III.represents the condition of things at the beginning ofthe sitting ; Plate IV., at its conclusion. When Slade and I were seated at the table in theusual manner, I placed my two hands over the upperend of the sealed catgut, as shown in the plate, photo-graphed from life. The small round table, alreadyreferred to, was placed shortly after our entry into theroom, in the position shown in the picture.* * It is scarcely necessary to remark that the photographs were taken,not during, but some days after, the sittings. The two tables are thoseused in the sittings, but the sealed catgut, with the two wooden ringsand the were afterwards prepared to show the condition strip of bladder,of these objects before the sitting, and are as far as possible exactlycopied from the originals shown on Plate III.
  • 146. I06 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. After a few minutes had elapsed, and Slade lia<Iasserted, as usual during physical manifestations, thatlie saw lights, a slight smell of burning was apparentin the room — it seemed to come from under the table,and somewhat recalled the smell of sulphuric acid.Shortly afterwards we heard a rattling sound at thesmall round table opposite, as of pieces of wood knock-ing together. When I asked whether we should closethe sitting, the rattling was repeated three times con-secutively. "We then left our scats, in order that weniifijht ascertain the cause of the rattlinnr at the roundtable. To our great astonishment we found the twowooden rings, which about six minutes previouslywere strung on the catgut, in complete preservation,encirclincr the leoj of the small table. The catf];ut wastied in two loose knots, throucjh which the endlessbladder band was hanging uninjured, as is seen inPlate IV. [See Plate X., Appendix D.] Immediately after the sitting, astonished and highlydelighted at such a wealth of permanent results, Icalled my friend and his wife into the sitting-room.Slade fell into oue of his usual trances, and informedus that the invisible beings surroundim? him hadendeavoured, according to my wish, to tie some knotsin the endless band, but had been oblicjed to abandontheir intention, as the band was in danger of "melting"during the operation under the great increase of tem-perature, and that we should perceive this by the white-
  • 147. H •a }
  • 148. Plate V.{Copied from a Photograph.)
  • 149. PSYCHIC FORCE BURNS. I I 3ness of a spot on tlie band. Having taken the bandinto my own hands immediately after the sitting, andheld it up to the moment of Slades communication, Ifelt great interest in testing the correctness of thisassertion. There was, in fact, a white spot as indicated,and when we took another piece of exactly the samematerial and held it over a lighted candle, the effectof the increased temperature was to produce preciselysuch another white spot. This fact, in connection withthe burning smell perceived during the sitting, as wellas the increase in temperature in a former experiment(related above), will be worth bearing in mind infurther experiments with four-dimensional movementsof bodies. In fact, if, according to the above-cited alternativeof Riemann, "the reality underlying space must bosou2;ht in bindinsr forces actino; thereon," so couldsuch increase of temperature be produced in likemanner as in the motions of conducting bodies in themagnetic field. For suppose we knew nothing of themagnetic induction discovered by Faraday, and wereobserving in a space lying between the poles of anelectro-magnet, not otherwise perceptible to us, theincrease in temperature of quickly-moved conductingbodies would appear to us just as wonderful and in-comprehensible as the heat produced in mundanebodies in the above instances by four dimensionalchanges of place.
  • 150. 4 —I 1 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. Doubtless, a liiglily-dcveloped undcrstaiuling, wLiclifrom metaphysical principles, that is, from principlesderived from reason, had recognised the necessity anduniversal significance of Webers law for every inter-action of spatially separated bodies, would have in-ferred the existence of Faradays magnetic induction,a priori ; he would therefore regard the heating ofconducting bodies on their motion only as an empiricalconfirmation of his d priori deductions, and thus wouldhave inferred the real existence of such an electro-magnet, even if his mortal eye had never seen it, andhis mortal body had never touched it. From the foregoing it will be seen that my preparedexperiments did not succeed in the manner expectedby me. For exam[>le, the two wooden rings were notlinked together, but instead, were transferred withinfive minutes from the sealed catgut to the leg of theround birchen table. Since the seal was not loosened,and the top of the table was not at any time removedit is still tightly fastened — it follows, from the stand-point of our present conception of space, that each ofthe two wooden rings penetrated, first the catgut, andthen the birch wood of the leg of the table. If how-ever, I ask whether, in the eyes of a sceptic, the experi-ment desired by me, or that which actually succeeded,is most fitted to make a great and convincing impres-sion, on closer consideration every one will decide infavour of the latter. For the demonstrative force of
  • 151. — 5 FAILURES AN ARGUMENT AGAINST TRICKERY. IIthe interlinked rings would rest merely on the credi-bility of the botanically-ediicated microscopist, whomust have been my witness (as the Imperial Court con-juror, Bellachini, was for Mr. Slade), that the naturalconformation of the rino;s had never been disturbed.How wholly useless, however, such testimonies are atpresent, when, according to Goethes expression, " in-credulity has become like an inverted superstition forthe delusion of our time," we have seen in the sort ofcriticism which Bellachinis testimony has undergoneat the hands of the Berlin literati.^ The question willmoreover be asked, why just here in Leipzic the experi-ments with Mr. Slade have been crowned with suchsplendid success, and yet the knot experiment, forexample, has not once succeeded in Russia, notwith-standing so many wishes. If it is considered how greatan interest Mr. Slade must have in seeing so simpleand striking an experiment everywhere and alwayssuccessful, every rightly judging and unprejudicedperson must see just in this very circumstance the moststriking proof that Mr. Slade is no trickster who byclever manipulations makes these knots himself. Forsuch an one would evidently be at the trouble so toincrease his expertness, by frequent repetition of theexperiment, as to be able to rely with certainty on hisart to deceive other " men of science." That, never- * Mere contemptuous abuse —Professor Zollaer gives the articles atlength in an earlier part of his volume. Tr.
  • 152. 1 I 6 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.theless, this obvious consideration has not suggesteditself, the above-mentioned failure being regarded, onthe contrary, as just the proof that ]lr. Slade has onlydeceived uh at Leipsic, "svhich he could not do with thehigher intelligence of the Russian learned, is shown bythe following words of a scientific friend from Russia,to whom I had sent my " Scientific Treatises." * February 22, 1878. " Perhaps the following fact may open your eyes.Two days ago, in consequence of your letter and independence on it, two scientific friends visited Mr.Slade, and requested him to undertake in their presencethe striking operation of the four knots. Mr. Sladesanswer was, This operation has only succeeded twice(in Leipsic ?) ; at present my medium is not strongenough for it After this can you look upon thatoperation as an actual proof of the existence of the "fourth dimension ? It has further been asked, why the communicationswhich are written for IVIr. Slade on his slates, as issupposed by invisible spirits, are for the most part socommonplace, and so completely within the compassof human knowledge ; high spirits must yet necessarilywrite with more genius, and also spell properl}. Aprivate teacher of philosophy at Berlin having madethis objection to me personally, on his visit to Leipsic,I observed to him that any communication transcend-
  • 153. A NAIVE MISCONCEPTION. I I 7ing the present horizon of our understanding mustnecessarily appear to us absurd and incomprehensible,and r quoted to him the following words of Lichten-bero; : —* " If an ang-el were to discourse to us of hisphilosopliy, I believe that many propositions wouldsound to us like *2 and 2 make 13." Far fromunderstanding me, that young philosopher asked mequite seriously, and with an expression of the highestcuriosity, whether such propositions, then, ever ap-peared on Mr. Slades slates to attest their angelicorigin. Completely unprepared for such a naive ques-tion, I was silent, and looked with some astonishment atmy young philosopher, who had even already publisheda book on the new theory of space. Without replying,I thought, " Only wait ; soon thou also wilt be atrest " (" Warte nui halcle ruhest audi du "), as regularprofessor of philosophy in the bosom of some famousGerman university, and then will it be with thystudents just as with us " if an angel discoursed to usof his philosophy ; " for Lichtenberg says, " We livein a world where one fool makes many fools, but onewise man only a few wise men." t The fact that, just here in Leipsic, experimentsdevised from the standpoint of a definite theory havebeen so surprisingly successful in the presence of Mr.Slade, I regard as one of the most striking proofs of the * Miscellaneous Wi-itings, vol. i. p. 105. + Thoughts and Maxims, p. 46.
  • 154. —Il8 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.gro;it intelligence of the invisible beings suiToinulinghim. For if, without appearing presumptuous, I mayinclude myself in that class of intelligent beings in whichindeed all my fellow-men also number themselves, bythe name of their species "homo sapieiis," yet would Imake more precise communications and explanationsconcerning my physical observations only to such menas I hold to be sufficiently trained. In a society ofsocial democrats, or in one of German or Englishscientists, where Mr. Tyndall or Sir W. Thomson findssuch a ready sale for their wares* — yes, even in theBerlin Academy, I would refrain from speaking orexperimenting on my theory of space. Were I, forexample, myself one of those invisible spirits whohover round INIr. Slado, and were my medium invitedto a "scientific" examination by the Berlin academi-cians, it would be easy for me to write on the slatethe following proposition — for instance, ** We are theplay of our brain-molecules," or, " The first life onthe earth took its rise in germs enclosed in the coolfolds of a meteoric stone." These pro^iositions would evidently have beengreeted wdth joy by Mr. E. du Bois-Eaymond and HerrIlelmholtz as striking proofs of the high intelligenceof those invisible beings, and would certainly have * To make this allusion intelligible, it slioiild be mentioned that muchof these volumes is devoted to criticism of the atomic and other specula-tive iiypothcscs of these scieutilic gentlemen. Tr.
  • 155. 9 MOEAL RESPONSIBILITY OF MEDIUMS. I 1brought much honour and glory to my medium. Asan invisible spirit, I might perhaj)S have perpetratedin good-humour such a jest with the Berlin academi-cians, just as Sir W. Thomson did with his " unscien-tific people " at the Edinburgh meeting of scientistsseven years ago.* Since, however, in the higherw^orld of spirits truth is held as something sacred,with which only lower spirits permit themselves tojest, so by such purport of my slate- writing shouldI have made myself guilty of an injury to the morallaw, which, according to the laws of divine and eternaljustice, would bring its own punishment. May notpossibly similar considerations have prevailed tohinder Slades invisible beings from displaying atanother place their treasures, which have been shownto us partly here in Leipzic in such wonderful abun-dance "? Lastly, a circumstance may be briefly noticed whichrelates not so much to the moral and intellectual quali-ties of the invisible spirits as to those of the visiblemediums, whom those spirits need for their manifesta- * "When he made the suggestion that the first life on this earth origin-ated in germs enclosed in meteorites. This idea was for a long timediscussed quite seriouslj bj", among other scientific authorities, E. duBois Raymond, Helmholtz (who claimed priority of it for himself and ,by Zollner. But in " Nature " of 4th July 1874 appeared the following,in a criticism of Zollners book, ^ On the Nature of Comets:" — "Thecelebrated moss-giown fragments from the ruins of another Avorld wasonly a jest, taken in earnest even by many of our own countrymen, sowe can scarcely reproach Professor Zollner for falling into the same mis-take."— Tr.
  • 156. I20 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.tions. It liiOs been alleged as a characteristic of allsuch mecliums, that notwithstanding the most wonder-ful occurrences in their proximity, they have yet theinclination to deceive, that is, when opportunity oflfers,to produce the desired effect by such operations asthey consciously endeavour to hide from observation.Having regard to the great danger of such attemptsto the medium, and to the entire disproportion be-tween the effects which can be so produced by aninexperienced trickster and those resulting fromgenuine mediumship, tlie question arises whether,when this is the case with a medium who has beenproved with certainty to be really such, the sameconsideration does not apply as with persons sufferingunder so-called kleptomania? It is asserted that awell-known and highly-gifted lady in distinguishedcircles of Berlin society suffers from this disease. Forexample, after making large purchases at a jewellerssliop, she will secretly abstract an ornament, which,vhen she has got home, she will return by her servantsto the proprietor. Sometimes a similar perversion ofthe moral instinct appears with women in the state ofpregnancy. In all these cases we do not hold thepersons in question morally accountable for these pro-ceedings, since the end attained thereby is out of allproportion, considering the innocent and suitablemeans at hand. Although I never, during my thirtysittings and other intercourse with Mr. Slade, per-
  • 157. PHENOMENA INCONSISTENT WITH TRICKERY. 12 1ceived anything of sucTi perverse methods, yet I askevery unprejudiced person whether, if this has beenthe case elsewhere, the above morally and legallyadmissible judgment in relation to kleptomaniacs isnot here also exculpatory, considering the certainlyanomalous physiological constitution of such mediums. Eeserving till later on in these treatises the detailedcommunication of further and not less remarkablephenomena which happened in Blades presence, I willhere add an observation to the accurate description(supra, p. 34) of the physical manifestation whichoccurred on the occasion of Blades first visit, on the1 6th November 1877, in my house and in the presenceof my friends and colleagues, Wilhelm "Weber andScheibner."^ In all phenomena in the presence ofspiritualistic mediums hitherto observed and published,it is almost exclusively the modus operandi thathas led to controversies concerning the explicabilityof the phenomena from the standpoint of our concep-tion of nature heretofore. An argument has beenfounded on the fact that things occur also in thepresence of conjurers, in which the modus operandiof the performer is concealed from us, and thus thecausal connection between the muscular movements ofthe artist and the effect produced by him is so inter-rupted (apparently), that for the spectator there arises * The sudden rending of the wooden frame of a bed-screen at leastfive feet from Slade,
  • 158. 122 TRANSCENDENTAL rnVSICS.tlie impression of the inexplical)le, and therefore ofthe miraculous. Tliis argument, liowever, has for itspremiss tlic understood and thus unexpressed presup-position that the muscular force requisite for the pro-duction of these tricks of the conjurer remains withinthose limits which according to experience are pre-scribed to human beings by the organisation of theirbodies. If, for example, one man alone were to performa trick requiring the strength of two horses, inrelation to such a result the above argument wouldbe no longer admissible, since then there would be noconceivable ?Hoc/«5 operandi Mq to produce the effect. In the case of my bed-screen —the manifestationmentioned at p. 34 — I am fortunately able to establishsuch an instance. The material of the frame was alder wood ; thescreen was new, and had been bought by me about ayear before at the furniture shop already mentioned(p. 36). The cross-cut of the two pieces of wood whichwere longitudinally* and simultaneously rent, aboveand below, amounted to 3" 142 cubic centimetres. * Tluit tlic pull [z>ig) upon the screen has in fact acted loiiyitmlinallyonly is still oviilenceil quite inilependcntly of the above-mentioneddirection of the lihrcs at the jdaces of division For between the (p. 34).two strong beams connecting the movable parts of the frame are two forthin, parallel pieces of wood for securing the green, woollen stuff withwhich the screen is overlaid. These thin jiieces arc fastened without glueto the vertical supports loosely in holes about 25 millimetres deep ; if, there-fore, instead of a longitudinal pull, a rupture [briich) had taken place,these two pegs must have been broken away, which was not the case.
  • 159. — THE LIMITS OF PHYSICAL HUMAN STRENGTH. 1 23According to the experiments of Ettelwein/ tlieamount of pull requisite for the longitudinal rendingof such apiece of alder wood is 4957 kilogrammes, orabout 99 cwts ; since, therefore, two such rods havebeen simultaneously rent, for the production of thiseffect a force of pull (Zugkmft) amounting to 198 cwts.must have been used. In order, now, to compare the force here given withthat exercised by men, in what follows I quote literallythe appended information from Gehlers Dictionaryof Physics, vol. ii. p. 976 : " The muscles of the thigh hold upright the body,whose weight can be put at 150 lbs. ; and since thereare muscles which bear 300 lbs. in addition, the weiglitof pressure already amounts in itself to 450 lbs. Tocite, however, some examples only of extraordinarystrength, I have myself known a man who withoutpreparation and on an accidental occasion carried sixEhenish cubic feet (Brunswick bushels) of wheat, andupon this a large, strong man, up a flight of abouteight steps. This weight of itself can be estimatedat 450 lbs. and, with the added weight of the bearer,in the whole at 600 lbs. restino- on the feet and leo-s ofthat man. " There are, moreover, many instances of a vastly * Handbook of Statics of Solid Bodies, with pai-ticular regard to theirapplication to Architecture, vol. iii., Berlin, 1808. A very completereview of earlier experiments is given in the "Edinburgh Enci/cIoj:)(edia."Compare Gehlers Dictionary of Physics, vol. ii. p. 138.
  • 160. 124 TRANSCENDENTAL mYSICS.greater exertion of strength produced by the extensormuscle of the leg, like that mentioned by Desaguliers,of a man who thus tore a rope which sustained aweight of 1800 lbs. = 18 cwts. ; he himself and someothers having raised 1900 lbs. weight by means of astrap hanging down over the hips, by bringing thesomewhat bent leg into a straifjht direction. "I have myself seen a strong man raise 2000 lbs.,by placing himself in a bent posture under a board,whereon this weight rested, bringing its point ofgravity somewhere near the hips, supporting the armson the knees, and then straightening the bent legs.Tiie muscles here applied are, among all in the humanbody, able to overcome the greatest weights, and sotherefore a man raises much heavier burdens in theway described than on the shoulders or with theupper part of the body, if at the same time the back-bone has to be straightened. " I myself knew a man who raised a cwt. from thechair on to the table on the little finger of the righthand with outstretched arm ; and even this instanceis by no means the strongest, judging from crediblenarratives ; so I saw the above-mentioned Hercules,who raised the 2000 lbs., grasp with his right hand aperpendicular rod of iron, sufficiently secured, andwith outstretched arm keep his whole body sustainedin a horizontal position for about five seconds withoutother support."
  • 161. " THE STRENGTH OF TWO HORSES. 1 2$ Comparing the above with the force of 198 cwts.requisite for the rending of my bed-screen, it will beseen that the strength of the " Hercules " referred towould have to be multiplied by nearly 10 —applied ina favourable position —to produce the physical mani-festation which took place in Slades presence withoutcontact. Since * the force in the movement of weightsby carrying on the flat " is with a horse on the averageabout five times greater than that of a man,^* so forthe production of the mechanical effect in question inSlades presence, about two horses would have beennecessary. Even if Slade should be assumed to bea giant, and the faculty ascribed to him of movingso swiftly in space that my friends Wilhelm Weber,Scheibner, and I myself, were prevented by thisrapidity from perceiving how he tore asunder thescreen by his own action, yet will rational sceptics bedisposed to renounce such an " explanation " after thestatements just given. But in case I should be reproached with having in theabove supposition caricatured the so-called " rationalattempt at explanation, I may observe that one of myesteemed colleagues who, on the day after the sittingin question, was himself present with two other of our * Gehlers Dictionary of Physics, vol. v. p. 1004. Literally "There is,therefore, in the movement by carrying of weights on the flat, a force, Of a man= I according to Coulomb. Of a horse = 4. 8 according to Brunacci. Of a horse := 6. i according to Wessermaun."
  • 162. — 126 TKAXSCENnKNTAL niYSICS.colleagues at a sitting with Mr. Slade, sought quiteseriously to appease his scientific conscience by thesupposition that Slaile carried dynamite al)Out witlihim for the purpose of such strong niccluinical mani-festations, concealing it in some clever fashion in tliofurniture, and then with equal adroitness explodingit by a match. This explanation reminded me of oneby wliich a peasant in a remote part of LowerPomerania attempted to account for the motion of alocomotive. To mitiGrate in some deforce the terrorwhich the first sight of a self-moving locomotive mustnaturally excite in rude and ignorant men, the priestof the village in question tried to explain to hisparishioners the mechanism and effect of a steam-engine. When now the pastor had conducted hispeasants, enlightened by this "popular lecture,"* tothe railroad just as the first train rushed by, they allshook their heads incredulously, and answered thepriest, "No, no, parson, there are horses hidden inside!"That, in fact, within all bodies electrical forces arepotentially latent, which, suddenly released, couldexceed the strongest effects of a charge of dynamite,I have already remarked in the first volume, as follows :" It is proved that the electrical energy present in themass of one milligram t of water (or any other body)would be able, if it could be suddenly set free, to * For reasons given in other parts of his treatises, Professor ZuUnerholds popular cxjiositions of scientific subjects in small esteem. Tr. t =0.01543 grains.
  • 163. — CATALYTIC FORCES. I Ifproduce the amount of motion which the explosion ofa charge of 167 kilogrammes" of powder in thelargest of cannons now existing can impart to a shot of520 kilogrammes." In the presence of spiritualistic mediums there musttherefore have been operative so-called catalytic f * I kilogram =^ lbs. 2.2046213. t That the ordinary chemical and physical processes require for theirexplanation the supposition of such catalytic forces was first recognisedby Berzelius, -with -whom, as is well known, the designation of theseforces originated. It is certainly a proof of the great acuteness of Wilhelm Weber, and ofthe universal significance of his laiv, that already, thirty-two years ago,immediately following the discussion of the analytical expression of hislaw (compare my Principles of an Electro-Dynamic Theory of Matter,vol. i.), he expressed himself concerning the existence of catalytic forces innature as follows : " Thus this force depends on the quantity of the masses, on theirdistance, on their relative velocity, and further on that relative accelera-tion, which comes to them partly in consequence of the persistence ofthe motion already present in them, partly in consequence of the forcesacting upon them from other bodies." "It seems to foUow from thence, that direct interaction between twoelectrical masses depends not exclusively upon these masses themselvesand their mutual relations, but also in the presence of third bodies.Now it is known that Berzelius has already conjectured such a depend-ence of direct interaction of two bodies in the presence of a third, andhas designated the force thence resulting by the name of catalytic.Adopting this name, it can therefore be said that even electrical pheno-mena proceed in part from catalytic forces. This proof of catalytic forces for electricity is not, however, strictly speaking, a consequence of the discovered principles of electricity. Itwould only then be so, if with these principles was necessarily connectedthe idea that only the forces by which electrical masses act directly on eachother from a distance Avere thereby determined. It is, however, conceivablethat among the forces comprehended under the discovered principles aresome exercised mediately by electrical masses on one another, which musttherefore depend, in the first instance, on the interposing medium, andfurthermore on all bodies acting on this medium. Such mediately exercisedforces, if the interposing medium is withdrawn from our view, maj^ easilypassfor catalytic forces, although in fact not so. The conception of catalytic
  • 164. 128 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.forces, hitherto concealed from us, which were able torelease and convert into active force a small part ofthe potential energy laid up in all bodies. That fiftyyears ago a physicist could venture with impunitypublicly to declare the possible existence of " forces,up to the present unknown to us," without on thataccount having dirt thrown upon him by anonymouswriters in (so-called) " respectable " journals, is provedby the following words of the then professor of physicsin the University of Heidelberg in the year 1829 :*"Not a few, and among them, moreover, advan-tageously known scholars, have supposed differentvnknoirn forces in nature, and especially in man.That there may be such, from whose action many asyet mysterious phenomena of vegetable and animalvital processes could be explicable, certainly cannotbe denied generally and a priori; but, on the otherhand, it is quite certain that the greatest circumspec-tion and a scepticism much to be recommended to aphysicist should be exercised in this supposition." How far the paternal counsel here given to un-critical physicists is justifiable and decent whenforces must them in such at least be essentially modified in speaking ofcases. That is to must then be understood say, niulcr catalytic forceBuch a nudiately exercised force as can be dehned according to a generalrule through a certain knowledge of the bodies to whose inlluence theinteqiDsing uiedium is subjected, although without knowledge of thismedium itself. The discovered fundamental law of electricity gives ageneral rule for the determination of c;italytic forces in this sense." • Muncke iu Gehlers Dictionanj of Physics, vol. v. ji. 1007.
  • 165. — — GALILEO ON PERVERSENESS OF LEARNED MEN. 1 29 applied to men of the scientific eminence of Willielm Weber or Feclmer, particularly from the mouths of literati a.nd pretended {so-genannten) "men of science," posterity may judge. In the meanwhile we console ourselves with words addressed by Galileo to Kepler : "What willst thou say of the first teachers at the Gymnasium at Padua, who, when I ofiered it to them, w^ould look neither at the planets nor the moon through the telescope ? Tliis sort of men look on philosophy as a book like the JEneid or Odyssy, and believe that truth is to be sought not in the world or nature, but only in comparison of texts. HowI wouldst thou have laughed, when at Pisa the first teacher of the Gymnasium there endeavoured, in the presence of the Grand Duke, to tear away the new planets from heaven with logical arguments, like " magical exorcisms ! Kepler, however, hereupon answered Galileo : " Courage ! Galileo, and advance. If I see rightly, few of Europes eminent mathematicians will fall away from us; so great is the power of truths
  • 166. " ( >30 ) Cl)optcr (Eigljtij.THE PHENOMENA SriTABI.E FOR SCIENTIFIC REaEARCH— THEIR RETRODCCTION AT DIFKEKEST TIMES AN!) PLACES— Dll. FRIESEs AND PHOEKSSOR WAGNERS EXPERIMENTS IN CONFIRMATION OF THE ACTUORS.Before passing ou to the description of further experi-ments and observations wliicli I conducted with ^fr.Slade, I may mention that the essential facts (and ofthese just the most wonderful and incrediljle) havealready been repeated, not in presence of Slade, butamong private individuals with medial gifts, under themost stringent conditions. This circumstance disposesfirst of the argument that Mr. Slade is a swindler andimpostor merely on the ground that as a "professionalmedium he makes a "business" of his powers like anyother conjurer ; and secondly, it divests spiritisticphenomena of the exceptional character which mightseem to unfit them for becoming objects of scientificresearch. For the characteristic of natural phenomenais that their existence can be confirmed at difiorentplaces and times. Thus is proof afforded that thereare general conditions (no matter whether known orunknown to us, or whether we can provide them or not • Wiss. Ahh. vol. iii. (Tra)i4ccndciitalc Phi/si/^), y. 215.
  • 167. EXPERIMENTS WITH PEIVATE MEDIUIVIS. 131at pleasure) upon which these phenomena depend. Itis in the discovery and establishment of these condi-tions under which natural phenomena occur, that thetask of the scientific observer and experimenter con-sists. . The method applied by me for demonstrating theappearance and disappearance of human limbs by meansof sooted paper has proved particularly successful.Paper so treated is like a photographic camera ohscurawhich can be placed unobserved and well guarded inthe neighbourhood of the medium, so that deceptionbecomes a physical impossibility. In this way Dr.Eobert Friese, of Breslau, sitting with a family of thatplace, a lady with mediumistic powers being present,obtained the impression of a hand upon sooted paperfixed to a slate, which was placed on a stove andcovered with a sheet of paper to protect it from dust.The impression was obtained while the medium sat ona sofa between Dr. Friese and a friend of his, and washeld by them both. The medium in a state of trancedistinctly saw the figure which mounted on the stoveand made the impression of the hand, so that the wholeoperation was described by her during the process, Dr.Friese and his friend perceiving nothing. The slatewas taken down from the stove directly the mediumawoke, and on it was found the impression of the handjust as she had described it. But the most brilliant repetition of one of my ex-
  • 168. 132 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.periments with sooted slates was acliieved in theautumn of last year ^ with a private medium in St.Petersburg. It has been published by Dr. NicolausWagner, Professor of Zoology, and honorary memberof the University there, in the June number ofPsf/chiscJie Stialic)), with a photo-lithographic repre-sentation of the impression obtained. I reproducethis account here literally, since it also illustrates theecclesiastical and religious prejudices which now, as inthe age of Galileo, attempt to obstruct the work ofthe scientific invest iiiator.REPETITION OF ONE OF PROFESSOR ZOLLNERS^EXPERI- MENTS WITH PRIVATE MEDIUMS. By Nicolaus Wogtift; Professor of Zoology, and Honorary Member 0/ the I Imperial University at S(. Petersburg. "The reaction against the spiritual movement runsits course with the same violence as every fanaticalopposition. If " blind faith " is the motive power ofreligious fanaticism, so also is the direction of the con-trary movement determined by a force which is quiteas illogical — " blind scepticism." In the one and theother the cause is the same — feeling, passionatelyexcited, and resisting every cool, matter-of-fact (objec-tive) consideration. There is no better proof of thisthan the attacks of the savans upon those of theircolleagues who had the inexcusable temerity to satisfy 1S78.— Tr.
  • 169. — PROFESSOR WAGNER ON "BLIND SCEPTICISM. I 33themselves of the reality of mediumistic phenomena,and to publish their experiences to the world. Untiltheir fall into Spiritualism the work and opinions ofthese men were recognised as entirely logical, accurate,and satisfying the conditions of scientific inquiry. Butscarcely have these same scientists carried their re-searches into the region of mediumistic phenomena,than they are forthwith encountered by the feeling ofantipathy ; and that even before the phenomena them-selves have been adjudicated upon by sound reason.* * This reminds us of Mr. Crookes " It is edifying to compare some :of the present criticisms with those that were written twelve months ago.When I first stated in this journal (Quarterly Journal of Science) that Iwas about to investigate the phenomena of so-called Spiritualism, theannouncement called forth universal expressions of approval. One saidthat my statements deserved respectful consideration another expressed ; profound satisfaction that the subject was about to be investigated bya man so thoroughly qualified as, &c. a thii-d was gratified to learn ;that the matter is now receiving the attention of cool and clear-headedmen of recognised position in science a fourth asserted that no one ; could doubt Mr. Crookes ability to conduct the investigation with rigidphilosophical impartiality ; and a fifth was good enough to tell its readersthat if men like Mr. Crookes grapple with the subject, taking nothingfor granted until it is proved, we shall soon know how much to believe. " These remarks, however, were written too hastily. It was taken forgranted by the writers that the results of my experiments would be inaccordance with their preconceptions. What they really desired was notthe truth, but an additional witness in favour of their own foregone con-clusion. When they found that the facts which that investigation estab-lished could not be made to fit those opinions, why, so much the worse — for the facts, — they try to creep out of their own confident recommenda-tions by declaring that ]Mr. Home is a clever conjurer, who has duped us alL Mr. Crookes might, with eqiial propriety, examine the per-formances of an Indian juggler. Mr. Crookes must get better witnesses before he can be believed. The thing is too absurd to be treated seriouslj. It is impossible, and therefore cant be. The observershave all been biologised (!), and fancy they saw things occur which neverreally took place," &c., &c. — Crookess Researches in the Phenomena ofSpiritualism, p. 22. Note by Translator.
  • 170. 134 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Impelled by tliis antipathy, even the strougest under-Btanding is blind ; it seeks support from and attachesitself to such strangely childish arguments and suppo-sitions, as to any sound thinking and unprejudicedperson are in the liighest degree absurd. "In the relations of the savans to my colleague,Professor Zollner, "who lately experimented in themediumistic field, we have the most complete evidenceof the justice of the above observation. Satisfiedthrough the force and reality of facts of the entiregenuine objectivity of the mediumistic phenomena, hedetailed his investigations. But as in the case of theinvestin-ations of Crookes and Boutlerow, so werethese also forthwith exposed to suspicion, and setdown to clever conjuring ; and the name of thecautious and accurate investigator swelled the sad listof scientists who had been deceived by (so-called)charlatans. " Now, since the whole weight of this charge restson the merely supposed fraud of the mediums, it willnot be superfluous if I give to the Press the resultsof some investigations, analogous to those of Zollner,which I have made with non-professional mediums.I do not in the least expect that this narrative, anymore than hundreds such, will make the slightestimpression on the fanaticism of the sceptic : on theother hand, I have the strongest belief that it willserve to confirm the growing conviction of those who
  • 171. — INVESTIGATION IN A PEIVATE FAMILY. I 35are not disinclined to be convinced by tlie trutb ofthings. " Since the force of the evidence chiefly depends onthe confidence in the mediums, and in the personscomposing the circle among whom the seances tookplace, I consider it essential first of all to discuss thisquestion, and to follow it up with some historicalstatements. Moved by my and my colleagueBoutlerows writings in certain Eussian periodicals,the family of the engineer and chemist E , as alsosome of their intimate friends and relatives, desired toconvince themselves of the reality or otherwise of themediumistic phenomena. It must further be remarkedthat in these families earlier cases of a mediumisticcharacter had been already observed, but had beenascribed to difierent causes, such as accident or hallu-cination. "Three ladies took part constantly in the sittingsthe wife of the chemist, Sophia E ; her sister, A.M ; and her friend, A. L , who had for yearsbeen united with Mrs. E in the most genuinefriendship and sympathy. Of these ladies the twofirst were gifted with very remarkable mediumisticaptitudes. All three were distinguished b}- deep reli-gious feelings, and every deception, even for a goodend, is abhorred by them as a heavy sin. The mani-festations occurring almost from the very first wereregarded by them as miraculous, and this feeling was
  • 172. —136 TUANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.confirmed as tlie phenomena became more and moredeveloped. " Tlio fourth Lidy, avIio was likewise constantlyj^resent, was Miss Catherine L ; one of the greatestfriends of Sophia E the wife of the chemist E .At the commencement of the seances she was anatheist ; all her convictions leaned to materialism. Sheheld the principles of the well-known Russian publicist,Ilerr Pisaref, as irrefragable dogmas. The power ofthe manifestations shook, and at length overthrew,tliis fanaticism of hers. * This small circle was formed with the firm expec-tation that it would succeed in demonstrating themediumistic manifestations to be simply a furtherdevelopment of already-known physical phenomena.With this object the tal)le at whicli they sat wasjtlaced upon glass supports, and round the feet of thetable was wound a wire, the ends of which wereattached to a galvanometer. Instead, however, of theexpected physical phenomena, the table at the veryfirst sauce urgently demanded the alphabet, and bymeans of blows with the foot of the table the followinssentence was spelled out : "I suffer because thou believest not.* "* To whom does that refer ? asked those present. " To Catherine * L . " Who, then, art thou 1 asked L . " I am thy friend, Olga N .
  • 173. PHENOMENA IN A PRIVATE FAMILY. 1 37 " This dearly-loved friend, also an atheist, had diedabout a year before, and on this account CatherineL was deeply astonished and moved by the infor-mation communicated throuo;h the table. This infor-mation, given in the same seance, referred to differentparticulars of an event known only to CatherineL , and thoroughly convinced her of the existenceof the soul of her beloved friend, even though inanother world. " Henceforth, the before-mentioned physical experi-mentation was laid aside, the conversations were moreand more striking, and confirmed their faith in thereality of another world. This faith soon became afirm conviction with all. To show the relations ofthe circle, and especially of Catherine L , to thephenomena, I here add some extracts from her diary,which was written for her own eye only, and com-nmnicated to me after her death, which happenedsomewhat later. " 29th March, 1876, 1.30 a.m. Scarcely had Sand I retired to rest, and left off talking that wemight sleep, than suddenly there sounded a beatingon the wall at the head of my bed. I supposed atfirst that some one was probably passing on the stairsadjoining my wall, but after some minutes the knock- was repeated, and with such force that S alsobeS^me attentive, and asked me if I had knocked.Now I guessed what it was.
  • 174. 13S TRAXSCENDEMAL TUYSICS. " Prol3al>ly my Olga is now come to me, saul I.In assent sounded immediately three times, one afterthe other, a muiHed blow, as if a soft wall had beenstruck with a hammer wrapped up in something soft. ? * * Is it thou, Olgchen I asked the spirit aloud.Three regular knocks answered. ** *Can I sleep quietly this night V Again the likethree knocks. " 30th March, 6. 45 p.m. ** * Wliy did you knock at my wall yesterday*Olinkar "Evil spirits prevent you going to the supper.Thou wouldst do it, and hast abandoned this inten-tion. I came yesterday to say to thee that thou, dearone, shouldst not obey them. I will not come for awhole week. I have much to do. On Thursday, afterthe supper, I will visit thee. *" So, if I take the supper, thou willst come tomeV * * Yes ! and I will make thee a present. * * What sort of a present 1 " Thou canst show it to every one. " Thou willst give it to me on the day of the Com-munion ? " * Yes, in the church. " First of AjiriL I have confessed. After the supperI went and took my place in the church. Suddenlyin my hand there came a nosegay of white rose and
  • 175. — A SPIRIT FEIEND. 1 39myrtle, tied with a lock of the dear and well-knownhair ! That was the promised present. " * Come home from church, we sat ourselves at thetable. Our heavenly friend was already among us.Her first words were " * I wish you all happiness. I am happy for you.My darling ! art thou content with my present ? " * "What significations have the rose and myrtle ? * Pure love. Eternity. " * I could scarcely restrain my tears. "•30th April, 10 oclock. S. E , sitting on achair, fell into a trance, of which the spirit informedus. Afterwards a hand was shown to us, one afterthe other ; at our wish it touched our hands, and cameclose to the sioht of those of us who had not been ableto distinguish it clearly enough. I asked the spiritwhether I could kiss this hand 1 The spirit repliedthat its hand would be between the table and thecloth, and that I might kiss it through the cloth.Twice I kissed the dear hand, and convinced myselfthereby thoroughly of its reality : it was a living,flexible hand, " I have given these extracts to show the genuine andcordial relations of the deceased to these observers ofthe phenomena which took place before their eyes.Again, I repeat, that she wrote her diary for herselfalone, and probably never thought of the possibilitythat extracts from it might appear in the Press. The
  • 176. I40 TKANSCENDENTAL itself, in the sittings of whicli she took part, wasexclusively interested in the phenomena for their ownsake, and was utterly and altogether unconcerned withthe spiritualistic propaganda. All the usual medium-istic phenomena, such as the self-moving of objects,lights, ajipearance of hands, &c., took place at theseseances. Especially often were objects brought to thecircle, most frequently pictures of saints, hair, andflowers. During a seance in tlie s|)rinf>: the wholetabic vas literally covered with flowers. Duringanother s<frt7JC€ the daughter of Sophia E , a younglady of fourteen years old, received a live green frog,to make up for the loss of one that had died a fewdays before. This frog remained with her for somedays alive, and afterwards disappeared. " On one occasion the spirit of Olga X declaredthat she would fully materialise, and designatedSophia E as the strongest medium, throughwhose means the materialisation would be efiected.On tlie evening appointed by the spirit the mediumwas laid upon a sofa and separated from the rest bya curtain formed l)y hanging up a plaid. She re-mained, however, so far visible that her position couldalways be observed. It was half dark in the room.After the medium had fallen into a trance she wasseveral times raised in the air, placed upon the boards,and again carried back to the sofa. Afterwards awhite figure, covered with a thick veil, was raised
  • 177. MATERIALISATION THEOUGH A PRIVATE MEDIUM. I4Ibehind and above the curtain. Quietly, calmly, itcame over the curtain to the table at which the partywere sitting. Then it went to Catherine L ,embraced and kissed her, touched her face with itshand, and disappeared, whilst raised again in the air.At the next seance, which was in darkness, thephenomenon was repeated, and Catherine L wascovered with a veil, which was left behind uponher.^" After this phenomenon the sittings of the circlealmost ceased. Amazed with what they had seen,they were all convinced that it would be a sin, afterthese proofs of the reality of another world and of ahigher power, to continue the seances, though at thesame time they did not refuse individual communica-tions and instructions from that world, and for this pur-jDOse availed themselves from time to time of the usualmeans of intercourse, such as table tipping and psycho-graphy. Of course, therefore, the phenomena did notcease, and they were not seldom concerned in differentevents which happened to the families of the mediums. " All this had gone on for about a year, up to thewinter of 1877, when I accidentally made the acquaint- * The condition of the medium during the trance made a deep impres-sion on all present, the most lasting one, naturally, upon her husband.After the seance, she Avas for some days ill ; at the same time thereappeared upon her left side a broad blood-swollen spot. (Compare thedescription of a materialisation from the left side of the medium, Dr.Monck, in Psychische Studicn, 1877 — Note by the Editor). Theseunfortunate lesults were supposed by the sitters to be owing to theirhaving put forward the seance earlier than the appointed time.
  • 178. l.2 TRANSCEyDENTAL PinSICS.nnce of the chemist E and hia family. Enter-taining the wisli to receive some j)roofs of theoltjectivity and reality of the phenomena, I beggedsome of those who had taken part in the earlierstances to afford me the opportunity. I obtainedtheir entire consent, and found the greatest readinessto comply with my wish, although the sentiments ofthe whole circle were openly opposed to my opinions.This opposition was especially marked in the case ofCatherine L , who, as compensation for her dis-carded materialism, was now fanatically addicted toultra-orthodoxy. She continually maintained againstme that no evidences of these things could ever con-vince any one, since they were matters of faith andnot of knowledge. Such being the relations of thecircle, it was not to be expected that we should obtainany decided results. " During the first sitting in which I took part, andwhich was held in a dim light, a hand was formedabove the small table, which was covered with a cloth,and afterwards came out from under the cloth, remain-ing above the table some minutes, and, gently moving,touched those who inclined themselves towards it.This was the only materialisation, and the onlyremarkable phenomenon in the series of not verynumerous seances which lasted up to the end of thewinter. • Catherine L had long suffered from a chronic
  • 179. ; ; REPETITION OF ONE OF ZQLLNEE S EXPERIMENTS. 1 43catarrh, whicli at this time took the form of consump-tion. Her disposition was still hostile to my objects,so that vre were compelled to give up the seances.She died in the arms of Mrs. Sophia E , amidstthe proofs of her love, friendship, and affection. "In the autumn of the year 1878 the relations ofthe circle to tlie mediumistic phenomena were com-pletely changed. After the spirit of the deceasedCatherine L had given consent to the continuanceof the sittings, and promised good success, remarking,however, at the same time, that the results would bereceived with distrust, the circle was widened by theaddition of some young people ; the engineer, themechanist M , was one of the constant sitterssometimes the physician L took part in. thesittings. " In the very first sitting we were directed by rapsto repeat the experiment of Professor Zollner; andsince it is the object of this publication to confirm thatexperiment, I will not dwell upon other more or lessremarkable phenomena which occurred at our seances. " We took an ordinary folding slate, with claspson each side within was fastened, by means of wax,paper, blackened with soot. The slate was thentied together with a string, and the ends of the string,as well as the edges of the slate, were fastened withfour seals with the signet of the chemist E , andthe signet was entrusted to me for safe custody at
  • 180. ; 144 TRANSCENDENTAL niYblCS.lioiiie. We were informed by means of raps that thisslate must lie upon the table for four acances, andimpressions would then be found upon it. At thesCctnces tlie table was always covered witli a cloth,and between this and the table the slate was laid."With the development of the phenomena the slatebegan to move of itself. It went from one to theother, in order that it might remain for some minutesunder the hands of each of those present. " In the third sitting we were enjoined to seal theslate with seven seals, with another signet of thechemist E . AVe asked, Is there anything onthe slate? It was answered, I do not know/Thereupon we asked if we might open it ? Theanswer was, Yes, you can. "We opened the slate;both papers were untouched. We closed it again,bound, and sealed it with seven seals. The signet Iagain took away with me. At the following sittingviolent movements of the slate again occurred, andfinally I was directed to lay the slate on my knees. Idid so, and then placed my hands again upon thetable. For some minutes tlie slate remained quietthen I had the sensation as if some one lightly touchedit for a while. Soon after we were told, througlisharp decided raps, to take away the slate. To thequestion, Is there anything on it ? a strong definiteatiirmative answer was returned. Can we open it 1 !• Yes
  • 181. — SUCCESS OF THE EXPEEIMENT. 1 45 " We struck a light (the seance was in the dark),opened the slate, and perceived an impression on eachside : upon the right, that of a hand ; upon the left,that of a foot. All three female mediums and thechemist E at once recognised in the impressionthe hand of Catherine L , which had characteristicjDeculiarities. It was unusually large and long for afemale hand, the little finger being strongly bent out.The foot, also unusually large, could not find roomenough on the slate, and this impression, moreover,was not very clear. The hand was much more sharplyimpressed, if not quite so distinct, as was the case withZollners impression. (I here add the copy of ourimpression."") For greater certainty this impressionwas shown to a sculptor, who well knew the hand ofthe deceased, and he at once asked, * Is this an impres-sion of the hand of Catherine L ? He supposedthat the impression had been taken during her life.We were apparently ourselves partly to blame for thewant of distinctness in the impression. Every onewho is familiar with mediumistic phenomena knowstheir whimsicality, and that promises given at seancesare often not fulfilled. Not much expecting success,we went only superficially to work in the preparationof the slate —did not fasten the paper with smooth * There is here a foot-note relating to the illustration omitted in thistranslation, the illustration itself, as two or thiee others, not seemingindispensable. Tr, K
  • 182. 146 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.regularity over the sides of the slate, and the soot wasnot thickly and regularly spread. Had we only foundanything when we opened the slate after the thirdstance, which would have given us but a remoteassurance of future results, we sliould then have recti-fied every defect in our preparations. " The above-recordeil objective proof I regard assufficient to obviate every suspicion of deceit. Had itbeen even possible to imitate the seal and open theslate, yet was it at any rate impossible, and indeedwithout aim or object, to imitate the impression of thehand of the deceased C. L . All those who tookpart in the seance were believers " all were in like ;manner interested in the experiment : no one amongthem was so depraved and mischievous as to contriveso cruel a mystification, cruel in relation to the personsto whom the memory of the deceased was sacred.That young lady was more than a relative in thefamily of the chemist E ; one could not but seethe joyful rapture of the mediums at the moment wheuthey recognised in the impression the hand of CatherineL . All crossed themselves and wept : all regardedthis result as a miracle. "After this phenomenon some of those presentproposed to terminate the sittings, since no better,more objective, more all-convincing, complete proofcould be obtained ; I, however, wished to continuethem, though they must at all events soon cease.
  • 183. — VALUE OF THE FACTS. I47 The next sitting had already lost the characteristics of our usual seances. The phenomena were languid and intermittent. The spirit of Catherine L declared that it could not appear for a whole month. Other disturbing circumstances concurred, so that weresolved to postpone our seances to a more oppor-tune time. An unexpected misfortune interveningcompels us to renounce them for a long time, perhapsfor always. " In giving this simple history, with its childlikefull conviction and faith in the personality of thespirit (Fetishism), I repeat that it can have no effectupon the stubborn scepticism of those who havebecome the slaves of their a piiori convictions. Thisnarrative can have only an irritating tendency withsuch, excite their scepticism up to a fanatical point,and drive them, even should they admit the facts,to discover some explanation even more senselessthan Carpenters unconscious cerebration. Butthose with whom Fetishism" is no subjective pro-duct of our brain and feeling, who recognise thenecessity and legitimacy of individuality as the leverof the development of humanity and of well-being,those will find in these facts the proof and confirma-tion of their views. * " Fetischismus " is the -word used, but not, it is conceived, in thesense that word bears in English. Note by Translator.
  • 184. I 43 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. "Again, these facts convince us of tlie necessityof widening the domain of recognised science and itsmethods and means for the exploration of the invisibleand unknown world, of the existence of which we havein our hearts from childhood so clear, so simple, andso warm a presentiment. N. AVagner."
  • 185. — — ( 149 ) Chapter Bintfj*THEORETICAL; "THE FOURTH DIMENSION "—PROFESSOR HARES EXPERIMENTS — FURTHER EXPERIMENTS OF THE AUTHOR WITH SLADE COINS TRANSFERRED FROM CLOSED AND FASTENED BOXES— CLAIRVOYANCE.Passing on to the account of further experimentswith Mr. Slade, I take those in the first instanceAvhich I had devised on the principle of the extendedconception of space {Raum-anscliauung) — for thepurpose of experimental proofs of the reality of afourth dimension. Among these proofs there is none so instructiveand convincing as the transport of material iDodiesfrom a space enclosed on every side. Although forour three-dimensional intuition such a space appar-ently allows of no other exit than through thematerial boundaries, yet from the fourth dimension itcan be opened, and thus the transport of the body in * The word intuition (Anschauvng) may- philosophical sense of thehave some non-metaphysical English readers. With us it difficulty forusually denotes an internal sense in German philosophy it is the act of ;perception, whether of the external or internal sense, before all appli- by which the " matter" ofcation of the categories of the understandingthe perception becomes an " object." In the Kantian philosophy, whichZollner follows, space and time are intuitional "forms." The wordAnschammg is translated intuition and conception at diflerent places asthe context seems to requiie. Tr.
  • 186. 150 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.this direction can be effected without disturbance ofthe tliree-dimensional material walls. Since the so-called intuition of a four-dimensional space is want-ing to us, as three-dimensional beings, we can onlyform to ourselves a conception of this proceeding byan analogy taken from the next lower region of space.Suj^poso in a plane a figure of two dimensionsenclosed by a line on every side, in which is a mov-able object. By movements onii/ in the plane thatobject could not escape from the interior of thattwo-diniensionalhj enclosed space otherwise than byan opening of the line of enclosure. But if the objectwere capable of a movement in the third dimension,it would need only to be raised perpendicularly to tlieplane, to be passed over, and let down again on theother side of the line. To two-dimensional beinjrswho reasoned on the assumption that only such move-ments were possible as they could intuitlvehj representto themselves, i.e., only two-dimensional movements,the proceeding just described would seem a miracle.For the body which they suppose to be completelyenclosed must at a certain spot transiently vanish forthem, in order suddenly to reappear at anotherspot. Although similar facts have been so frequentlyobserved at spiritualistic seances,aud publicly testifiedto by the most credible and intelligent men, yet asan introduction to the description of my own experi-ments, I cannot omit to impart the following fact
  • 187. EXPERIMENTS OF PROF. HARE. I5Iobserved by the celebrated American scientist andchemist, Professor Hare/"" It is that described by State Councillor Aksakowin Psychische Studien (edited by him) in the Julynumber of this year (1879), under the title "SomeExperiments of Professor Hare Confirmatory ofZollners Experiments." I confine myself here to thefirst experiment, described in a letter published on the1st May 1858 by an eye-witness, Dr. S. A. Peters,who had visited Professor Hare in his laboratory, inorder himself to witness some of the remarkable phe-nomena which Hare had publicly reported. The letter * Robert Hare, Doctor of Medicine, Professor of Chemistry at theUniversity of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; born 1781, died 15th May1858. In PoggendorflTs Literary Biographical Dictionary, from whichI have taken the above particulars, will be found a catalogue, filling awhole column, of Hares numerous chemical and physical treatises.In text-books of Physics his name survives in the so-called " HaresSpiral," a galvanic element, in which a copper and zinc plate, properlyseparated by bad conductors, are rolled over one another for the productionof the greatest possible surface. With this arrangement, previously to theconstniction of constant batteries, very strong effects of light and heatcould be produced. The treatise of Hares referred to is published inTillochs Philosophical Magazine, of the year 1837, under the title " NewVoltaic Battery." In his later years Professor Hare undertook, as a true man of science,the most thorough experimental investigation of the phenomena of Spirit-ualism, for which, in his country, convenient opportunities offered. Heeven evinced his acuteness in this field in the construction of suitableapparatus and instruments. One of these he named the "Spiritoscope."It consisted of an apparatus connected with a cipher-plate and index,similar to that which was applied to the first electric telegraphs. Adetailed description, with picture, of this ingenious apparatus, in whichthe motions of the index are completely concealed from the medium,will be found in the pamphlet, Experimental Investigations of Spirit-Manifestations, by Dr. Robert Hare, Professor of Chemistry, &c., &c."German edition by Alex. Aksakow, Leipzig, 1874, Mutze.
  • 188. —152 TRANSCENDENTAL addressed to tlio editor of Tlie Spintual Tdccjraph,and is as follows : " PlIILADELPniA, April 1 8, 1 858. " ^Ir. Editor, — Finding myself in this city on a visitfrom the State of Missouri, I availed myself of theopportunity to visit Professor Hare, in order to seewhat new developments or discoveries he has madein Spiritualism. 1 have no doubt that a history of themost astonishing spiritual manifestations which arenow taking place in the Professors laboratory willshortly be given to the public. now confirm what I saw myself. Dr. Hare, " I willthe medium (a young man named Ruggles, of fromeighteen to nineteen years, to whom I was quite astranger when I entered the laboratory), and myself,were the only persons present. The medium sat downin front of the spiritoscope, which stood on the table inthe middle of the room. Dr. Hare and I sat oppositeand close to the table. After some minutes it was saidto us through the spiritoscope, Let Dr. S. A. Petersput two glass tubes and two pieces of Russian metal inthe box. Dr. Hare thereupon left his seat, and fetchedme two glass tubes of about six inches length, andhalf an inch diameter, hermetically sealed at the ends,and also two pieces of Russian platinum, each of theshape of a common musket-ball. I first examined thebox in which I was to deposit these objects. It stood
  • 189. — —; AN "IMPOSSIBLE FACT. 1 53on the table before me. It resembled a writing-deskwas about two feet long and half a foot broad, fourto eight inches deep, and had a lid which let downslantwise, with hinges and a lock. In this box Iplaced the two glass tubes and the balls of platinumthere was nothing else in it, — and locked it. Dr. Hareand I then took our seats as before, and the medium,]Ir. Euggles, continued at the spiritoscope. After thelapse of fifty-five minutes there was said through thespiritoscope, We have a present for Dr. S. A.Peters ; let him go to the box and fetch it. Here-upon I went to the box, which was only a single footfrom me, opened it, and found the two pieces ofRussian platinum inside the two hermeticaUi/ sealedglass tubes. " I will make no observations on the above. What Ihave seen I hold it to be my duty to make known tothe world. I have no other interest in makino- theabove statement than the desire to serve my fellow-men. S. A. Peters." I go now to the account of similar experiments,which have succeeded with me in the presence ofMr. Slade, but which have a yet higher interest forme, in that they have produced in me a conviction ofthe reality of the so-called clairvoyance, or clear-seeing. On the 5th May, 1878, at about twenty-five minutespast four, Mr. Slade, Herr Oscar von Hofimann, and
  • 190. 154 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.I, took our places at the table and in the Bun-Hghtedroom, of which a photographic copy is seen in thefrontispiece. Besides a number of slates, purchasedby myself, there lay upon the table other things, amongthem two small cardboard boxes, in which, at Sladesfirst residence in Leipsic, in December 1877, 1 had putBome pieces of money, and then firmly plastered it upoutside with strips of paper. I had already at thattime been in hopes of the removal of the enclosedpieces of money without opening of the boxes. How-ever, my friends and I were so astonished and occupiedwith the multitude of the other phenomena whichhappened at Slades first and second visits to Leipsic(November and December 1877), that I abandonedthe above-mentioned experiment for the time, andpostponed it till Slades return to Leipsic. One ofthese boxes was in form circular, and within it was alarge piece of money ; this box was firmly fastened bya strip of paper, the breadth of which corresponded tothe height of the box, and its length much exceeded thecircuit of the box ; so, indeed, that first the strip ofpaper was spread with liquid glue on one side over itswhole length and breadth, and was then stuck severaltimes round the box, so that the latter, after thefastening, presented the appearance of a low cylinder of pasteboard. The other box was rectangular, of the same sort as those in which steel pens are kept. In this box I had put two small pieces of money, and
  • 191. AN EXPERIMENT WITH COINS. 1 55had then closed it by sticking a strip of paper roundit, perpendicularly to its length, by means of liquidglue. As mentioned above, I had already, in December1877, fastened up these boxes, and as I had observedneither the value of the enclosed coins nor their date,I could afterwards only ascertain by the noise fromshaking the boxes, that enclosed in the circular onewas a large German coin (a thaler or a five-markpiece), in the rectangular one two smaller coins ;whether these were pennies, groschen, or five-groschenpieces I had, after the lapse of half a year, at the timeof Slades last stay in Leipsic, entirely forgotten. After we had taken our places at the card-table onthe above-mentioned day in the manner described, Itook up the round box, and satisfied myself, by shaking,of the presence of the coin I had enclosed in it. Herr0. von Hofi"mann did the same, and lastly Mr. Slade,who asked us for what purpose I had designed thisbox. I explained my purpose in a few words, and atthe same time declared that it would be one of thefinest confirmations of the reality of the fourth dimen-sion, if his invisible, intelligent beings succeeded inremoving that coin from the box without opening it.Slade, ready, as always, to conform to my wdsh, tookin the usual manner one of the slates which lay athand, laid a morsel of slate-pencil upon it (indeed, asit happened, a considerably larger one than usual),
  • 192. 156 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.and held the shite with his right hand half under thetahle. We heard writing, and when the slate wasdrawn out, there was found upon it the request to laya second piece of pencil on the slate, which was done.Then Slade, who sat at rny left (Von IloHmann wason my right), held the slate with the two bits of pencilaf^aiu under the tahle, while he as well as we awaitedintently what should come there. Meanwhile the twofastened-up boxes lay untouched on about the middleof the table. Some minutes passed without anythinghappening, when Slade gazed fixedly in a particulardirection in the corner of the room, and at the sametime said, quite astonished, but slowly, the wordsdragged after one another, and partly with repetition :" I see — see funf and eighteen hundred seventy-six."Neither Slade nor we knew what that could mean,and both Herr 0. von HofTmann and m3self remarkedalmost simultaneously that, at any rate, " funf" signi-fied "funf" (five), and made the sum of the addition5 + 1876=1881. While I threw out this remark halfin jest, we heard a bard object fall on the slate, whichSlade duriuji all the time had held under the tablewith his right hand (the left lying before us on thetable). The slate was immediately drawn out, and ouit was fuund the five-mark piece, with the date 1S76.Naturally I forthwith snatched up the pasteboardbox, standing before me, and which during all theforegoing had been touched by nobody, to ascertain,
  • 193. THE EXPERIMENT SUCCESSFUL. 1 57by shaking, the absence of the piece of money whichhad been in it half an hour before ; and behold ! itwas quite empty and silent ; the box was robbed ofits contents in the shape of the five-mark piece. As may be supposed, our pleasure at such an un-hoped-for success of our experiment was extremelygreat ; all the more, that by it at the same time wasestablished the existence of a direct perception ofobjects, not effected in the ordinary way of our sense-perceptions. Moreover, it could not be any so-called thought-reading by the medium ; that is, the perception ofrepresentations already in the heads of human beino-s.For neither I, and much less Mr. Slade and Herr vonHoffmann, knew what sort of coin there was in thebox, nor what date it bore. I was so satisfied with the success of this experi-ment under such stringent conditions that I wasthinking of putting an end to the sitting, and post-poning further attempts to a later one. However,Slade remarked that he did not feel himself at allexhausted by the sitting, which had lasted at mostten minutes. This remark of Slade caused us to keepour places at the card-table, and to engage in uncon-strained conversation with him. I introduced the sub-ject of his sitting with the Grand Duke Constantineof Russia, and requested him to give us a detailedaccount of the phenomena which took place at it, as
  • 194. —I5S TRANSCENDENTAL TIIYSICS.hitherto wo had seen only the brief paragraph state-meut about them in the press. Tlius urged, Sladementioned that a very remarkable experiment in sLate-writing had succeeded in the presence of the GrandDuke Constantine. Accidentally there had been twobits of pencil on the slate ; when he held it under thetable the writing of two pencils was heard at the samatime, and when he drew out the slate the one pencilhad written from left to right, the other, at the sametime, from right to left. I at once proposed to trywhether this experiment would succeed also with us :the suggestion arose from me quite naturally, from theassociation of ideas elicited by the two bits of pencilwhich had been required in the above-mentionedexperiment, without our having as yet known theobject of this written demand. Slade, at once ready to comply with my wish,held the slate with the two bits of pencil under thetable-surface, and we soon heard, very clearly, writingupon it. When the slate was withdrawn there was on it acommunication in English as follows : **io — Pfennig— 1S76 2 —Pfennig — 1875.Let this be proof to you of clairvoyance. After thenine days you must rest, or it will harm you and themedium. Believe in me, your friend."
  • 195. ri Ar. 160-61.
  • 196. yi.
  • 197. n
  • 198. A SIMILAR PHENOMENON. 1 63 We at once referred the first part of this messageto the two coins contained in the rectano-ular boxstill unopened. I was just about to open it, we havingimmediately before convinced ourselves by shakingthe box and the distinct jingliug within it, of thepresence of the two smaller coins, yet without knowingthe value or date of them. Suddenly, however, Ichanged my intention, and set the little box againuninjured on the middle of the table, while as wellHerr von Hofimann as also Slade suggested the possi-bility that perhaps the two coins, in like manner asshortly before the five-mark piece, might fall fromthe unopened box upon the slate held underneath.Immediately upon this suggestion, Slade again heldan empty slate under the middle of the table. Scarcelywas this done, when we distinctly heard two coinsdrop down on the surface of the slate, and on closerexamination, the above statements on the slate we, infact, found confirmed. Highly delighted, I now seizedthe still closed box in the confident expectation that itwould, like the round box, be empty, and that, there-fore, on shaking no rattling within would be heard.How great was my sm^prise when nevertheless therattling happened, proceeding, indeed, likewise fromtwo bodies, which yet, judging from the altered char-acter of the sound, could not be coins. Already I wasintending to convince myself of the contents of the box by opening it, which could not be done without
  • 199. —164 TRANSCENDEXTAL PHYSICS.tearing tlie strips of paper pasted over it, wlicn Sladeprepared to get our question answered, as usual in suclicases, through slate-writing, by liis "spirits." Scarcelyhad he taken a slate witli a fragment of pencil lyingU})on it, and held it half under the taljle, when wedistinctly heard writing. Upon the upper surface ofthe slate was written in Eno;lish * The two slate-pencils are in the box." In fact the two larger pieces of slate-pencil werenowhere to be found, and when I now opened the boxby tearing the strip of paper glued to it, there withinit, to our delight, were both the pieces of pencil. The foregoing facts are of great value in a three-fold aspect. First, there is proved the occurrence of"writing under the influence of Shide, the purport ofwhich was necessarily vnknoini to hiui before. It isconsequently imjjossihle that these writings occurunder the influence of the conscious will of Slade,vhatever modus operandi is presupposed. Secondly, the apparent, so-called passage throughmatter is proved in a highly elegant and compendiousmanner. In order to reach by the shortest way thesurface of the slate, the coins must apparently havepenetrated not only the walls of the box, but alsoabout 20 millinibtres thickness of the oak table. Thetwo slate-pencils must have travelled the same wayin a reverse direction from the surface of the slate. Thirdly^ by these experiments an incontrovertible
  • 200. FOURTH DIMENSION EXPLAINS CLAIRVOYANCE. 1 65proof is afforded of the reality of so-called clairvoy-ance, and that in a double way. The first time, withthe five-mark piece, the contents of the closed boxa23peared in the form of a definite represented imagein Slades intuitional life ; he " saw " the numbers 5and 1876. The second time this was not the case;but the contents were communicated to us in the formof written characters on the slate. The contents ofthis rectangular box must therefore have existed asimaged in another, not a three-dimensionally incor-porated intelligence, before that represented imagecould be transmitted to us by the aid of writing.Hereby is proved, as it seems to me, in a very cogentmanner the existence of intelligent beings, invisibleto us, and of their active participation in our experi-ments. I have already shown that the whole phenomenonof clairvoyance admits of a very easy and naturalexplanation by help of the fourth dimension. Fromthe direction of the fourth dimension, the, to us, three-dimensionally enclosed space must be regarded asappeariug open, and indeed in an interval from theplace of our body so much the greater, the higher thesoul is raised to the fourth dimension. At the sametime, with the increasing elevation to this fourthdimension there is a widening of the overlooked spaceof three dimensions, just as by elevation above thesurface of the earth there is, according to geometrical
  • 201. 1 66 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.laws, a widening of the overlooked two-dimensionalexpanse. Also in three-dimensional space, representa-tions of the changes of place of our body at rest, asfor example, when we are in the car of a balloon, areproduced merely by changes in the appearances ofobjects. The manner in which this happens, forinstance, in our present organization by help of thesense of sight, is only a modification of the above-mentioned general fact, and depends, as observed,upon the changeable forms of the organic disposition ;that is, of our body, through which the representationsof our soul are mediated. Thus, Slades soul was, inthe first case, so far raised in the fourth dimensionthat the contents of the box in front of him were visiblein particular detail. In the second case, one of thoseintellio;ent beinc-s of the fourth dimension looked downupon us from such a height that the contents of therectangular box were visible to him, and he coulddescribe its contents upon the slate by means of thepencil. It is of interest to compare the theory of clear-seeinghere indicated, with the description of this conditionby persons who have become clairvoyant by beingthrown into the so-called magnetic sleep by a"magnctiser." In accordance with the above theory,and the principle of continuity, we should expect thatfrom the beginning of the clairvoyant condition itsincreasing development must be attended with a
  • 202. CLAIRVOYANT EXPERIENCES. 1 67spatial widening of the three-dimensional circle ofsight, that is, bodies must gradually become trans-parent in continually greater intervals; quite inanalog} with the increasing number of objects whichwe perceive by continual elevation above the earth.This supposition appears to be confirmed in fact bythe descriptions of the American clairvoyant Davis,who depicts his perceptions in the magnetic sleep andotherwise in the following words : * — " The sphere of my vision now began to widen. . . .Next, I could distinctly perceive the walls of thehouse. At first they seemed very dark and opaque ;but soon became brighter, and then transparent ; andpresently I could see the walls of the adjoining dwell-ing. These also immediately became light, andvanished —melting like clouds before my advancingvision. I could now see the objects, the furniture, andpersons, in the adjoining house, as easily as those in theroom where I was situated. At this moment I heardthe voice of the operator. He inquired, *if I couldhear him speak plainly : I replied in the affirmative.He then asked concerning my feelings, and w^hether I could discern anything. On my replying affirmatively,he desired me to convince some persons who werepresent, by reading the title of a book, with the lidsclosed, behind four or five other books. Having * Tlie Magic Staff, an autobiography, by Andrew Jackson Davis,p. 217 (13th edition), New York, 1876.
  • 203. l68 TRANSCENDENTAL mYSICS.tightly secured my bodily eyes with handkerchiefs,he then placed the books in a horizontal line with myforehead, and I saw and read the title without theslightest hesitation. This test and many experimentsof the kind were tried and repeated ; and the demon-stration of vision, independent of the i)hysical organsof sense, was clear and unquestionable. . . . Butmy perceptions still flowed on ! The broad surface ofthe earth, for many hundred miles, before the sweepof my vision —describing nearly a semicircle —becametransparent as the purest water ; . . . and I saw thebrains, the viscera, and the complete anatomy ofanimals that were (at that moment) sleeping or prowl-ing about in the forests of the Eastern Hemisphere,hioulrcds and even thousands of miles from the roomin which I was making these observations." Confidence in the above description of subjectiverepresentations in the magnetic and clairvoyant con-dition being presupposed, and that these representa-tions can also be repeated and confirmed, according toa law, by other individuals under other conditions inthe clairvoyant state, there would be connected withthe increased duration and depth of the magneticsleep an extension of the field of our cubical visionsimilar to the extension of our field of quadraticvision, according to the laws of perspective, which isassociated with elevation over the earth. The ascertainment of these laws of perspective for
  • 204. — THE CRITERION OF OBJECTIVITY. 1 69space intuition widened by a dimension would first ofall be the task of geometry, just as the elements ofEuclid must have been known and have become thecommon property of physicists and astronomers beforethe spatial significance of celestial phenomena couldbe thought. That intuitional images, or representa-tions of objects of sight clothed with all the attributesof sense, arise, change and disappear in our soul with-out the intervention of the physical sight is provedby dreams, hallucinations, and illusions. Of thecauses by which these representations are produced inus we know nothing, and can therefore only advancehypotheses about them. But if we ask ourselveswherein consists the difference between these imagesand those which are produced in us in daily life bymeans of the sense of sight, we see that there isgreater vivacity, regularity, and continuity in thelatter. But the essential criterion for the fact thatthe latter class of representations have real objectsin an external world corresponding to them, is thegeoiyietrical criterion ; that is, the possibility for ourunderstanding to refer a part of the changes anddiff"erences of those representations to the geometricallaws of remoteness and position. Should the samehold good of the former class of representationsthose not obtained through the sense of sight —weshould be compelled to relate these also to real objectsin au external world, no matter whether the requisite
  • 205. i;0 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.geometrical laws are to be sought in space as hithertoconceivecl, or as widened by a dimension. In both cases, however, the causes by which thoseimages are produced remain unknown to us so long astheir homogeneity cannot be experimentally proved.We know from internal experience that our will isable up to a certain degree, by means of the so-calledforce of imagination, to produce at pleasure representa-tions of objects of sight in our own soul. In thiscase we recomiise our own will as the cause of ourrepresentations. If, now, experiments could be insti-tuted, in which this individual will of a single mancould produce in like manner, at pleasure, representa-tive images in the soul of another, spatially separatefrom the willing subject, these images being clothed withall the attributes of reality which we ascribe to the so-called real or actual world surrounding us, therebywould experimental proof be afforded that the pheno-menon of a real external world can be produced andevoked by an individual will, matched with intelli-gence, in another individual. But in that case itwould be a necessary conclusion, according to theprinciples of scientific induction, to accept also aqualitatively similar cause for the representation of ourwhole real corporeal world : that is, an individualwill combined with intelligence, however much thatindividual will may excel the human will in strengthand intelligence quantitively. I maintain that the
  • 206. — MESMERIC INFLUENCE. IJlabove induction is scientifically and logically neces-sary, and, moreover, the only possible one open to arationally operating understanding. Newton assertsthe same in the third book of his Principia in thethird Regula Philosophandi in the following words : " Ideoque effectuiim naturcdium ejusdem generisecedem assignandce sunt causoe quatenus JieH potest;—utique respirationis in homine et in hestia ; descensuslapidum in Eiiropa et America; lucis in igneculinari et in Sole; rcfiexionis lucis in terrd et inp)lanetis." " Therefore, the same causes are to be assigned, asfar as possible, of natural effects of the same kind ;as of respiration in man and in beast, of the descentof stones in Europe and in America ; of light in akitchen fire as in the sun ; of the reflection of lighton the earth and in the planets." In the above case there remains only the questionw^hether it is experimentally demonstrable that thehuman will is able to induce such vivid representa-tions in the consciousness of another, that the latterregards them altogether as he regards the representa-tions whose causes we ordinarily designate as realobjects, or " bodies." Experiments of this kind havebeen, in fact, publicly instituted in Germany, by themagnetiser Hansen, of such a surprising and convinc-ing nature, that it is impossible to doubt the realityof this influence of an individual intellio;ent will
  • 207. ;172 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Upon anotlicr, spatially distinct, individual.* Conse-quently our understanding i3 constrained, accordincjto the laws of scientific induction and Newtons thirdRegnhi Philosophandi^ to accept an individual will,joined with intelligence, as cause and author of thatworld of representations which surrounds us in dailylife, the so-called real external world, or Nature.Whether this intelligent will in the production of ourhuman world of representations makes use of numerousother individual and intelligent existences, or whetherthere is no other individualisation of intelligentwill in nature than human beings and animals, sothat that highest author of our real represented worldalone influences us, directly and according to har-monious laws, is for the present a question ofsecondary importance. This only is established, thatan individual being, gifted with intelligence and will,must be presupposed as the cause of our real worldof representations. I may here point out that the foregoing induc-tions are not new and peculiar to myself. Thepriority is incontestably due to the English philo-sopher Berkeley, a contemporary and follower ofNewton. In his celebrated treatise " On the Prin- • Later, in the same volume, the author gives a detailed account of theexperiiiiciits referred to. find abundant evidence The English reader willon the subject in the late Professor Gregorys book on Animal Mag-netism, of which a new edition has been recently published. HarrisonLondon, 1S77.— Tr.
  • 208. — BERKELEY S IDEALISM. I 73ciples of Human Knowledge" (section 2,3)y Berkeleyremarks : " The ideas impressed on the senses by the authorof nature are called real things : and those excited inthe imagination being less regular, vivid, and constant,are more properly termed ideas, or images of things,which they copy and represent. But then our sensa-tions, be they never so vivid and distinct, are never-theless ideas, that is, they exist in the mind, or areperceived by it, as truly as the ideas of its own fram-ing. The ideas of sense are allowed to have morereality in them, that is, to be more strong, orderly,and coherent, than the creatures of the mind ; but thisis no argument that they exist without the mind.They are also less dependent on the spirit, or thinkingsubstance which perceives them, in that they areexcited by the will of another and more powerfulspirit ; yet still they are ideas, and certainly no idea,whether faint or strong, can exist otherwise than ina mind perceiving it." Corresponding to this deduc-tion, Berkeley, in his 30th section, has the following,on the sio;nification of the laws of nature : * Theideas of sense are more strong, lively, and distinct,than those of the imagination ; they have likewise asteadiness, order, and coherence, and are not excitedat random, as those which are the effects of humanwills often are, but in a regular train or series —theadmirable connection whereof sufficiently testifies the
  • 209. 174 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.wisdom and bencvoleuce of its author. Now tJie setrules, or estahlisJied methods wherein the mind wedepend on excites in us the ideas of sensCy are calledthe laws of nature; and these we learn by experience,which teaches us that such and such id&ts are attendedloith such and such other ideas, in the ordinary courseof things." After this digression, I return to my experimentswith Shade, and will first describe another experiment,l)y which the above facts, with some modifications,were essentially confirmed.
  • 210. — { 175 ) dljaptet Cent!).AN EXPERIMENT FOB SCEPTICS —A WAGER SLADES SCRUPLES— A REBUKE BY THE SPIRITS— AN UNEXPECTED RESULT— CAPTIOUS OBJECTIONS.In order to satisfy others, who have not personally takenpart in the sittings with Slade, of the reality of the phe-nomena, especially of the slate-writing within a lockeddouble, or * book, slate, I hit upon the following ex-pedient. I had bought at the paper and office-utensilwarehouse of F. G. Mulius, in this place (Market No.13), a great number of such book -slates provided withhinges. These bear inside on the polished woodenframes the manufacture mark ^ A. W. Faber, No. 58,"are rectangular, and their outer extent amounts to 260millimetres in length and 184 millimetres in breadth.Since the breadth of the wooden frames is 20 milli-metres, there remains for the size of the two interiorslate surfaces a rectangular surface of 220 millimetresin length, and 144 millimetres in breadth. Since theplane of the wooden frame overtops that of the slate-surface within, on each side, by about 3 millimetres,there is within such a book-slate, when completelyclosed, a free space of 220 millimetres length, 144millimetres breadth, and 6 millimetres depth. At the
  • 211. I 76 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.side whoro tho hinges are (wliich are very solid, ofl)rass, and 20 millimetres broad), the edges of thewooden frame shut together so tigrht that it is ini-possible to pass between them any object of appreci-able thickness (for example a single sheet of writing-paper), and so to introduce it into the inner space ofthe closed slate. Moreover, the interval between thebrass hinges —each fastened by six wooden screws— isonly 122 millimetres. On the front side, each of thetwo wooden frames has a pierced cylindrical brassspiral of 1 5 millimetres length, and 6 millimetres inneraperture ; so that, the slate being shut, a slate-pencilcan be stuck through both these spirals, by whichmeans the two slates can then be firmly closedtogether. When thus closed, the space covered bythese two spirals on the front side in the middle of thewooden frame amounts, like the hinges, to 40 milli-metres, while between the two spirals is still left asmall interval of 3 millimetres. On the outside, theslates are cased with brown lacquered wood. With one of these slates I betook myself, on the 6thMay 1878, in the forenoon, to the residence of mycolleague Wach, Professor of Criminal Law in thisUniversity, and imparted to him my above-mentionedidea. Professor Wach was entirely of my opinion,that such a slate, if firmly sealed after insertion of asmall piece of pencil, and then written upon insidein the presence of Slade, would aflord convincing
  • 212. FASTENING A BOOK SLATE. 177proof, even for persons who had not themselves takenpart in such a sitting, of the reality of one of themost remarkable phenomena occurring in Sladespresence. ISIy colleague was also ready immediatelyto make an experiment himself in the manner pro-posed. After a small splinter of pencil, of the sizecommonly used by Slade, was laid upon one of theslates, the slate was shut and then fastened by stickiugtwo strips of paper, 35 millimetres broad, with liquidglue over the shorter frame (184 millimetres long).Over the edges of the strips of paper so glued onProfessor AYach also placed two seals, on each side,impressed with his own signet. The strips of paperwere intentionally inscribed on the inner side tofacilitate discovery in the event of an artificial reunionafter tearing. My suggestion to place two seals alsoon the front side for greater security, my colleaguerejected as superfluous, since he was firmly convincedthat the securing with four seals completely sufficedalready for the discovery of any artifice. With theslate thus fastened I repaired to the residence of myfriend Oscar von Hoffmann, and told him my designin this way to induce conviction of the reality of someremarkable spiritualistic facts even in those who werenot taking part in the sittings. I gave it, at the sametime, as my opinion that it would be much more con-venient for strong mediums to convince the world oftheir innocence in this way than by public or private
  • 213. 178 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.sittings : and that Mr. Shule could render his materialexistence much less troublesome and full of care hysimply allowing such well-sealed slates to be sent tohim, for a fixed price, in order to be returned to thesender when written upon. Of course the wholeapplicability and demonstrative force of the proceed-ing depends on the presupposition that it must bepossible so to secure such a double slate that it wouldbe impossible for the cleverest conjurer or other artistso to open and fasten it again, that this operationcould not be detected by tlie sender of the slate onreceiving it back. In principle, indeed, the postalauthorities and the public go upon this assumptionin the transmission of well-sealed letters containingmoney. (Consequently, for the experimental applica-tion of this proceeding with respect to Shades slate-writiuor, the condition that the so sealed slates shouldnot be accessible to Slade before the sitting, is eo ipsodispensed with. For it is just this precaution whichis laid aside as superfluous by reason of the securemode of fastening, so that Mr. Slade, even if he wishedfraudulently to open the slate, and after writing on ita message, to close it up again, would find it impos-sible to do this without discovery. The aim of thewhole proceeding would thus fail, if the condition hadbeen imposed upon me to keep the so sealed slatescontinually under my care and observation till thesitting. After my conversation with Herr Oscar von
  • 214. THE SLATE ADDITIONALLY SEALED. 1 79Hofifmann, I therefore placed that slate quietly in theroom in my friends house appointed for Slades use.Slade himself, so far as I can recollect, was not athome at that time ; and I first saw him again on theevening of that day (6th May 1878 at about 8.45) forthe purpose of a sitting. After some words of greetingI took the slate from the closet * near the table, andexplained to Mr. Slade, who now apparently saw theslate for the first time, the object I had in view inregard to it. We both, one after the other, satisfiedourselves, by shaking, that the small piece of pencilwas between the surfaces of the two slates. I nowlaid this slate on that side of the card-table (to Sladesleft) where were the other slates and difierent objects,with which it remained lying from noiv continuouslyunder my eyes. Immediately after laying down theslate I sat with Slade at the card-table, on which abrightly burning candle stood. Slade hereupon tookup again in his hand the slate referred to, I narrowlyand continually watching it, and asked me whether Iwould not like to affix two seals to both sides ofthe above-described cylindrical brass spirals, and toimpress them with my own signet. Having thelatter in my pocket, and a stick of sealing-wax lyingon the table among other writing utensils, I at once. * In the frontispiece, showing the sitting-room, -will be seen the closet,•with other objects on it, among the rest a Mitchells Polarising Sac-charometer.
  • 215. l8o TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.Oil the above words of Slade, took the slate witli myleft hand, drew the signet from my right troii.serpocket, laid it on the tabic, then took the sealing-wax,holding the slate all the time with my left hand, withthe wooden edges which had to be sealed turnedupwards. Thereupon, holding tliese edges firmlypressed together with my left hand, I placed on theabove-indicated places two large seals, on which Ipressed my signet. When the wax had become cold,the two wooden edoies of the closed slates were thusso tightly connected that it was impossible to push asheet of paper through those parts which were notstuck with paper and seals. Thereupon I laid theslate so fastened upon the table, and indeed at a placeat least a foot and a half removed from Sludes hands,which lay under mine, and were thereby controlled.I now joined in conversation with Slade, and askedhim, among other things, whether he had not yettried, instead of slate-writing, to obtain writing withlead pencil and paper, since this would be an extremelyinteresting variation of the direct writing produced inhis presence. Slade replied that he had not, but wasat once ready to make the attempt. We unlinkedour bauds, and I took from the writing utensils lyingready on the table a half sheet of common letter paper(219 millimetres long, 143 millimetres broad, manu-facture mark Bath), folded it again about the middle,as if it had to be put into a large letter-cover 144
  • 216. FURTHER PREPARATIONS. l8lmillimetres broad and iio millimetres deep, and laidbetween the two halves of this sheet a cylindrical pieceof graphite of 5 millimetres length and i millimetrethickness, such as is used for lead-pencil holders. Iwas about to lay this piece of paper, so folded with thebit of graphite lying in the fold, under the above-described sealed slate, when Slade, under control, pro-posed that I should tear off two bits from a corner ofthe folded paper and keep these by me. I at oncerecognised the importance of this precaution, to estab-lish the identity of the piece of paper in case it waswritten on, or disappeared and reappeared after sometime. Two pieces were therefore, according to Sladessuo;o;estion, torn off at the same time from one cornerof the folded half sheet, and these I forthwith putinto the gold-compartment of my purse. Then theslate was again laid on the above-described place onthe table, and under it was pushed the folded halfsheet of letter paper with the stick of graphite lyingbetween the folds, so that the slate completely coveredit. We next laid our hands again upon the table, asbefore, Slades hands firmly covered by mine, and thusprevented from moving. We had sat quietly in this position for some time,perhaps five minutes, but nothing worth noticeoccurred. Slade often shuddered, as by a spasmpassing through him, but all remained quiet, so thatwe became impatient, and Slade resorted to his usual M
  • 217. —lS2 TRANSCENDENTAL PUYSICS.expedient of Legging information from liis spirits,by help of a slate held half under the table. Weunjoined our hands for this purpose. Slade took theuppermost of the slates, which always lay in readinessat his left, bit a splinter from a slate-pencil, laid it onthe slate, and held iliu latter with his left hand halfunder the table, while he placed his right hand againunder both of mine. We forthwith distinctly heardwriting, and very soon afterwards the three ticks[tick- tads) wiiich announced that the writing waslinished. When the slate was drawn out and eagerlyexamined by us, the following words were upon it" Look for your paper." I immediately raised thesealed slate to look for the folded sheet of letter-paperpushed under it, with the bit of graphite inside, aboutfive minutes before : both had disappeared. I wasstartled, indeed, at this unexpected phenomenon, butnot particularly astonished, since I had already inearlier sittings witnessed the disappearance and re-appearance of objects so abundantly and under suchstringent conditions, that this fact in and for itselfofiered nothing any longer new for me. I lookedoften anxiously to the ceiling of the room, in thehope that the paper would fall down, by good chancewritten upon, but it came not, nor did anything elseremarkable happen. I therefore desired Slade againto ask his spirits in the usual manner, which he atonce did by means of one of the slates lying ready.
  • 218. SUCCESS OF THE EXPERIMENT. 1 83The noise of writing was immediately heard, and onthe slate being withdrawn, was upon it — " The paper isbetween the slates, and it is ivritten on it " {sic).Highly pleased at the ingenious combination ofphysical and intellectual phenomena, I forthwithseized the sealed slate, shook it violently, and in factdistinctly heard the shifting movement of a paperlying between the sides. Notwithstanding the late-ness of the hour (it was about half-past ten oclock),I repaired at once to the residence of my colleagueWach, in order that the double-slate, sealed by him inthe morning, might be opened in his presence and byhimself. However, I did not find Professor Wach athome ; I could only leave word that I would comeao;ain the next mornine;. The slate itself I did notlet out of my custody, and took it with me to myresidence for the night. Previously, I returned tothe residence of my friend 0. von Hoffmann, andinformed him of my fruitless visit to my colleagueWach. AVe decided to request the latter the nextday to go with us (Von Hoffmann and me) all togetherto the residence of my colleague Thiersch, there toopen the sealed slate and take a view of the contents.Herr Counsellor Thiersch was so far interested in thisexperiment, that he likewise had furnished me with aslate, sealed with the greatest care and circumspec-tion, for application to the purpose named. The con-tinuing and advancing phenomena, and the certainty
  • 219. 184 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.with which thiV presented themselves in my dailysittings with Slado (morning and evening), for themost part immediately we had taken our places at thetable, h:i<l so raised my confidence in the success of(.dl my proposed experiments, that I engaged withouttliinking in a wager with my colleague Thiersch tothe amount of 300 marks, wliich in event of failure Iengaged to pay in any form he thought proper. Outhe other hand, if writing appeared within the slatessealed by him, I desired the sum of 300 marks dueto me to be paid as recompense to Mr. Slade. ]Iycolleague Thiersch accepted this wager, and beingfond of a good cigar, proposed that I should pay himthe appointed value of tlie bet in the shape of athousand cigars. I requested my colleague to sendme a slate well sealed to the residence of Herr 0. vonHoffmann that evening, when, with my mother, I tooksupper in company witli my friends family circle andSlade. When the slate in a great sealed packet wasbrought and delivered to me towards eight oclock,just as we were sitting at table, I mentioned half jest-ingly to Mr. Slade the object with which it was sent,also the bet, exclusively in his interest, with mycolleague. A certain displeasure was at once apparentin Slades features, as if I had done something repug-nant to his feelings, and for w^hich I had not beenauthorised by him. I endeavoured to allay hisscruples by the remark tluit I indeed had concluded
  • 220. — — A WAGER DISAPPROVED. 1 85the wager on my own account, and it rested entirelywitli me or with him to apply the 300 marks whenwon to a benevolent object. Slade replied he wouldvery willingly try whether his spirits were ready toMrite upon that slate, but he refused beforehandacceptance of any of the money in case of success ; hebegged me, notwithstanding my last remark, to retirefrom the wager into which I had entered. I accord-ingly wrote by return a few lines to my colleagueThiersch, informing him of Slades decidedly expressedwish, and that under these circumstances the agree-ment between us had fallen through. I have inten-tionally communicated in some detail this rejection bySlade, as reflecting a trait of his character, in order, onthe one hand, to show his opponents the injustice oftheir allegations that he is a fraudulent conjurer whowishes to make " money " and " commerce " (Geschdfte)of his " art ; " on the other, to enable my readers toform a judgment, from the contents of the followingslate- message, upon the moral characteristics of Slades" four-dimensional intelligent beings." The originalEnglish text of this communication, obtained upon aslate on the 6th May 1878, is word for word asfollows : " Dear Friends, —A work is before you of a vastinterest to all humanity, and is the best to follow theplans laid down by us in order to develop the goodthat is to come out of your investigation never make
  • 221. — —lS6 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.any boast, or iiever put up money on this holy subject—it is a law not made by men but by God — we willbring you light as fast as you are able to see — andnot be blinded by its rays." When, next morning, I made my appearance againat the residence of my friend 0. von Hoffmann withmy sealed slate, in which should be the piece of paperwritten on with pencil, Slade fell suddenly, at break-fast, into one of his well-known trances ; and withclosed eyes and altered tone of voice made an addressto me in English which, in conclusion, contained state-ments of what we should find —ou opening the sealeddouble-slate — written with pencil on the paper lyingtherein. As generally in such cases, Herr 0. vonHoffmann wrote down, as far as possible, the wordsspoken by Slade during his state of trance. They *were as follows : " Persevere firmly and courageously untroubledabout thy opponents, whose daggers drawn upon theewill turn back upon themselves. The scattered seedwill find a good soil : the minds of good men, althoughlower natures are not able to value it. In what youhave witnessed, others later on will discover newbeauties which escai)e you at the time. For scienceit will be an event of unprecedented significance.We rejoice that the atmospheric conditions have been • The original En};lish is not piveii, so that tlic Gcmian tmiiBlatioiihas to 1k3 rc-tninslatod into Eii;,li.sli, nut, probably, verbally identical withyiailcs language. Note by Translator,
  • 222. A COMMUNICATION IN TRANCE. 1 8/favourable to us, for tlie conditions must be present,and, iu part, prepared. Tiiey cannot be explainedany more than those, for example, which must imme-diately precede the falling asleep. Neither in the onecase nor in the other can they be compelled. Manyenemies of the movement will be its friends, as oneof the most important — Carpenter, whose antagonisticdisposition has been already, now, through thy labours,somewhat shaken, and who later will be thy fellow-labourer in the same field. As regards the manifes-tation of yesterday evening, you will find upon thepaper sentences in three different languages ; there aresomefaults in the German and English. At the lowerend you will find circles, by which we will denote thedifferent dimensions of space. To-morrow morning 0.Ton Hoffmann shall again take part in the sitting, andto-morrow evening something strange will happen." * These words were spoken by Mr. Slade, in a trance,as remarked, somewhere about ten oclock in themorning of the 7th May 1878, quite unexpectedly tous, during a lunch-breakfast, and three hours later Imet my colleagues Wach and Herr 0. von Hoffmannat the residence of the Counsellor Thiersch, in orderto open the slates fastened with six seals, and whichhad been up to this time continually iu my custody.When this was done, we found, within, the piece of * Oa the eveuhi;, of the Sth May (from 8.20 to 8.35 oclock) the twoendless leather strips Avere knotted fourfold under njy hands, held overthem. See antf-, p. 8r.
  • 223. I 88 TUANSCENDEXTAL PHYSKS.paper which liadbcen folded by me the evening before,with the Rtick of grapliite, completely smooth, withoutshowing any other fohlings whatever which coulddenote a forcible insertion through a ii;irn>w cleft.This would moreover have been altogether impossiblewithout injury to the seals, since the extent of theedges of the frame left free between my seals and thestrips of paper employed for fastening by ProfessorAVach — quite apart from their tight adhesion to eachother —amounted at the maximum to only So milli-metres, whereas the narrowest side of the folded sheet ofletter paper amounted to 1 19 millimetres. The often-mentioned two brass spirals on the front side of theslate clasped one over the other in such a manner thatevery possibility was excluded of shoving in a piece ofpaper from this side. After opening the slate, I tookfrom my purse the two bits of paper torn off on theevening before and satisfied myself and my friends oftheir perfect adaptation to the sheet of paper found.All little irregularities of the edojes fitted into eachother so exactly, that not the slightest doubt couhlprevail that the torn-off bits of paper formed the com-pletion of the half sheet of letter paper. I reproduce here the writing obtained, so far as itis possible for me to read it. Gottes Vaterlreue geht Ueher alU Welt hinaus Jiete (lass sie (?) kehrt Ein in unser arvies llaus
  • 224. VERIFICATION. 189 Wh mussen alle sterbeu Ob arm wii oder reich Und werden einst erwerhen Das schdne Himmelreieh. Now, is the 4th dimension proven f We are notivorhing ivith the slate-peneil or on the slate, as ourpowers are noiv in other directions. The strange writing is unknown to me. (Javanese V) Thus was fully established the correctness of thatwhich Slade had said in the state of trance about thecontents of the writing three hours before opening theslate. If I had not had the sealed slate from the endof the sitting continually in my custody, it would bepossible, by disregarding the circuoistances describedby me above with the utmost exactitude, under whichthe sheet of paper disappeared and was written upon,just on this account to raise suspicion against Slade,as was in fact the case with my colleagues Thierschand Wach. Already the circumstance that the writ-ing was not, as expected, with the slate-pencil on theinside of the sealed slate had awakened their distrust,and was looked upon by them as a violation of theconditions prescribed by them. I myself, who hadpersonally witnessed all the above-described manifes-tations, and was accustomed to similar deviations, wasexceedingly pleased with the result obtained. It wasalso in fact far more instructive for me than slate-writing produced between the slates would have been.
  • 225. —I90 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.For of the reality of that fact I had satisfied myself* sooften, and under such stringent conditions, partly alone,partly with my honoured friend W. Weber that I my-self could have learned absolutely nothing new thereby.On the other hand, through the modification of the ex-periment, first, my wish was fulfilled of getting writingwith lead-pencil upon paper instead of on a slate ;secondly, I obtained a splendid proof of the apparentpenetration of matter ; thirdly, an equally cogent proofof clairvoyance, since Slade, to whom nothing of thecontents of the sealed slate could be conveyed by hissenses, was nevertheless able to make a correct state-ment concerning them in his state of trance. TIlis admirable economy of instruction, which isevidenced in the whole arrangement and progress ofthe phenomena that I was so fortunate as to observein Slades presence, proves for me, more than all othercircumstances, the high intelligence and friendly dis-position of those invisible beings, under whose guid-ance these experiments were. I can here only thankfully express that convictionby again referring to the comparison already madebetween these unexjxcted occurrences and the provi-dential fatality observed in life.t • Compare the experiment in presence of W. Weber (described aufe,p. 44), in wbich a b»ng wriliii<j was obtained lietween two slates boundt<»j,etber crosswise, not toucbcd by Slades or our liandu — these all lying on the table.linke<l toj^ethcr t See ante, p. 101. The pa^sape is repeatctl in the text from a formervolume. The phrase " providential fatality" is not the authors, butappears to tlie view expressed in the pas-sage referred to. Tr.
  • 226. ( 191 ) Cfiapter <BleMenili. WRinXG THROUGH A TABLE —A TEST IN SLATE-WEITING CONCLUSIVELY DISPROVING SLADES AGENCY.The most physically astonishing thing in the experi-ments hitherto related, is, without doubt, the facilitywith which material bodies apparently pass througheach other. Thus, the folded sheet of paper, withoutbetraying the slightest traces of force applied, orof pressure in the transit, had apparently penetratedthrouo;h a slate covered outside with wood into theinterior of the double slate. I obtained one of the most remarkable confirmationsof this apparent suspension of the law of impenetra-bility of matter in a sitting on the 9th May, 1878,from eleven to a quarter-past eleven in the morning.Immediately after I had sat down with Slade at thecard-table, I conversed with him at first on the powerof his invisible intelligent beings, by means of whichmaterial bodies could be apparently penetrated withas much facility as if they were permeable. Sladeshared my amazement, assuring me that never untilnow had such an abundance of this sort of phenomenabeen observed in his presence. Immediately after this
  • 227. I 02 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.remark he took up with liis left liaiid two shites ofttjual size from among the slates which lay on thetable at his left, and wliicji had been boujiht andcleaned by my.self. He handed me these two slates,and desired me to press the one upon the uppersurface, the other airainst the under surface of tlietable, with my left hand, so that the thumb of myleft hand pressed the up[ier, my other four fingei-s theunder slate, against the flat of the table, as may beseen from the woodcut, Plate VII. Beneath the ui)perslate on the table, a splinter of slate-pencil had first;been laid, so that it was thus completely covered bythe upper slate. Slade then placed both his hands onthe middle of the table, about a foot from the twoslates, and requested me to cover his hands with myright hand. Scarcely was this done when I distinctlyheard writing on one of the slates which were pressedfirmly by me against the table. After the conclusionof the writing was signified, as usual, by three ticksquickly in succession, I took the slates apart, and ofcourse expected that the one which had been abovetlie table would be that written on, since on the tablestill lay the bit of pencil in the same place in whichI had laid it a minute before. How great was myastonishment to find the under slate written on, on theside that had been turned to the table. Just as if thebit of pencil had written through the three-quarter inchof oak table, or as if the latter had, for the invisible
  • 228. — AN EXPERIMENTAL REFUTATION. 1 95writer, not been there at all. Upon the slate was thefoUowino; message in Eno;lish : * We shall not do much for you this morning —wewish to replenish your strength for this evening ; youwill require to be very passive or we shall not be ableto accomplish our work. " The table does not hinder us the least —we couldwrite in this way more often, but people are not pre-pared for it." On the evening of the same day (6th May, 1878)took place the amazing transport of the wooden ringsfrom a sealed string; of catgut to the foot of a woodentable.* In order to meet the above suggestion, so repeatedlyraised, that Mr. Slade himself writes on slates bymeans of a small piece of pencil which he has insertedbetween the nail and the flesh of one of his fin<xers, Ihad purchased at the above-mentioned writing-utensil-warehouse of Mylius, half a dozen slates, of suchdimensions that such a manipulation was absolutelyimpossible. I here presuppose in my readers somuch understanding, that they concede to me thatany one who will write on a slate in the manner indi-cated, while holding it at the same time, must be ableto touch with his fingers all those parts of the slatewhich are written upon. Now the slates purchasedby me possess a length of 334 millimetres, and a * Ante, p. 105,
  • 229. 196 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.lireacltli of 155 milliinetivs, with the ni:inifiictnremark A. W. Fabcr, No. 39. Grasj) ami hold such aslate as one will, vwn the largest human hand withthe fingers completely spread out, cannot by a longway reach all points of the slate-surface. Is thereforesuch a slate, in the way usually employed by Mr.Slade, written over upon its whole upper surface, sois the above-adduced explanation physically impos-sible, and therefore out of the question. When I repaired with Slade to our sitting-room atthe house of my friend 0. von Hoffmann at half-pasteight on the evening of the 7th May, 1878, 1 took withme several of such slates, bought l>y myself, and firstcarefully cleaned, and laid them down l)efore me onthe card-table, at which we at once took our places.Scarcely were we seated, when Slade fell into a trance,which till then had never happened so immediatelyafter our sitting down, folded his hands, and uttered,with altered voice and head upturned, so fine aprayer, that I never shall forget the impression whichthe noble speech and the fervour with which theprayer was spoken made upon me. The impression was to me so unex[)ected, and interested me, by the lesthetic in the whole demeanour of Slade with his almost transfigured countenance, so highly, that I. did not remember to write down the words. The sub- stance of the prayer was a petition to God further to vouchsafe His blessing on our experiments, and to
  • 230. AWAKING FROM TRANCE. I 97suffer the Avork undertaken to end happily for thegood of mankind. As usual with Slade, on wakingout of such states of trance, there was first a rollingmotion of the head, and then he awoke suddenly witha spasm, which shook his whole body, and there wasalways, before opening of the eyes, a peculiar crackingof the muscles of his neck and jaw. Of what he hadspoken in trance, Mr. Slade asserted that he knewabsohitely nothing. Those who have been witnessesof the experiments of the magnetiser Hansen willbe able most clearly to represent to themselves thedemeanour of awaking out of these trance-states, ifthey recal the expression of the " sensitive " at thesummons —"Awake ! " of the magnetiser. After Slade had awoke, his glance fell upon thenewly-added oblong slates. His question, for whatpurpose they were designed, I answered evasively.Hereupon he proposed to try again whether spontane-ous writing would be produced upon two slates laid oneover the other, not touched by either him or me, asin the experiment. which had succeeded so splendidlyin the presence of William Weber and me on the 13thDecember 1877, when between two slates bound to-gether crosswise with strong pack-thread, and whichlay quietly on the card-table, neither Slade nor wetouching it, a writing was suddenly produced, per-ceptible to us all." * See ante, p. 44.
  • 231. 198 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. Slade now desired mc to take two of the newslates, to lay a Kpl inter of slate-pencil between them,and then to seal these two slates firndy together. Idid this, after having again satisfied myself that theslates were perfectly clean. The sealing was in fourjilaccs on the long sides, and now I laid these slates,with the bit of pencil between them, on the corner ofthe card-table most remote from our hands. Thelatter we joined over one another on the table, so thatSlades hands were covered by mine, and were thusprevented, from moving. Scarcely had this happenedwhen the untouched slates were raised many timesupon one of the edges, which was clearly perceived byus both by the bright light diffused by a candlestanding on the middle of the card-table. Then thetwo slates laid themselves down ao-ain on the card-table in a somewhat altered position, and now writingbetween the slates began to be immediately audible,as if with a slate-pencil guided by a lirm hand.After the well-known three ticks had announced theconclusion of the writing, we sundered our hands,which up to this time had been continually and firmlyjoined, closed the sitting, and betook ourselves withthe double-slate, which I had immediately seized, tothe next room, where Herr von Hoffmann and his wifeawaited us. In presence of these persons the slateshortly before sealed by mc was opened. Botli sideswere completely written over in English. (IMate VIII.
  • 232. Plate VI 1 1.
  • 233. [Copied from a Photograph.)
  • 234. LONG MESSAGE ON A NEW SLATE. 203represents a photographic reproduction of the twoslates in reduced scale. By clapping together theslates, the two inscribed sides, lying one over theother, show the position in which these surfaceswere in fact written over.) Here follows the Englishorjoinal. " This is a truth — not for select —but for all man-kind — without respect of rank or race —no matterhow one may be insulted or persecuted by his investi-gation — it will not take from them the truth, no morethan a blind mans words ; by saying there is no sun-shine, it does not prevent the sun from shining orbring darkness at noonday; the blind man can sa,ythere is no sunshine, for he cannot see the light of thesun. The man that says this is not true, he says sobecause he has not had proof of its being true ; peoplethat cannot see, do not chide them, but help them, byshowing them the way to this divine truth ; we arenot able to say more now as our space is now full ; goon in your investigation and you will receive yourreward."
  • 235. " — ( 204 ) Cftaptcr iEloclftfj.A "FAILT" in the CAni.K — A JKT OF WATER— SMOKE— * FIRE EVERTWHEBK " ABX(»KMAL SHAnnWS— EXPLANATION T PON THE HYPOTHESIS OF THE FOCKTH DIMENSION— A sLvNCE IN DIM LIGHT— MOVEMENT OK OBJECTS— A LLMINOlS BODY.I PASS now to tlie account of further facts observedby me, which prove the intimate connection of an-other material world witli our own, and may be con-sidered in general as a confirmation of the numerousobservations of ]Ir. Crookes and other physicists.Generally, hitherto, my accounts have had referenceto the sudden disappearance and return of solidbodies : the followinor facts will show the advent(Eintritt) of bodies in the fluid and gaseous condi-tion, without our being able, from the standpoint ofour ordinary and limited conception of space, to givean answer to the question, " whence ? On the /th IMav, 1878, at fifteen minutes pasteleven in tlic morning, I liad taken my place withShide at our card-table. In order that we miiihtfirst learn something of what we were to expect, Itook one of the slates kept in readiness, cleaned it,laid a small bit of slate-pencil upon it, and handed it
  • 236. — — AN IMPORTANT FACT. 205to Slade to hold, as usual, lialf under the edge ofthe table, that it might be written on by his invisiblebeings. Slade proposed, as a variety in this pro-ceeding, the following modification. He desired meto press the slate from below against the table withmy left hand, as is shown in the above wood-cut,*while he grasped the slate at the other corner withhis right hand, and pressed it in the same manneragainst the table. His left hand Slade laid extendedon the middle of the table, and I covered it with myright hand. Scarcely was this done when writingbegan on the slate ; this gave the opportunity ofconfirming a phenomenon observed also at othertimes by myself, and frequently by others, that thedistinctly audible sound of writing immediatelyceased as soon as by raising my right hand I removedit somewhat from Blades left. As soon as the con-nection was re-established, the writing immediatelyrecommenced, t Three ticks on the surface of theslate having declared the writing ended, the follow-ing was found on the slate on its upper surface,which had been pressed against the table : " To-morrow morning we would be pleased to haveBaron H. sit with you —and shall begin a new power,and give you more proof of what can be done ; please * Ante, p. 193. t The translator observed this on several oecasions~when sitting -withSla(ie_inLondon, in 1876. Tlie same fact is also recorded by the late Mr.Serjeant Cox in the " Spiritualist," August 1876. Tr.
  • 237. 206 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.nsk us no question, or make any more requests ; wewill do all in our power fur you —we wish to saymore to-morrow morning by controlling the medium." Blade and I then rose to look in a closet near for asomewhat larger piece of slate-pencil, but before thiscould be done, almost in the moment when we rose,we were sprinkled from above by a sort of drizzle.AVe were both wet on the head, clothes and hands,and the traces of this shower —of perhaps one-fourthof a second duration — were afterwards clearly percep-tible on the floor of the room. Remains of the liquid being especially on theupper side of my right hand, I touched it with thetip of my tongue ; so far as taste could inform, themoisture was pure water. I should mention here,that in the room in which we were there was novessel with water, although there was in thatimmediately adjoining. After the above-related fixctsconcerning the transport of solid bodies from three-dimensioually enclosed spaces, such a conveyance ofwater from one room to another would appear to bea phenomenon of the same kind. Surprised at this unexpected phenomenon, and yetbusied in drying our clothes, we took our placesagain at the table, and were about to join hands,when suddenly the same thing was repeated almostmore strongly. This time the ceiling and walls ofthe room were also moistened, and there seemed,
  • 238. — ; JETS OF WATER. 20/judging from the direction and form of the traces ofwater, to have proceeded several different jets ofwater at the same time from a point in the middleof the room, perhaps four feet high above our heads ;as if a jet of water were to be discharged perpendi-cularly upon a plane, where it would then spreaditself out radially in all directions in this two-dimen-sional region of space, from the point at which itreached the ground. If one applies this analogy to ajet of water discharged from the fourth dimensioninto the three-dimensional region of space, the waterwould then appear at a particular spot of this space,and under suitable conditions must extend itselfthence radially to all three dimensions. I may further remark that I met with the samephenomenon in just as unexpected a manner, ata sitting with Slade, at which Herr Gillis of St.Petersburg was present." Since that sitting tookplace in the sitting-room of the restaurant-keeper ofthe Thuringian railway station, which Slade hadset foot in shortly before for the first time, thepossibility of a conjuring apparatus is excludedand independently of this, the same phenomenon inthe presence of Slade has since been confirmed bynumerous other observers. On the next morning (8th May 1878, elevenoclock), Herr 0. von Hoffmann took part in the * Referred to, but not described, in an earlier part of the volume. Tr,
  • 239. 2o8 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.sitting; he sat at my riglit, Slade in Lis usual place at my left. After some short writings on the slate had been ohtainetl in the usual maimer, and Slade had joined his hands with ours again on the middleof the table, there rose suddenly, in three dilTerentplaces above the edge of the table from l^ucath, asmoke, which, judging from the smell, containedsome acid of sulphur and saltpetre. We imme-diately looked under the table, but saw nothingfurther tluui the still present remains of this smoke,as after the lighting of a lucifer match. Scarcelyhad we again joined our hands, to await the furtherdevelopment of the phenomena, when the same thingwas repeated yet more strongly. Almost at the same time Slade proposed to me toplace a caudle under the table, to see if the invisiblebeings were able to light it. Thereupon Herr vonHoffmann took two candlesticks, provided with newunused candles, from his writing-table, and placedthem both on the floor under the table,* at which weimmediately resumed our seats, and joined our handsin the manner already mentioned. After we hadwaited for some minutes, smoke rose up again fromunder the table, almost from all sides ; and at thesame time one of the candlesticks with the candleburning hovered up above the edge of the table • Not under the middle of the tahle, hut under the edge at his right,tlio place furthest removed from Sladea feet. ^
  • 240. — " FIRE EVERYWHERE. 209opposite to me ; after a few seconds it sunk downagain ; and wlien we looked under the table one ofthe candles was lighted, and under the middle of thetable. To refute the suo-o-estion of a transient hallu-cination or "unconscious cerebration," a half sheetof writing-paper was taken, held close over theburning candle, and in this way a hole was burnedthrough the paper. I then took a stick of sealing-wax, held it in the same light, and let a part of themelted wax drop on the paper, and then impressed theseal with my signet. The half sheet of paper withthe seal under the in-burnt hole is still safe in mypossession. After our agreeable astonishment at thisunexpectedly successful experiment had somewhat sub-sided, we sat again at the card-table, and placed theburning light in the middle of it. Scarcely hadthis been done when Slade fell into a trance, andwith closed eyes uttered an address, of which Herrvon Hoffmann took down the following words, whileSlade was slowly speaking them : "All seems strange that is not understood ; fire iseverywhere. Think of the flint from which you drawit ; it is in all the elements around you. Let this lightbe a beacon light in the path of investigation, let itbe symbolical of the light that must break through thedarkness of the w^orld. The light of the brain wnlllight thy pathway ! we This evening will enter intoa new phase ; to-morrow morning we will replenish
  • 241. 2IO TRATfSCENDETHAL PHYSICS.tlie forces, and in the evening show you another i)hase,if the atmosphere be favourable." In fact, our invisible friends kept their promise ofthe morninf; in a manner astonishinij to us all. We were sitting at half-past seven in the evening,at the tea-table in the dining-room. On the tableburned a large lamp ; Slade sat opposite rne, his backturned to the window, the curtains of which were letdown. At my left, on one side of the table, sat Frauvon Hoffmann ; opposite to her, on the other side ofthe large tea-table, Herr von Hoffmann ; I myself hadmy back turned to the great folding-doors, providedwith a brown curtain, by which one entered the roomfrom the corridor. Since in general we had neverol)served remarkable manifestations with Slade duringmeals— I leave quite out of sight particular risings oftlie table and movement of detached chairs —wenaturally were not expecting anything surprising onthis evening. Suddenly, however, Frau von Hoflmanncried out, and said that she saw on the wall and onthe door to which my back was turned the reflectionof a bright light which appeared to issue from aplace under the table at which we sat. Slade, whofrom his place was facing the side of the roomreferred to, confirmed this assertion. We lookedfirst under the table, examined everything narrowly,but found nothing which could explain the origin ofsucli a light. In the expectation that this pheuo-
  • 242. SHADOW CASTING. 211menon would perhaps be repeated, we frequentlylooked at the side in question, and for easier obser-vation I had placed my chair somewhat obliquely.Suddenly this phenomenon occurred again, and then,immediately afterwards again. The colour of thelight was bluish-white, as if proceeding from asuddenly kindled electrical light, and, what was forme the most remarkable, the shadows of the feet ofthe table were sharply projected, nevertheless, so faras I could ascertain in the short time, perceptibly ofthe same size cts the objects casting the shadows.Although I might consider this phenomenon, owingto the want of sufficient test -conditions (Controle),as a oiot scieiitijically established fact, raised aboveall doubt, yet I hold it, nevertheless, for my scientificduty to make mention of it, in order that otherobservers may be attentive to its extraordinaryimportance. If, for instance, the origin of this ray was aluminous point in the space beneath the table, theshadows of the feet of the table must, accordino; tothe laws of shadow-casting, have been considerablylarger on the wall than the feet themselves, as any-one can easily prove by placing a lighted candleunder a table having several feet. The size andform of the shadow-projection of an object ap-proximates, as one knows, more to the size of theshadow-casting object, the further the source of light
  • 243. 212 TRANSCENDENTAL removed from the latter, or in otlier words, thenearer the rays are to the parallel. The sharjynessin the outline of the shadcjw afTords, moreover, aninference as to the apparent size of the light-source ;if, for example, the apparent diameter of the sunsdisc were twenty times greater than is in fact thec;ise, the shadows cast by opaque l»odies in sunlightwould be effaced at the edjies to a far jrreater extentthan actually hapjxjns. Apart from the phenomenaof refraction, a l)ody would cast an absolutely sharpshadow of absolutely similar size with the shadow-casting object, if the rays proceeded from an injinitclifremote jx)iut. Since, now, in the alx)ve-mentionedcase, surprisingly sharp shadows of the feet of thetable of perceptibly similar size to the feet themselveswere observed, it follows from this that the rayswhich produced that projection of shadow, must haveissued from a light source, first, {wssessing a veryemail apparent size, and, secondly, being at a greatdistance. No place underneath the table could havesatisfied the second condition, and since the remain-ing space of the room was observed, and even thedistance of the nearest wall at Slades back, wouldnot have sufficed to comply with the above condition,the said phenomenon would thus point to anotherplace as the point of issue, which cannot lie at all inour three-dimensional space. This contradiction issolved as soon as one presupposes the reality of a
  • 244. LIGHT FEOM THE FOUETH DIMENSION. 2 I 3foiir-dimensional region of space, and admits that itis possible for those invisible intelligent beings, whohave showed ns so much of their powers, also todivert rays of light, Avhich are diffused in the direc-tion of the fourth dimension, so that they fall in ourthree-dimensional region of space. AVe are, indeed,likewise able, by reflection and refraction of light, todivert rays in such a manner as to transfer theirpoint of issue to another than the true place. Uponthis diversion of rays of light depends most of thephysical-optical illusions. Since similar phenomenaof lights are very frequently observed at spiritual-istic sittings, and among others, Mr. Crookes hasalso given detailed testimony to them,* I may be * ^^ Notes of an Inquiry into the Phenomena called Spiritual," by WilliamCrookes, F.R.S. London, 1874. Mr. Crookes enumerates and describesthirteen classes of phenomena observed and verified by himself in hisown house, and with only private friends present, besides the medium.Of Class viii. " Luminous Appearances," he says " These, being rather :faint, generally require the room to be darkened. I need scarcelyremind my readers again that, under these circumstances, I have takenproper precautions to avoid being imposed upon by phosphorised oil, orother means. Moreover, many of these lights are such as I have triedto imitate artificially, but cannot. " Under the strictest test conditions, I have seen a solid self-luminousbody, the size and nearly the shape of a turkeys egg, float noiselesslyabout the room, at .one time higher than any one present could reachstandng on tip-toe, and then gently descend to the floor. It was visiblefor more than ten minutes, and before it faded away it struck the tablethree times with a sound like that of a hard, solid body. During thistime the medium was lying back, apparently insensible, in an easy chair. I have seen luminous points of light darting about, and settling on the heads of different persons ; I have had questions answered by the flashingof a bright light, a desired number of times in front of my face. I haveseen sparks of light rising from the table to the ceiling, and again fallingupon the table, striking it witli an audible sound. I have had an alpha*
  • 245. 214 TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. IMjrmittcd to call the attention of other observers tothe circumstance mentioned. For approximate deter-mination of the point of divergence of the rays ofsuch luminous phenomena, the following proceedingmay be recommended as the simplest Phenomenaof light are observed by aid of an opera-glass, by theadjustment of which the object may be removed asfar as possible. Objects at so short a distance asthose in a room, require, to appear in sharp outline, aspecial adjustment of the glass, and this adjustment —the determinate distance of the eyepiece from theobjective — enables us, according to simple optical laws,to determine the distance of the object, that is, ofthose luminous points, from which the rays extendthemselves in space. If, now, it should really appear,with respect to these spiritualistic luminous pheno-mena, that the distance of the point of divergence ofthe rays does not agree with the distance of theluminous object, the difference of these two distanceswould determine the length of a tract (Strecke) fallingin the fourth dimension, and hereby would be madethe first step towards quantitative determinations inbetic coniniunication given 1»y luminous fliuslics occurring before me inthe air, whilst my liaud wjis nioviM;j; about amongst them, I have seena luminous cloud tloating upwards to a picture. Under the strictesttest conditions, I have more than once had a solid, self-luminous, crystal-line body jdaccd in my hand by a hand which did not belong to any])erson in the room. In the lijht I have seen a luminous cloud hover overa hoi i»»t rope on a side table, break a sprig ofl", and carry the sprig to alaily ; and on some occasions I iiave seen a similar luminous cloudvisibly condense to the form of a hand and carry small objects about."
  • 246. 5 REPETITION OF THE PHENOMENON. 2 1the four-dimensional field of space. Such an observa-tion would, in the history of transcendental physics,be comparable to the first determination of parallaxesin the history of astronomy, whereby we obtainedthe first approximate conception of the distance ofour moon, the nearest to us of the heavenly bodies. I may mention, that the above-described luminousphenomena were repeated on two other evenings (9thMay, and 19th May) under similar circumstances,and in presence of others who were sitting at tea atthe same table. On these evenings, however, for thesake of a better control over Slade, and for moreconvenient observation of the shadow-projection onthe opposite side, I had taken my place close besideSlade, so that he sat at my left. The only difierenceof the phenomenon from that observed on the firstevening consisted in the colour of the light beingyellowish-red, instead of a bluish-white. It willtherefore be useful in future at similar sittino;s tohave with one a pocket spectroscope, to examine thenature of the light, as opportunity offers. Finally, I mention here a sitting with Slade whichtook place at five oclock in the afternoon of the15th December, 1877, in the usual sitting-room ofthe house of my friend 0. von Hoffinann, whose wifewas present. It was the only one in which the roomwas partially darkened, to try whether in Sladespresence, as in that of the young lady of fifteen (Miss
  • 247. 2l6 TUANSCENDENTAI, PHYSICS.Cook), a liunian form, or at least a "phantom form,"as Mr. Crookcs describes it in liis Ijook, iiinlcr thehcadinfT " Piiantom Forms aiul Faces," would beevolved. Ill order to improvise a cabinet, a stringwas drawn ol)li(iue]y across the part of the roomopposite my usual place, at about two metres* abovethe floor, and of a breadth corresponding to tliat ofthe edge of the table, a dark green curtain being fixedto it. Slade sat at his usual place, at his ri^lit Frauvon IIofTmann, I next, and Herr von Holfmann at myright. AVe had already laid our hands, linkedtogether, on the tabic, when I remarked it was apity we had forgotten to place a small hand-bell onthe table. At the same moment it boiran rinirinir inthe corner of the room at my right front, at least twometres from the middle of the table ; and the roombeing faintly illuminated by gaslight from the street,we saw a small hand-bell slowly hover down fromthe stand on which it stood, lay itself down on thecarpet of the floor, and move itself forward by jerks,till it got under our table. Here immediately itbegan ringing in the most lively manner, and whilewe kept our hands joined together as above describedon the table, a hand suddenly appeared through anopening in the middle of the curtain with the bell,which it placed on the middle of the table in frontof us. I hereupon expressed the wish to be allowed * About 65 feet.— Tr.
  • 248. A TRIAL OF STREXGTH. 2 I 7to hold that hand ODce firmly in my own. I hadscarcely said this, when the hand appeared again outof the opening, and now, while with the palm of myleft hand I covered and held fast both Slades hands,with my right I seized the hand protruded from theopening, and thus shook hands with a friend fromthe other world. It had quite a living warmth, andreturned my pressure heartily. After letting go thehand, I reached it a slate and challenged it to asmall proof of strength ; 1 would pull to one side andit should pull to the other, and we would see whichof us kept the slate. This was done, and in thefrequent give-and-take, I had quite the feeling of anelastic tuo- as thouQ-h a man had hold of the slate atthe other side. By a strong wrench I got possessionof it. I again remark that during all these proceed-ings Mr. Slade sat quietly before us, both his handsbeing covered and detained by my left hand and bythe hands of the two others. may here point I out that such a pull on one sideby a human hand or other solid body, as a slate, would be a violation of the principle of the equality of action and reaction, if no material object under- going the equal, but resisted, pull were to be found in three-dimensional space. But no such object being to be found in the space ordinarily perceivable by us (in unserem gewdhnlichen Anschauungsraum), it must occupy a position in absolute space, falling in the p
  • 249. 2 I S TUAXSCENDENTAL lii<j;licr region of space. Only in this mannercan the apparent contradiction, hero introduced, of afundamental law of the interaction of bodies, besatisfactorily solved for our understanding. While I was still busied with the above observa-tions and experiments, there suddenly emerged fromabove the upper border of the curtain, a half circularmass gleaming in phosphorescent light, of the size ofa human head. It moved slowly to and fro at thesame height from one side of the curtain to the otherfrequently ; and gave us all the impression of apper-taining to a luminous form close behind the curtain.Approaching that side of the curtain at which Sladesat, this luminous form became visible in its wholeextent. Slade drew back, evidently alarmed, where-at we laughed, and the form immediately hoveredIjack behind the curtain, and with the same speedmoved to the other side, here also emerging up tothe middle. We could not distinguish features orlimbs. In brightness and colour the phosphorescentliirht resembled that observed in the so-called "aftershinincc " Geisslers tubes. I much ref^fretted that Ihad not at hand my pocket-spectroscope, in order moreclosely to examine the nature of the emitted light.
  • 250. ( 219 ) chapter CI)irteent!b» PHKXOMENA DESCBIBED BT OTHERS.The foregoing comprises in essentials all the plieno-mena wliicli I liave myself observed in Sladespresence during a series of more than thirty sittingsand other meetings. The precautionary measureswhich I had taken on these occasions were such, thatfor my understanding every possibility of deceptionor subjective illusion was excluded. I do not, how-ever, assert that these measures will be regarded assufficient by the understanding of other men. I amtherefore quite ready and willing to receive instruc-tion and enlightenment as to better precautions thanthose adopted by me; provided that my advisershave given other proofs of intellectual competencesuperior to my own, to induce me to defer to themand to recognise them as judges of facts of observa-tion, which they have not seen, but have learned forthe first time from my description. Before Mr. Slade left German}^, he visited Annathalin Bohemia, by special invitation from Herr J. E.Schmid, the owner of a factory there. In the family
  • 251. 2 20 TRANSCEXDENTAL PHYSICS.of this gentleman lie found the most friendly recep-tion, and remained a week. Herr Schmid has already]>ublished a short account in a letter to PsychischeStudii-n (July 187S). For the following detaileddescrii)tion I am indebted to Herr Heinrich Goss-niann, Herr Schmids bookkeeper, who witnessedall the phenomena during Slades residence withHerr Schmid, and gave me a verbal account of themwhen on a visit to Leipsic. In accordance with myrequest, and by pennission of Herr Schmid, he after-wards furnished me the followin^j written account.* "Mr. Slade arrived here on the 14th ^lay, last year{1878), but was too tired by his journey to give usa sitting on that day. Notwithstanding which, tothe surprise of us all, on his entering the room, weheard thunderino; blows on the 3ofa, for which Mr.Slade could certainly have made no preparations, aslie had never been in the room before. To thequestion whether this was a manifestation, Mr. Sladereplied in the affirmative, remarking that the spiritscould not wait till the next day to announce them-selves, and that he had often found this to be thecase where harmony prevailed. AVe took our seatsat the table, without intendini; a regular sittinix, andhad scarcely done so when all at once a seat at somedistance, near the piano, put itself in motion, and • Tlic introductory and concludiug parts of this letter are here omitted,as nut niutcriul. Tit.
  • 252. VARIOUS PHENOMENA. 22 Icame np to the table of its own accord. Continaallyas our astonishment increased, we did not nealect towatch Mr. Slade closely and attentively. I wassitting next him, and after some time was swiftly andunexpectedly swung round in a half circle, with thechair on which I sat, so that I nearly fell off it.Others at the table were now touched, sometimessoftly, sometimes powerfully, and to me this hap-pened often. One manifestation now followed another, chairsmoved up to the table, touches on our knees Avereconstantly felt, a knife and fork were put across eachother on a cloth at the lower end of the table, as ifthey were cutting meat, then from another side ofthe table a fork flew off on to the floor in a sliohtcurve. " On the next and two following daj^s seances wereheld in another room at a table appropriated to them.Many persons, sceptics and the like, to whom Spiritu-alism was as yet unknown, took part in them. Achain was formed, and we gave Mr. Slade a slatewhich he had never had in his hands before. Helaid on it a small bit of pencil, and asked the spiritof his deceased wife to tell them, by direct writing, ifit was possible for any of the departed relatives ofthe family to communicate in the same way; towhich an affirmative answer was returned. Mr.Slade now put the pencil on the table, showed us that
  • 253. ;222 TRANSCENDENTAL TllYSICS.the slate was quite clean and witliout writing, andthen laid it on the table over the pencil. Writing underthe slate was at once heard ; wc could distinctlyfollow the scribbling and taking off of the pencil.This sitting, as all the rest, was in bright daylightthe slate lay there free, before all our eyes, when weformed the chain, and Slade laid one hand on theslate. The conclusion of the spirit-writing wasdenoted by three sharp raps ; and the slate beinglifted up, we found the whole under side of itwritten over, first by an address from Slades wifein English, and next by a message in German froma spirit-relative. A communication from the deceasedfather of the lady of the house was especially striking,as his characteristics and habitual expressions whenon earth were quite distinctly recognisable in it.Besides the great resemblance of the writing on theslate to that of the deceased, his identity was apparentfrom a certain manner of speech, and such phrases as* We must all die, which came upon the slate. Andin many of tliese communications the like resem-blances were observable. Among others, the brotherof the lady of the house communicated, and invcrsCy a custom he had when on earth, especially inwriting to his sister, whom he generally addressed inrhymes. She recognised her brother very clearly inthis, and on comparing the writing with that of hisletters, just the same strokes were found in them.
  • 254. — SLATE WRITING. 223This communication was obtained in the foUowinirmanner : " A young lady (a relative of the family) who satat the lower end of the table, opposite Mr. Slade, tookin her left hand, by his direction, two slates connectedby hinges ; a small pencil was laid between them,and she joined her right hand to the chain of handson the table. Mr. Slade sat quite away from theslates, and his hands were likewise joined in thechain ; and under these conditions, to our greatastonishment, writinsf beo;an between the slates. Theyoung lady, according to Mr, Slade, was mediumistic,therefore it was that she could obtain writing whileholding the slate herself alone, which was not thecase with the others ; she also perceived the pressureupon the under side of the slate while it was beingwritten upon. . . . " Such direct writings covered at least twelve slates,which were bought here, and came to Mr. Sladeshands for the first time, before all eyes, without hishaving any possible opportunity for "preparing"them, or for writing upon them without continualobservation. Mr. Slade often held the slate quitesloping, at an oblique angle, and yet the pencil uponit did not slip to the edge, but wrote quietly on.The supposition one so often hears that the slates are"prepared" by Mr. Slade will not stand examina-tion, because he washes out the answers, given to
  • 255. 2 24 TUANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS.liis questions by the spirits, on the slate, which (thesame one) is again written upon ; this also, as always,happening under observation. Wlien once during asikmcCy at which writing was going on under a slate,one of tlic circle raised his hand quietly and withoutbeing observed, from tliat of his neighbour, thewriting suddeidy ceased, the connection lx;ing thusdisturbed. jIr. Slade looked up, and seeing whathad happened, requested the gentleman referred to,to try the experiment frequently, and each time thewriting; ceased, and be^an afjain as soon as the chainwas re-closed. There were many other manifesta-tions. For instance, a bell under the table came outof its own accord, ringing, rose high up in the air,and let itself gently down, still ringing, on the table.A slate placed under the table was shivered into smalla pieces, as by lightning, and the fragments flew incurve over our heads and so on to the floor. Duringa seance, another heavy table which stood at somedistance from the one at which we sat, came with arush of extraordinary speed and force to the side ofa gentleman among us, whom we thought must havebeen hurt ; but it only touched him quite gently.The spirits gave to a hydropathic doctor, who waspresent, a token of esteem for his practice by wettinghim with a jet of water, which came from a corner ofthe ceiling opposite him. Just afterwards ray kneewas tightly grasped by a w^et hand, so that I felt the
  • 256. QUASI-MAGNETIC FORCE. 225wet fingers sharply, and on examination I found themoisture on ray trouser. (Mr. Slade, during this, hadhis hands linked in the chain formed by those ofall present.) " Another interesting fact is, that when my Principal(Herr Schmid), Mr. Slade, and I, were holding ourhands lightly on the table, the latter went up, hover-ing in the air, and turned itself over above our heads,so that its legs were turned upwards. " What an enormous force Mr. Slade must haveapplied to evoke these manifestations deceptively,is shown by the following case. When I was sitting,a little distance from him, he likewise sitting, hestretched out his arm, and laid his hand on the backof my chair. All at once I was raised, with thechair, swaying in the air about a foot high, as ifdrawn up by a pulley, without any exertion whateverby Slade, who simply raised his hand, the chairfollowing it as if it were a magnet. This experimentwas often repeated with others. *Mr. Slade held an accordion under the table,grasping it by the strap at the side ; his other handlay on the table. Immediately we heard the falling-boards move, and a fine melody was played. " The experiment with two compasses was alsotried ; these were placed close together, and whenMr. Slade held his hand over them, the magneticneedle in one of the compasses began quickly swing-
  • 257. 2 26 TRANSCENT)ENTAL round in coniplcto rotations, while tho needle inthe other compass remained at rest, and so also con-versely. According to the laws of physics knownhitherto, if ]Ir. Slade had l^een secretly applying amagnet, as is so frequently alleged by ojiponents, bothneedles must have been set in motion, as they werequite close together, yet this was not the case. " One of the most wonderful manifestations was thefullowins; : — IIr. Slade stood in the middle of theroom, I on his right, on my right my Principal, andbehind us, at the window, stood a young lady. Whilein this position we w^ere conversing, and my Principalwas about to go into the next room to fetch some-thing, a heavy stone, as if originating in the air, fellbefore all our eyes with a very heavy blow upon thefloor, so that a regular hole was made in the latter ;the stone fell quite close to my Principals feet.Immediately afterwards there fell a second stone, thefall of which, as of the first, we saw very distinctly.This did not happen close to Slade, for I and myPrincipal were both between him and the place. " Occasionally at a sitting we saw a materialisedhand ; it would tear the slate forcibly out of Sladeshand under the table ; it appeared suddenly at theside of the table, and quickly vanished again ; it wasa strong hand, quite like one of flesh and blood. "A slate was regularly wTcnched out of myPrincipals hand ; it then made the round of the
  • 258. SLATE WHITING AT BERLIN. 227table, hovering free in the air before all eyes. . . .Slade came here alone without any companion." Professor ZoUner next refers to the manifestationsobtained through Slade at Berlin, of which he hadreceived information from visitors and correspon-dents. Amono; the slates which were broiio;ht orforwarded to him, was one written upon in sixdifferent languages, and which Professor Zollner ascer-tained, upon examination, to be free from the " pre-paration " by artificial means, so often suggested asthe probable explanation of the long sentences comingupon apparently clean slates during Blades seances.In this case, moreover, as will be seen, the slate wasbrought by the investigators, and was never inSJades custody at all ; nor was there the smallestopportunity afforded for effecting an exchange. Thecorrespondent from whom the author received theaccount was a " Herr Director Liebing," of Berlin,who obtained the details from the owner of the slate,in whose presence it was written upon, with fullauthority to transmit them to Professor Zollner forpublication, with the slate. Although it would havebeen preferable to have had the account direct fromthis gentleman, it appears from the correspondencein the text (which it is not thought necessary toreproduce literally and at length in this translation),that the statement was submitted to him for correc-tion, was in fact corrected by him, and is thus, as
  • 259. —2:8 TRANSCENDENTAL given, in ellVct liis own. IIo was a IlerrKlccberg, residing at No. 5 Schmied Street, Berlin,nn<l "of a very respectable firm" in that city. Heand a friend of his, a "thorough sceptic," took twoslates to Slade. One slate was covered by the other,and l)cyond putting a piece of slate-pencil betweenthcni, Slade vever touched them (U (dh IlerrKlceberff and his friend then held tlie two slates,so joined together by their hands, above the table,suspended over it, m fidl daylujht, and writing atonce beiran. ^llen it was over, and the slates wereseparated, the lower one was found covered with writ-ing, as sliowii in Plate IX. One long passage wasin English, five short sentences in French, German,Dutch, Greek, and Chinese (the latter according tothe judgment of a student of Oriental languages),respectively. They were as follows : 1. Look about over the great mass of humanintellif^euce and see for w^hat these endow^ments aregiven to man. Is it not to unfold (in) the greattruths God has embodied in him? Is it not mindtliat frames your mighty fabrics the soul that isendowed with powers. Shall he not go on unfoldingthese powers as God has sent His angels to do ?Must man pass his judgments on Gods laws that hedoes not understand ? We say no. 2. Es ist mir schmeichelhaft Sie bedienen zukonnen. (I am proud to be able to serve you.)
  • 260. •^i^/T.VVO^ *^ ^-ICO. . o ^-^ /b ^, o > i? s "^Hc7 cv^a^^iix^ ^^ yf?-V:.jen5jt6a5r. 230-31-
  • 261. € <i^c^^^^^m ^^^^^^ y^vM^fh^J4^^jv" O-M.. y:^^j/ > t.-v^W^ cw-^C H >V^JTc^f^^i.TE IX.
  • 262. WEITIXG IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. 233 3. Que la gr^ce soit avec vous tons qui etes enJesus Christ. Amen. (The grace of God be withyou all who are in Jesus Christ. Amen.) 4. Ol TTOVTjpot, eh TO K€pBo<; fjLovov aTTo^XeTTOvcriv. ( look only to their own advantage.) 5. Die het zaadije wasdom geeft, En verzadigt alwat leeft. (Who to the seed-corn increase gives,nourishes all that therein lives.) The last sentence, supposed to be Chinese, was notunderstood.
  • 263. APPENDICES.
  • 264. APPENDIX A. THE VALUE OF TESTIMONY IN MATTERS EXTRA OR DINAR Y.* BY CHARLES CARLETON MASSEY.The proposition that evidence, to command assent,should be proportioned to the probability or improba-bility of the fact to be proved, is constantly appealedto as the rational foundation of sceptical or negativejudgment. I ask you this evening to come to closequarters with it, to consider what it means, andwhether it is legitimately applied. There are perhapsno two words in the language more liable to abuse,or more frequently abused, than probability, and thew^ord expressing that upon which probability is saidto be founded, namely, experience for there is here :no question of those definitely-ascertained j)robabilitieswhich result from the computation of known chances,and which are, therefore, not matters of experience atall. It is by reference to these, however, that we shallhave the principle in question most clearly before us.Suppose, for example, evidence of such a characterand amount that the chance ae-ainst its beino- forth-coming for what is not true is as 5 to i, and that it isgiven for an event against which the chance is as 10to I, the resulting probability is 2 to i against the A Paper read before the Psychological Society of Great Britain,on Thursday, June 6th, 187S.
  • 265. JS APPENDIX A.evidence. Now it is said tliat the inductions fromexperience afford us a similar, tliougii not equallydclinite, measure of proportion between tiie probabilityof facts and the value of evidence. And as to a large class of alleged facts, we are metat the outset of our inquiry by the previous question,whether testimony in relation to them has any valuewhatever 1 The probability in favour of testimony,even at its best, it is said, can never equal that Avhichresults from the uniform negative experience of man-kind. Our faith in testimony is based on the samej)rinciple of experience, and therefore testimony cannever prove a fact which is contrary to a wider induc-tion. This is the extreme api)lication of the principle,as we find it in Humes celebrated argument againstmiracles. It is not quite the same, though })racticallyit has the same effect, as that absolute a priori denialof the possibility of the facts attested to which few.scientific minds will ex})licitly commit themselves. Itdoes not say that our inductions as to what is possible,or in renim Jiaturd, are certain, but that they have agreater force than any testimony which can beadduced against them, which therefore is not entitledeven to consideration. Now, in the first place, I would invite you to con-sider when it can and when it cannot be said withaccuracy that an alleged fact contradicts experience,lu one sense, of course, it cannot be accurately said atall. Your experience that contact with fire has alwaysInirued you remains unchallenged aul uncontradictedby any assertion of mine that on one occasion or onhalf-a-dozen occasions it has not burned me. Butexperience is a term used loosely to denote our induc-tions from experience ; and this is the first thing Iask you to mark. What, again, is a fact in relationto experience ? If you and I have seen the sameobject, and you describe it as of one ap[>arent dimeu-
  • 266. APPENDIX A. 239sion, and I of another and vastly- describe it asdifferent apparent dimension, does my experience con-tradict yours ? Not necessarily ; for we may haveboth described the ajDparent object abstracted fromthe conditions of distance under which we severallysaw it. This tendency to abstract from the contextof experience, in other words, to ignore conditions,is what distinguishes the popular from the scien- justtific conception of a fact. And until we know allthe conditions under which anything is said tohave occurred, Ave cannot properly speak of it asopposed to our own experience. The next remark Ihave to make is that, a priori, we do not know whichof the circumstances attending even the most familiarfacts of experience are conditions, and which are en-tirely irrelevant. Transport yourself to an imaginedinfancy of experience, and you could not predict fromthe fact that fire had burned you in one place ortime that it would burn you in another, or that itwould burn me. Difference of place, time, or personmight, for all you could know beforehand, provide .entirely new conditions. Now if it was asserted, asin fact it is asserted with regard to a large class ofalleged phenomena, that personality, that specialitiesof human or2;anism do introduce new conditions, re-suiting in these unusual phenomena under certainother conditions not scientifically known, this wouldnot be and is not to contradict the common experiencewhich, ex hypothesi, knows nothing of these exceptionalpersonalities. Bearing in mind, then, that no experi-ence or amount of experience has the least relevanceto an alleged fact except under the exact conditions,inclusive and exclusive, of its occurrence, and that wecannot say beforehand what are conditions and whatare not, the experience argument, in relation to thephenomena in question, resolves itself into this that :inasmuch as the alleged personalities which, as the one
  • 267. 240 APPENDIX A. constant clement must be regarded as the condition, are exceptional and ahnornial, tlicrefore their existence is so inij)rol)able tiiat testimony cannot prove it. What is this but to say that the abnormal can never be proved by testimony Nay, more, tliat testimony *? can never make such a provisional and jfrinid facie case, as to justify a reasonable man in seeking for the higher evidence of his own experience in otlicr words, ; in investigating for himself? For such a i)rhiid facie case is a probable case, and here it is said that the balance of proliuljility is largely .against the fact. I am endeavouring to get at the precise point in issue ; and 1 say tliat the man who exclaims, " Objects mov- ing without physical contact ! writing read without ej-es !matter passing through matter! writing without hands these things are opposed to all human experi- ! ence " 1 — is talking Mildly and loosely. What, if he would condescend to be exact and logical, he really means is that it is opposed to a negative induction from the (O)sence of experience that indiridHals should exist ivho can provide new conditions of plnjsical operation. But the question is. Is this induction to be refjarded as final { And as we are dealinir with the experience school solely with its own weapons, let us see what experience says to that. And I should have thou2;ht that if there was one induction from experience historically and scientifically valid it was that other inductions from experience — and especially necjative inductions — are not final. Our widest indue- tions are precisely those which we make in the infancy of experience and science. Science advances by the discovery of new conditions which limit general rules. What was rejected as abnormal yesterday is found to. have a law of its own to-day. In a word, if the widest and highest experience of mankind can afford us a canon of probability it is tiiis — that testimony, otherwise suilicieut, to the exceptional, the abnormal,
  • 268. APPENDIX A. 241the strange, and tlie new, is probably true, and notprobably false. Set side by side the cases in whichnew facts of nature have been asserted and jDroved tobe true with the cases in which they have been wellasserted and yet disproved, or not proved, and whothat is acquainted even superficially with the historyof science and discovery would hesitate to say whichlist affords us the best foundation for an induction 1 I submit, then, as the results of the foregoing con-siderations — I. That testimony to the extraordinary,of which the phenomena referred to may be taken asa type, is falsely opposed to experience. 2. Thatwhat it is opposed to is simply a negative inductionfrom the absence of experience. 3. That a moregeneral experience teaches us that such negativeinductions cease to be probably true, so soon as theyare opposed to testimony of a character sufficient toestablish any other fact. It is a great satisfaction to me to be able to statethat since the above was written, I have found thedistinction between positive and negative experience,and the character of the inductions from each, veryably and elaborately explained in a long note by Mr.Starkie, in his Treatise on the Law of Evidence. I donot quote this note in extenso, because I hope thedistinction is already obvious to all. Mr. Starkiesobservations refer expressly to Humes principle ofincredulity and he shows, as Mr. A. R. Wallace has ;also shown, that pushed to its logical consequencesthat principle would be absolutely fatal to all scientificprogress. One could almost imagine the followingpassage to have been written in prophetic protestagainst the appeals to Hume by the sceptics who treatwith contumely and derision every testimony to theoccult phenomena of the present day. "Experience,then, so far from pointing out any unalterable laws ofnature, to the exclusion of events or phenomena which
  • 269. 2^2 APPEXDIX A.liavc never before been experienced, and wliicli cannotbe accounted for by tlie laws already observed, showstlio very contrary, and proves that such new events orphenomena may l)ec-ome tlie foundation of more en-larojed, more general, and therefore more perfect laws."And inthe text Mr, Starkie says —"As exjtcriencesliows that events frequently occur which would ante-cedently have been considered most improbable, andas their improbability usually arises from want of amore intimate and correct knowledfie of the causeswhich produced them, mere improbability can rarelysupply a suflicicnt ground for disbelieving direct andunexceptionable witnesses of the fact, where there wasno room for mistake." And again, " Mr. Humes conclusion is highly objec-tionable in a philosophical point of view, inasmuch asit would leave phenomena of the most remarkablenature wholly unexplained, and would operate to theutter exclusion of all inquiry. Estoppels are odiouseven in judicial investigations, because they tend toexclude the truth in metaphysics they are intolerable. ;So conscious was ]Ir. Hume himself of the weaknessof his general and sweeping position, that in thesecond part of his loth section, he limits his inferencein these remarkal)le terms, I beg the limitations here *made may be remarked when I say that a miracle cannever be proved so as to be the foundation of a systemof religion for I own that otherwise there may possibli/ ;be miracles or violations of the usual course of natureof such a kind as to admit of proof from humantestimony." Now this limitation, by which Hume reduced thebreadth of his original proposition, is simply a tooarbitrary application of a principle of criticism of tes-timony, in itself entirely unobjectionable, and uponwhich, indeed, it is one of the objects of this papermost strongly to insist. Obviously, what is regarded
  • 270. ; APPENDIX A. 243in the proposition thus limited is not the improbabilityof the fact at all, but the temptation of the witnessesto deceive, or their liability to be deceived. That isa legitimate and necessary consideration, resultingfrom our experience of human motives and of theeffect of prepossessions, in the estimation of testimony.If the object of the witness, as of the early Christian,for example, is to persuade the world of the divineauthorship of a religion, that object, and the heat andzeal with which it would probably be pursued, mightundoubtedly supply a motive, proper to be taken intoaccount, for statements of miracles performed by theauthor of the religion. And so the preconception ofHis divine powers would predispose to a facility ofaccepting appearances as miraculous, quite inconsistentwith the cool and scientific observation which wedesiderate in the witnesses. These considerationsundoubtedly go to weaken the force of testimonywhether they do so in such a degree as to deprive itof all value is really a matter of individual opinion,and certainly, apart from the circumstances of eachcase, cannot pretend to the dignity of a universalprinciple of judgment. Hume has few greater ad-mirers than myself but I am forced to the conclusion ;that the celebrated Essay on Miracles, which he putforth with almost exulting confidence, is one of theweakest, the most ill considered, and the most incon-sistent pieces of reasoning with which I am acquainted.It has been completely overthrown by three writerswho have dealt with it, and of whom the later donot appear to have met with the earlier refutationsby Mr. Starkie, by Mr. Babbage, in the Ninth Briclg-ivater Treatise, and by Mr. A. R. Wallace, in the Intro-duction to his Miracles and Modern Spiritualism. I have endeavoured to point out the fallacy of whatseems to me a false application of the principle thatevidence should be proportioned to probability. I
  • 271. 244 APPENDIX A.will now attempt to state, in an abstract form, whatI submit is its true result in our experience of testi-mony. If it is j>()ssible to assign a ratio of prol)abilityto a fact, not being one subject to exact computation,it is also possible to assign a similar ratio to the valueof eviilence, for tlie is just the proha- value of evidencehilitij (Ujninst its being forthcoming for that which ishot a fact. If it is legitimate to consider the proba-bility of a fact apart from the evitlence for it, so it islegitimate to consider the general value of a particularcpialityand amount of testimony apart from the ])ro-bability of any special fact to which it may be api)lied.No antecedent preference is due to the one probabilityover the other if they are equal, but the result is thatprecisely in proportion as both the fact is improbableand the evidence is probable, you will not get the evi-dence for the fact, that is to say, just in that proportionyou are unlikchj to get it. And if we find, and find which we deem to be good, for a factoften, evidencewhich we deem to be improbal)lc, of one of two thingswe may be certain, either we have miscalculated tlievalue of the evidence or the probability of the fact.Now in relation to facts new to our experience, to factsof which the proof of their possibility is also the proofof their existence, which of these alternatives is themost probable ^ Whatever induction experience mayartord of] what may be called the abstract value of —evidence that is without reirard to the antecedent[•robabilities of the fact to be jiroved is positive and—afHrmative. It is constantly being verified. It depends on tests and criteria, the efficiency of which are alsobeing constantly guaranteed by exj)erience. Howstands the case with that other negative induction towhich it is opposed? lite jyrohahiliti/ in its favouris just the 2^^ohahirttii that good evidence will not heforthcoming to contradict it. It is a probability whicharises entirely from the absence of evidence. It is
  • 272. APPENDIX A. 245impossible to conceive more vicious reasoning thanthat which would make it a ground of rejecting evi-dence. It depends on the proposition : "If this weretrue, we should have had the evidence before " — whichamounts to this, as has been pointed out by Mr.Starkie, and by Mr. A. R. AYallace, in the admirableIntroduction to his book, Miracles and ModernSpiritual ism, that no new fact can ever be proved bytestimony. And I cannot conclude this part of theargument better than by quoting that writers neatdilemma in reply to Hume " If the fact were possible, :such evidence as we have been considering wouldprove it ; if it were not jDOSsible, that evidence wouldnot exist." Somethino- remains to be said on the ejQfect ofcumulative evidence. The late Mr. Babbage, in theNinth Bridgiuater Treatise, has worked out an ela-borate mathematical refutation of Humes principle.And he concludes that if any definite measure ofimprobability, however large, be adopted, that is tosay, if the improbability be short of infinite (and no —one has ever contended that it is this or, in otherwords, that the fact is impossible), a miracle, so called,can be proved by testimony. Taking rn as themeasure of improbability, he says, " It follows, there-fore, that however large m may be, however great thequantity of experience against the occurrence of amiracle (provided only that there are persons whosestatements are more frequently correct than incorrect,and who give their testimony in favour of it withoutcollusion), a certain number, n, can always be found,so that it shall be a greater improbability that theirunanimous statement shall be a falsehood than thatthe miracle shall have occurred." Taking the case ofonly six witnesses who will speak the truth, and arenot themselves deceived in ninety-nine cases out ofa hundred, Mr. Babbage deduces the result that the
  • 273. 62. 1 APPENDIX A.improbability of their independent concurrence intestifying to what is not a fact is five times as greatas an assumed improl)aI»ility of two hundred tliousandmillions to one against the miracle which they aresupposed to attest, or it is one hillion to that inimber.And it hardly needs demonstration that the same resultis arrived at by increasing the number of witnesses inproportion to any definite numerical deduction fromthe value of the individual testimony of each.To this scientific authority I will add a legal one tothe same efiect. " It would," says >rr. Starkie, in histreatise on the Law of Evidence, " tlieoretically speak-ing, be improper to omit to observe that the weightand force of the unitc<l testimony of numbers uponabstract mathematical principles, increases in a higherratio than that of the mere number of such witnesses.Upon these principles, if definite degrees of probabilitycould be assigned to the testimony of each witness,the resulting probability in favour of their unitedtestimony would be obtained not by the mere additionof the numbers expressing the several probabilities,but by a process of multi[>lication." Now it is obviousthat in applying these principles to a class of allegedfacts denied on the ground of antecedent improba-bility, we ought to take, in computing the cumulativeforce of testimony, not simply the testimony whichthis or that fact of the class can adduce, but all thetestimony which exists for all similar alleged factscomprised in the class. Let M represent the class,comprising under it a h c d, particular allegedinstances. We may state the result in either one ortwo ways. Either we may oppose the improbabilityof (class) ]I to the cumulative evidence oi a h c d,taken together or, taking a by itself, we may say ;that the improbability against a is the improbabilityof M, the class, minus the probability resulting fromthe cumulative testimony iu favour of h, c, and c/,
  • 274. APPENDIX A. 247taken together. Now to apply the foregoing con-siderations to cases of actual occurrence. I could notgo into details here without protracting this paperbeyond reasonable limits, but the cases I shall takeare already familiar to many in this room, and as theyare on record, with the utmost particularity of descrip-tion, others may be referred to the printed accounts.I select then a number of testimonies to distinct factsof the same class, namely, of physical effects producedby means nnknown to science, and each dependingon the introduction of new physical conditions byspecial human organisms, which, as before stated, andnot any particular effect, is the fact really, if at all,opposed to experience. Let me again request you tokeep this clearly in mind. If I say that an effectdepends upon the powers of a certain person, yourexperience is evidently not opposed to the effectexcept so far as it is opposed to the existence of suchpowers in members of the human race. Your ex-perience of the uniform course of physical nature iswholly and absolutely irrelevant. Nobody has everasserted that these things would occur in your presencealone. If yon are to bring the experience argumentto bear at all, it must be in denying the allegedconditions of their occurrence — the chief of theseconditions, in this case, relating to the personality ofindividuals. That premised, the several alleged facts,I take, — belong to the same class namely, those that depend on the presence of persons reputed to be2)sychics, or mediums. The first is the experimentrecorded in the April number of the QuarterlyJournal of Science of Professor Zollner and otherGerman scientists with Dr. Slade. In this, as in theother cases to be presently mentioned, I have takenthe testimony of well-known men of scientific emi-nence, because, although their veracity may not beworth more than that of other witnesses to these facts,
  • 275. 243 APPENDIX may bo called & known quantity. The improbabilityof Zollncrs hjuKj would, I imai^ine, be admitted toexceed jSlr. JJabbagcs lOO to i. And so also of theothers to be named. Jiut how are we to assign avalue to the improbability of his being deceived ?Now here, I must remind you, the improbability ofthe fact attested is wholly beside the question. Thatis a matter to be taken into calculation subsecjuently.For the present i)urpose the probability of his beingdeceived or mistaken is just what it would have beenif he was performing the most ordinary experimentin the world, under the same conditions of observation,and with, of course, the same suppositions of a motiveand design to deceive him. AVhen we have got thisvalue, then we will set off against it the improbabilityof the fact. But to consider the latter at presentwould be just as if, having to subtract an unknownquantity, x, from a given number, say lo, we beganby subtracting lo from x, and so made the problem —lo (x-io) instead of lo-x, an algebraical beggingof the question. Regarding, then, the experimentwithout this prejudice, I should say no numeral wouldbe considered (|uite high enough to express the im-probability of Zollners being deceived. Add to this,the improbability of his colleagues also being deceived.But whatever value we determine upon, is it to boopposed by itself to the imjn-obability of the fact,which would then be proper to be considered 1 No ;for look at the next case of the same class. Tiiat experiment of Mr. Crookesshall be the electrical testwith Mrs. Fay, at his own house, assisted by severalFellows of the lloyal Society, as well as by ourpresident, Mr. Serjeant Cox, who all agreed in theconclusive nature of the experiment. Lying again isout of the question, practically. Deception by themedium 1 Inaccuracy of observation 1 A scientifictest, devised by the most competent experts, the
  • 276. • APPENDIX A. 249nature of it not explained to the medium till she, whomay almost be assumed to be a scientifically ignorantyoung woman, is in the house (that of Mr. Crookes),the apparatus unknown to her, and its workingwatched and recorded from minute to minute. Theresults beyond all explicable power of production,even had the medium been herself an accomplishedelectrician, and intimately versed with the apparatus.In calculating probabilities, the same observations areapplicable here as to the case of Professor Zollner.But the improbability of deception here must be added,in the ratio pointed out by Mr. Babbage and Mr.Starkie, to that of the former case. Take yet another,and here ao-ain one at least of the witnesses is a manof high scientific standing — Lord Lindsay, who hasrecently been elected on the Council of the RoyalSociety. He describes the levitation of Mr. DanielHome, and and out of a window seventy his floating infeet from the ground by bright moonlight. I willread the account in Lord Lindsays own words : — * I was sitting Home and Lord Adare, and with Mr.a cousin of Durins; the sittius; Mr. Home Avent his.into a trance, and in that state was carried out of thewindow in the room next to where we were, and wasbrought in at our window. The distance between theAvindows was about 7 feet 6 inches, and there was notthe slightest foothold between them, nor was theremore than a 12-inch projection to each window, Avliichserved as a ledge to put flowers on. " Weheard the window in the next room lifted up,and almost immediately after we saw Home floatingin the air outside our window. " The moon was shining full into the room my back ;was to the light, and I saw the shadow on the wallof the window-sill, and Homes feet about six inchesabove it. He remained in this position for a few
  • 277. 250 APPENDIX A.secomls, then raised the window and glided into theroom, feet foremost, and sat down. * Lord Adare then went into the next room to look atthe window from which he had been carried. It wasraised about 18 inelies, and he expressed liis wonderhow Mr. Home had been taken throuirh so narrow an oaperture. " Home said, still entranced, I will show you. andthen with hin back to the wiiuloiv he leaned hack, andtvas shot out of the aperture, head first, with the bodyr if/id, and then returned quite quiethj. " The window is about 70 feet from the ground. Ivery much doubt whether any skilful tight-rope dancerwould like to attempt a feat of this description, wheretliu o.idy means of crossing would be by a perilousleap, or being borne across in such a manner as I havedescribed, placing the question of the light aside. " Ll^•DSAY. Juhj 1." j^th, 1 87 I will callone other witness before you, likewise ofscientific and attainments, begging you to positionreinember that these are only specimen cases. It isDr. Lockhart Robertson, one of the Visitors in Lunacy.Among other phenomena which took place in his ownhouse, in the presence of himself and his own friends,the medium being a Mr. fSquire, Dr. llobcrtson de-scribes the following: " — A heavy circular chair, madeof birch and strongly constructed, was lifted a somer-sault in the air and thrown on the bed, the left handonly of Mr. Squire being held on the surface, his otherhand held, andbeing tied to the chair on his legsAvhich he sat. The was afterwards twice lifted tableon to the head of the writer and of Mr. SquireAt the writers request this table was afterwardssmashed and broken, and one fragment thrown acrossthe room, the table at the time being held by the
  • 278. ; APPENDIX A. 251writer and Mr. Squire. This occurred in half a minute.The writer has since vainly endeavoured with allhis streuoth to break one of the remainino- leg-s.The one broken was rent across the grain of thewood." Dr. Eobertson states that all this took placein the dark, but probably, looking at the nature ofthe phenomena and the conditions described, mostcandid persons would be of the opiniou, lie concludesby expressing, " that fraud was utterly and entirelyimpossible and impracticable." I will add just oneother testimony of Lord Lindsay : " — A friend ofmine was very anxious to find the will of his grand-mother, who had been dead forty years, but couldnot even find the certificate of her death. I wentwith him to the Marshalls, and we had a seance; wesat at a table, and soon the raps came. My friendasked his questions mentally ; he went over thealphabet himself, or sometimes I did so, not knowingthe question. We were told the will had been drawnby a man named Walker, who lived in Whitechapelthe name of the street and the number of the housewere given. We went to Whitechapel, found the man,and subsequently, through his aid, obtained a copy ofthe draft. He was quite unknown to us, and had notalways lived in that locality, for he had seen betterdays. The medium could not possibly have knownanything about the matter, and even if she had, herknowledge would have been of no avail, as all the ques-tions were mental ones." If you would be rational, do not laugh at thesecases one by one, but study the evidence for each ofthem separately, and then appreciate their cumulativeforce, as belongiug to the same class. Then, if youplease, set ofi" the improbability arising from your ownand others ignorance. I dont know^ if you Millestimate that at Babbages two hundred thousandmillions, but if so, you are bound to show— mind, once
  • 279. —252 APPENDIX A.more, ^vithollt any reference, express or tacit, to theinii>rol)al»ility of the facts— Avliy the evidence shouldl)e estimated at less than lialdiages billion, or ratiier,since we have liere more than six witnesses whosetestimony for any ordinary fact would have so great avalue, at tins hillion multiplied in a greater ratio thanmy small mathematical powers conld easily calculate. But, in fact, I place the argnmcnt far higher thancither Mr. Starkic or Mr, r.abijage, though 1 believe Iam in accord ^vilh Mr. Wallace. Both the formerassumed that there is an antecedent improbabilityto be deducted from the value of the positive testi-mony. I deny that altogether. I say that an im-probability arisiug from want of evidence — which isthe nature of these negative inductions is just theimprobahility that evidence will he forthcoming.AVhcn you have got the evidence the improbal)ilityvanishes just in proportion to the value of the evidence2)€r se. What you mean by the improbability of afact beyond experience is that it is probably imjjossibleor not in rerinn natura. What conceivably legitimatemeasure of this probability can you adopt than thatwhich also determines the relation between evidenceand fact ? The fallacy consists in assuming anynumerical value whatever for such antecedent im-probabilities apart from Say that the this single human testimony has a value of 100 to i.Now to-day, because I have never had that evidence,I say the probability against the fact is representedin my mind as 1000 to i. To-morrow 1 get theevidence of that intrinsic value of 100 to i, and Isay, " Oh, but the adverse probaliility is 1000 to i,and the value of this evidence must be reducedaccordingly to a minus quantity." This surely is un-reasonable. But I may quite logically say, " Inas-much as this 100 to I evidence has never been forth-coming, it raises in my mind a presumption worth
  • 280. APPENDIX A. 2531000 to I that such evidence never will he forth-coming." If the evidence arrives after all, there is nopresumption against its truth. We have a right toour surprise, but not to our incredulity. Because therewas no evidence, we thought there was no fact. Wehad a rio;ht to think so. But the moment we haveevidence we are in the reo;ion of evidence whoseintrinsic value we have to estimate, all presumptionsbeing henceforth merely impertinent. The case is,of course, very different when we are dealing withactual, ascertainable probabilities, as the probabilityof a given ball beingdrawn by chance from a hundredothers. Then the chance being real, and not merelysupposititious, we properly set it off against the evi-dence. But iu the other case the evidence destroysthe supposition, precisely in proportion to its ownintrinsic value. But even allowing the presumption to co-exist withthe evidence, it has appeared that if no other evidenceof similar facts had existed from the beo-innino; ofrecorded time to the present besides these three casesI have mentioned, the probability in their favourwould still be greater than the probability againstthem. You are instinctively repelled by this state-ment ; so am I. We all feel that there must besomething; wrono; somewhere. And so there is. Itis not that the hypothesis is an impossible one. Mr.Babbage has made a very ingenious supposition. Hehas conceived the course of nature to be like amachine constructed on the principle of his owncalculatino; engine. A thousand revolutions of thewheel shall bring up only square numbers, but themachine shall be constructed so that the thousand andfirst shall show a cube number — a * miracle." AVe canconceive that certainly. And so a man might beborn to-day who should be the first of mankind bornwith these abnormal powers we have been consider- R
  • 281. 254 APPENDIX A.iiii:;. But all observed analogies protest against thissupposition of a purely exceptional fact, even thoughwc may conceive such a fact to be subsumed undera higher law of extremely rare application. If wehave once i)roved the fact under its own conditions, itis in the highest degree propable that the law of itsoccurrence is in constant operation. To su]>posc thatit is not is to encounter a new improbability, and itis this new improbability which repelled us just nowin the supposition that no other similar cases hailexisted in human experience. We should expect tofind them in every age. See now how we haveshifted the onus of improbability. The proved case inthe present makes such cases in the past higldy pro-bable in other words, experience cannot have been ;truly opposed to that which has just been proved onthe assumption that experience is opposed to it. Andwhat do we find in fact 1 Why, that records of occultphenomena, and especially of such as occur throughthe mediation of particular individuals, form anappreciable part of the literature of every generationof men since the invention of printing, and anteriorto that we have, besides the manuscript accounts ofantiquity, the universal belief of mankind, whichmust presumably have rested on experience. Addison, "indeed, speaks of the "general testimony of mankindin favour of those facts to which eighteenth centuryscepticism — a product of intellectual causes which —have been traced by ^Ir. Lecky has unwarrantablyoi)posed that very general testimony. I have saidnotliino; of the innumerable mob of witnesses in thepresent time, and in almost every country in theworld, to whose separate and individual testimonywe are unable to assign a positive value. I havesaid nothing even of that respectable array ofknown and in various ways distinguished witnesseswhom we have still among us, or who have recently
  • 282. APPENDIX A. 05deceased. I have said nothing of the admission ofexperts in the art of conjuring — that art to whichsuch illimitable powers are ascribed by tlie credulity —of the incredulous of the celebrated conjurer Houdin,of the celebrated conjurer Bellachini, of the celebratedconjurer John Nevil Maskelyne, the latter of whom Ipitblicly challenged in the Examiner newspaper toexplain away, if he cottld, certain printed and pub-lished admissions of his own to the existence of pheno-mena of this class not produced by trickery.* I amnot attempting the prodigious task of estimating infigures the cumulative evidence for the phenomenacalled spiritualistic, a Pelion piled upon an Ossa oftestimony, and which would crush any logical resist-ance, but not the illogical power of that against whicli,it is said, the very gods strive vainly. I charge thissttipidity with gross ignorance of the principles uponwhich evidence should be estimated and I have ;traced this ignorance to four fallacies First, to the ;confusion of the positive affirmative induction whichAve legitimately draw of the course of nature underordinary conditions of observation, with the negativeinduction from inexperience, of the non-existence ofother conditions. Secondly, to the assumption thatthis inexperience, in fact, exists, as the ground even ofthis negative, far more limited, and far less valid in-duction, an assumption which is made by an arbitraryrejection of historic evidence. Thirdly, to the assump-tion that antecedent improbability thus arising canco-exist with testimony of a certain assigriable value.Fourthly, to neglecting to estimate the cumulativeforce of testimony. That these fallacies are, nevertheless, sanctioned by * Notice of the terms of the above reference to !Mr. ^laskelyne •was sentto the latter, with a card of admission to hear the i)aper read, a^-ailahlefor Maskelyne himself, or for any friend by Avhom Jie might wish to lierepresented, and who might make any statement b}- permission of thechairman. For Mr. ]Maskelynes admissions see Appendix C.
  • 283. 256 AllliNDIX A.itnuinou consent, and by authority, need not surpriseus. It is a po[>ular error tliat priests have been tlicgreatest cneujies to scienee. It has been the " commonsense" of each generation, sup[)<)rted and sanctioiuilby the liighest scientific autliorities of the day, thatlias always been found opposed to the reception of•vidence conllicting wiili j>resumplions mIiIcIi havetheir origin in ignorance. It was not a Churchman,but a very learne<l professor, notorious for his anti-rejii/ious tendencies, who refused to look tlirouLjhGalileos telescope. Was it religious persecution or]>opular and scientific ridicule that Harvey, Jenner,Franklin, Young, Stephenson, Arago, and Gregory,encountered for heir respective discoveries and ideas ? iIt is significant that in an American book, called the Wdifare 0/ Science, that was republished in Englandlast year under the avowed patronage of ProfessorTyndall, there is much that is well and eloquentlytold of the wrongs of science at the hands of religiousbigotry, but not one word of the constant and deter-mined obstruction of scientific men. To avoid misapprehension 1 wish to add one remark.In speaking of the abstract value of testimony I havenot for a moment meant to im})ly that testimony, orevidence generally, can be appreciated without refer-ence to the nature of the fact attested. It is onlythe assumed improbability of the fact which I haveregarded as a sep:iral)lc factor. But in accounts ofthe extraordinary there are undoubtedly elements offallacy which only a very inexi>erienced judge oftestimony would ignore. For instance, we may almostappropriate a special set of motives to such narrations.The mere vanity of producing an impression ofwonder, or of making out an unanswerable case, isresponsible for many a false or highly colouredaccount. There is the temj)tation to support a hastyexaggeration i»y a specific falsehood, or by suppression
  • 284. APPENDIX A. 257of truth. Then, again, the fact may be of such anature that the whole value of the testimony dependson minuteness and accuracy of observation. Eegardto time prevents my doing more than advert to theseconsiderations. Only to each case as it arises cantheir proper weight be assigned. Unfortunately thereis assigned to them an enormously exaggerated weightin general, without reference to particular cases at all,and this because it is assumed to be more probablethat the evidence is thus vitiated than that the factsattested are true. No doubt the presumption thatevidence is not good is a far more rational j^re-SLimption than that evidence, however good, is false.And, moreover, it is one which can be brought to thetest of examination, whereas the latter cannot. Wecan show whether evidence does or does not come upto a certain standard, and if it does, the presumptionis falsified ; but to the man who says, " I wont listen,and I dont care how good your evidence may be," wecan have nothing further to say. In conclusion, I w^ill lay down tLe following pro-position broadly. A negative probability, by which Imean an inference of non-existence from the absenceof evidence, cannot in the least affect the value ofpositive evidence of existence. It is only provisional.It vanishes at the touch of sufficient evidence ;andsufficient evidence I define, for this purpose, to be evi-dence which would establish a fact — havin(y strictrcQ-ard to the nature of the fact — as to which therewas no antecedent presumption or probability for oragainst. Would I therefore accept the statement ofa casual stranger as to some unheard-of marvel withthe same facility that I would accept his statement —as to its having rained somewhere yesterday a factwhich may be said to answer the description of havingno antecedent presumption either way ? Certainlynot, for I have said that the nature of the fact is to
  • 285. 2 58 APPENDIX A.l»o reganktl, not as probable or iin[»rol)able, but asrommunicatiug elements of fallacy to testimony.Thus uuderstuud, I say that the evidence is our wholeconcern, and that if it stood every test and everycriticism which experience could suggest, I wouldaecept on the stniiL^th of it any marvel in the AndjianXiijhts, or Gid/trrrs And I submit that the who would not the creature of prejudice and isthe victim of prepossessions.
  • 286. — ( 259 ) APPENDIX B. EVIDENCE OE SAMUEL BELLACHINI, COURT CONJURER AT BERLIN The following is a translated copy of an officialdocument : No. 482 Notarys Register for 1877, drawn atBerlin, the 6th day of December one thousand eighthundred and seventy-seven, in presence of the under-signed notary, residing at Tauben-strasse, No. 42, inthe jurisdiction of the Royal Supreme Court of judica-ture, Gustav Haagen, Counsellor, and in presence ofthe undersigned witnesses, personally known to thenotary, of full age, who can read and write, and areresidents here. Carl Trlimper, Letter Carrier, Gustav Grlintz, Letter Carrier,who as well as the notary, as notary and witnessesboth hereby declare they have no connection witthe case, which according to ^^ages five to nine of theAct of July the eleventh, eighteen hundred and forty-five, would exclude them from participating in thisdocument, Did appear this day personally before the under-signed notary, known to him and found duly qualifiedto act. The 2^^^stidigitat07^ and Court Conjurer to hisMajesty the King and Emperor William I ]Ir.
  • 287. 26o APPENDIX B.Samuel Bullaoliini, resit] inu; at Grossbaaron-f?trasse,No. which gontlemau did ])rcfer tlie followiui; 14,Btatcmcnt, under date lierlin, tlio 6tli of December, intliis year, and that lie certified, That the signature of my name, hereby api)ended,Avas written by me in due form 1 hereby ackiiowle<lge.Read, approved, and executed. (Signed) Samuel Bellaciiini.We, the notary aii<l witnesses, attest that the abovetransaction took place as herein stated that it was ;in of us, notary and witnesses, read the presencealoud to the person concerneil, approved by him, aii<lsigned by his own hand. (Signed) OrsTAV GPiUNTZ, Karl Trumper, GusTAV Haagen, Notar)/. Executed at Tjerlin on the sixth of December, onethousand, eight hundred, and seventy-seven, andentered in the Notarys Kegister under the numberfour hundred and eighty two, for the year eighteenhundred and seventy-seven. Signed and otticiallystamjicd. Gustav Haagen, Counsellor ami Notary. I hereby declare it to be a rash action to givedecisive judgment U]ioii the objective medial per-formance of the American medium, INIr. Henry Slade,after only one sitting, and the observations so made. After I had, at the wi.sli of several highly-esteemedgentlemen of rank and position, and also for my owninterest, tested the physical modiumship of ]Ir, Sladein a series of sittings by full daylight, as well as intlie evening, in his bedroom, I must, for the sake oftruth, hereby certify tliat the phenomenal occurrenceswith Mr. Slade have been thoroughly examined by nie
  • 288. APPENDIX B. 261with the minutest observation and investig-ation ofhis surroimdincrs, inchidino; the table, and that I havenot in the smallest degree found anything to be pro-duced by means of prestidigitative manifestations, orby mechanical apparatus and that any explanation ;of the experiments which took place under the circum-stances and conditions then obtaining by any refer-ence to prestidigitation, to be absolutely imj^ossible. It must rest with such men of science as Crookesand Wallace, in London Perty, in Berne Butlerof, ; ;in St. Petersburg to search for the explanation of ;this phenomenal power, and to prove its reality. Ideclare, moreover, the published opinions of laymen,as to the "How " of this subject to be premature, andaccording to my view and experience, false and one-sided. This, my declaration, is signed and executedbefore a notary and witnesses. (Signed) Samuel Bella chini. Berlin, 6th Decembir, 1877.
  • 289. ( 262 ) ArPENDIX C.ADAf/SS/OXS BY JOHN NEVIL MASKELYNE, AND OTHER PROFESSIONAL CONJURERS. Mr. John Nevil Maskclync, tlie well-known con-jurer of the Egyptian Hall, riccadilly, who withoutliaving Ijcen present at a single sitting with fSlade,was irregularly admitted as a witness against himat Bow Street, had lonG; been addiuGf to the attrac-tion of his performances by holding them out to beexposures of spiritualistic phenomena. In June andJuly 1873 a corres})ondcnce took place between tliisgentleman and a Spiritualist, in which the latter(•ITered ]Ir. ]raskel3ne ;^iooo if he could reproducecertain mediumistic phenomena with the conditionsunder which they had been observed by tln*ee persons,one only to be a Spiritualist. The negotiation cameto nothing, l)ut the correspondence was printed, andthe following extracts are quoted with a view toshow that jMr. JMaskelyne has himself made distinctadmissions of the reality of some of such phenomena,]U)i due to trichr//, that he even avows them as partof his own public exhibitions, and that he merelyl)rotests that spirits of the dead have nothing to dowith them. That this is not the true issue every onebut Mr. ]Iaskelyne will admit. That issue is simplyfrickcri/ hij the mcihinn, or not. If not, the pheno-mena must be entitled to admission and investi-
  • 290. — — APPENDIX C. 26^gation, and must give rise to scientific questions ofthe utmost moment. Tlie extracts are taken from the printed correspon-dence entitled as follows : ";^iooo Eeward. and Cooke, ]Iaskel3-ne An Expose, &c., By Iota. (Proofs corrected by Mr. Maskelyne). London, J. Bukns, 15 Southampton Row, ^Y. C" In order to make them intelligible it should bepremised that "the manifestations stated in the reportof the Dialectical Society," were distinctly medium-istic, the committee of that society which made thereport haviug been appointed for the express purposeof investigatiug and reporting upon spiritualisticphenomena. The report with the evidence at lengthis published. On the Tst July 1873, ^J^- IMaskelyne, in thecourse of a letter to his correspondent, writes asfollows- — " .... In accepting this challenge, I wish youdistinctly to understand that I do not presume toprove that such manifestations as those stated in thereport of the Dialectical Society are produced bytrickery — I have never denied that such manifes-tations are genuine, but I contend that in themthere is not one iota of evidence which proves thatdeparted spirits have no better occupation than liftingfurniture about ". . . . Agreed, Mr. Maskelyne ; those Spiritualists, if any,who are not entirely of your opinion on this point,seem to deserve your imputation of credulity in thehighest degree. Accordingly, the other party to thecorrespondence replies on the following day " .... I do not care to dispute your contention
  • 291. " —264 APPENDIX C.nhout tlic occupation of departed spirits. Wliat Iuiulorstaiit] l»y nic<liiim-povcr is sometliinir wliicli isneither inechanics, nor conjuring, nor chemistry, norelectricity,nor magnetism, nor even mesmerism, noru or any of these, nor anything coniliiiiation of allto be e.j)lained hy any of tlie commo/ih/ knownlaws of nature, and without which I defy you toecjual, or even to approach, the so-called spiritualmanifestations. Then on the 6th ]Ir. Maskelyne again writes—" Ihave never stated that you cannot produce somephenomena in a genuine manner I have done this or ;assisted in doing it myself, and tell my audience soat every performance yet I am not a medium, but I ;know that, if I were scoundrel enougli, I could soonbecome one, and should have no difficulty in humbug-iiij; Spirituali>ts to an alarming extent." Here, again.Mr. ^la.skelyno appears to be speaking merely of anexplanation which he holds to be false, and which hebelieves that professed mediums must know to be false.]>ut in urging these phenomena upon public attentionwe have nothing to do with spiritualistic explanations,true or false ; it is the fact only tliat is in fpiestion.AVliat Mr. Maskelyne means by saying that he tellshis audience at every performance that he producesor assists in producing phenomena "in a genuinemanner " (by which, as will be .seen, he excludes thenotion of trickery) is very doubtful. The writer hasattended the performances at the Egyptian Hall fre-quently, but with the exception of some words at theconclusion of the cabinet seance which could conveyno meaning to an inexperienced audience, Mr. ]Iaske-13ne certainly said nothing to which his above state-ment could apply. These occasions, however, were ofmuch later date than the correspondence. His correspondent replies on July 8th " You say you tell your audience at every perform-
  • 292. APPENDIX C. 265ance that you admit that we have some genuinephenomena. I confess that I have never been ableto understand distinctly your remarks on this head.You seem to me to say that most of the so-calledphenomena are humbug, but some few genuine that ;the genuine ones are produced by trickery, exactly asyour own stage performance is. Nor can I gather anymore from the admissions in your letters." In a postscript to his next letter, Mr. Maskelynesays, in reference to the above, " How genuine pheno-mena can be produced by trickery I am at a loss toknow. If you understand me thus, my remarks mustbe a contradiction, and I must look to them." Kobert Houdin, the great French conjurer, investi-gated the subject of clairvoyance with the sensitive,Alexis Didier. In the result he unreservedly admittedthat what he had observed was wholly beyond theresources of his art to explain. See " PsychischeStudien" for January 1878, p. 43. " Licht, mehr Licht," a German paper published inParis, in its number of i6th May 1880, contains aletter from the well-known professional conjurer,Jacobs, to the Psychological Society in Paris, avowinghimself a S^^iritualist, and offering suggestions for thediscrimination of genuine from spurious manifesta-tions, i
  • 294. LM::zzA-f2^ >^€-^«^ Y STANDARD BOOKS ON SPIRITUALISM, MESMERISM, PSYCHOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, AND KINDRED SUBJECTS, PUBLISHED BY W. H. HARRISON, 33 MUSEUM STREET, LONDON, W.C. Lists of the Books are Advertised in every Number of the Spiritualist " Newspaper. Mr. W. H. Harrisons Publications may be obtained from Mr. W. H. Terry, 84 Russell Street South, Melbourne, Australia.THE "SPIRITUALIST" NEWSPAPER A Record of the Progress of the Science and Ethics of Spiritualism. published weekly, price tivopence. Established in 1869. The Spiritualist, published weekly, is the oldest Newspaper con- nected with the movement in the United Kingdom, and is the recognised organ of educated Spiritualists in all the English-speak-ing countries throughout the Globe. It also has an influential body of readers on the Continent of Europe. The Contributors to its pages comprise the leading and moreexperienced Spiritualists, including many eminent in the ranks of Literature, Art, Science, and the Nobility of Europe. Amongthose who have published their names in connection Avith theircommunications in its columns are —His Imperial HighnessNicholas of Russia, Duke of Leuchtenberg ;Prince Emile deSayn Wittgenstein (Wiesbaden) ; the Lord Lindsay ; the Countde Bullet the Right Hon. the Countess of Caithness ; the Hon. ;J. L. O Sullivan, formerly American Minister at the Court ofPortugal ; the Baroness Von Vay (Austria) ; M. Adelberth deBourbon, First Lieutenant of the Dutch Guard to H.M. the Kingof the Netherlands ; the Hon. Robert Dale Owen, formerlyAmerican Minister at the Court of Naples ; M. L. F. Clavainsz(Leon Favre), Consul-General of France at Trieste ; the Hon.Alexandre Aksakof, St. Petersburg ; Baron Von Dirckinck-Holm-
  • 295. — — ; ; [advertisements.] W. n. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS.fclil(Ilolstcin); Sir Chailcs Isliam, Bart.; William Crookcs,Esq., K.K. S., editor of The Quarterly Journal of Scieiue ; CaptainR. v. Burton, F.R.G.S. (Discoverer of Lake Tanganyika); C. F.Varley, Ksq.. C.E., F.R.S. ; Alfred Russcl Wallace, Esq.,F.R.G.S. ; .Miss Florence Marryat C. C. Msissey, E».q. ; St. ;George W. Slock, Esq., MA, (Oxon) ; Mr. Serjeant Cox, Ircsi-dcnt of the I.sychological Society of Great Britain ; J. M. Gully,Esq., M.I).; Alcx.inder Calder, Esq., Trcsident of the BritishNational Association of Spiritualists ; iipes Sargent, Esq.Colonel II. S. Olcott, President of the Thcosophical Society ofNew York ; Dr. George Wylil Mrs. Makdougall Gregory ; W. ;Lindcsay Richardson, Esq., M.D., Melbourne Geiald Masscy, ;Esq. J. C. Luxmoorc, Esq., J. P. ; .Mrs. Wcldon (.Miss Trehcrne) ;C. Carter Blake, Esq., Doc Sci., Lecturer on Comiiarative.natomy at Westminster Hospital; S. C. Hall, Esq., F.S... ;Henslcigh Wed-wood, Esq., J.P. Mrs. S. C. Hall; H. .M. ;Dunphy, Esq.; Eufjene Crowed, Esq., D., New Vork ; MAlucrnon Joy, Esq., M. Inst. C.E. Stanhope T. Spcer, Esq.,;M.D., Edinburgh Desmond FitzGerald, Esq., M.S. Tel. E. ;Robert S. Wyld, Esq., LL.D. ; J. A. Campbell, Esq. Captain ;John James D. H. Wilson, Esq., .M.A., LL.M. (Cantab.); the ;Rev. C. Maurice Davies, I). D., author of UnorthodoxLondon; T. P. Barkas, Esq., F.G.S. H. D. Jencken, Esq., ;M.R.I. J. N. T. Martheze, Esq.; Charles Blackburn, Esq.; ;Mrs. Showers Miss Kislingbury ; William Newton, Esq., ;F.R.G.S. John E. Purdon, Esq., M.B., India; H. G. Atkinson, ;Esq., F.G.S., author oi letters to Miss Martineau ; and WilliamWhite, Esq., author of The Life of S-wedenhorg. Annual Subscription to Residents in the United Kingdom,lOs. ickI. ; in the United States and Australia, 13s., post-free. The Spiritualist is regularly on sale at the following places :LoNDo.N — II Ave Maria Lane, .St. Pauls Churchyard, E. C. ;Pari.s — Kiosque, 246 Boulevard des Capucines, and 5 Rue Neuvedcs Petits Champs, Palais Royal ; Leipzig 2 Lindenstrasse — —Florence .Signor G. Parisi, Via della Maltonnia Rome — ; ;Signor Bocca, Libraio, Via del Corso Naples British Reading ; —Rooms, 267 Riviera de Chiaja, opposite the Villa Nazionale — — —Liege 37 Rue Florimont ; Buda-Pesth Josefstaadt Erzherzog,2;? Alexander Gasse MelboiRNE 84 Russell Street South; ;Shanghai — Messrs. Kelly & Co. New York 51 E.-ist ; —Twelfth Street Bcjston, U.S. Banner of Light Office, 9 Mont-gomery Place ; ; — Chicago Religio- Philosofhidil Journal Office ; —.San Francisco 319 Kearney Street; Philadei.phia 325 —North Ninth Street and Washington— loio Seventh Street. ; All communications on the business of the Spiritualist should beaddressed to W. H. Harrison, Spiritualist Newspaper BranchOffice, 33 Museum Street, London, W.C.
  • 296. — [advertisements. ] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. MESMERISM AND ITS PHENOMENA; OR, ANIMAL MAGNETISM. By the Late WM. GREGORY, M.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Chemistry at Edinburgh University.Dedicated by the Author by Permission to His Grace George Douglas-Campbell, Duke of Argyll. This second and slightly revised and abridged Edition is for itsquality and size one of the Cheapest Large Works ever Publishedin England in connection with Spiritualism. THE CHIEF STANDARD WORK ON MESMERISM. Price 5^., or f^s. 6d. post-free. CONTENTS. Chapter I. — First Produced by Mesmerism — Sensa- Effectstions—Process Causing Mesmeric Sleep —The Sleep or Mes- formeric State — Occurs Spontaneously It Sleep Walkers — in -Phenomena of the Sleep — Divided Consciousness — SensesAffected — Insensibility Chapter — Control Exercised by the Operator over the II.Subject inVarious Ways — Striking Expression of Feelings the inLook and Gesture — Effect of Music—Truthfulness of the Sleeper—Various Degrees of Susceptibility— Sleep Caused by Silent —Will, and at a Distance Attraction towards the OperatorEffect in the Waking State of Commands given in the Sleep. — Chapter III.— Sympathy Community of Sensations ; of —Emotions Danger of Rash Experiments Public Exhibitions of — —Doubtful Advantage Sympathy with the P)ystanders Thought- — — —Reading Sources of Error Medical Intuition Sympathetic — —Warnings Sympathies and Antipathies Existence of a Peculiar —Force or Influence. — Chapter IV. Direct Clairvoyance or Lucid Vision, withoutthe Eyes — Vision of Near Objects through Opaque Bodies at a : : —Distance Sympathy and Clairvoyance in regard to AbsentPersons — Retro vision — Introvision. Chapter V. — Lucid Prevision — Duration of Sleep, &c., Pre-dicted — Prediction of Changes the Health or State of the Seer in— Prediction of Accidents, and of Events Affecting OthersSpontaneous Clairvoyance — Striking Case of — Spontaneous itRetrovision and Prevision — Peculiarities of Speech and of Con-sciousness in Mesmerised Persons — Transference of Senses and ofPain.
  • 297. — — fADVKRTISF.MKNTS.] V. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. CliAPTRR VI. — Mesmerism, Electro- Biolopy, Electro- Pnycho-lofjy — ami Ilyjinolism, essciitinlly the same Ilicnomcnn of Sug-gestions in the (Onscious or Waking State l>r. Darlings — —Mcthrnl anil its KfTccts Mr. Lewiss Method and its Results —The Impressible State Control Exercised by the Operator(lazing — .Mr Uraids Hypnotism — The Authors Experience —Importance of Terscverance The Subject must be Studied. CiiAiTKR VII.— Trance, Natural and Accidental Mesmeric ;Trance Produced at Will by the Subjects Colonel Townscnd — — —Kakecrs Ext.isis Extatics not all hnpostors Luminous Emana- —tions — Kxtasis often Predicted — M. Cahagnets Extatics — Visionsof the Spiritual World. — — CitAPTER VIII. Phrcno-Mcsmerism Pro;,ress of Phrenology— ElTfcts of Touching the Head in the Sleep Variety in the — — — —Phenomena Suggt-stion Sympathy There are Cases in whichthese Act, and others in which they do nut Act Phenomena —Dcscriljed — Tiic Lower Animals Susceptible of MesmerismFa-icination among Animals Instinct — — Sympathy of AnimalsSnail Tciegrajih Founded on it. Chapter IX. — Action Magnets, Crystals, Sec, on the ofHuman Frame — Researches of Rcichenbach His Odyle is —Identical with the Mesmeric Fluid of Mesmer, or with theInfluence which Causes the Mesmeric Phenomena Odylic or — —Mesmeric Light Aurora Borealis Artificially Produced Mes- — —merised Water Useful Applications of Mesmerism Physiological,—Therapeutical, &c. — Treatment of Insanity, Magic, Divination,Witchcraft, &c., explained by Mesmerism, and Traced to Natural — —Causes Apparitions Second Sight is Waking ClairvoyancePredictions of Various Kinds. — Chapter X. An Explanation of the Phenomena Attemptedor Suggested — A Force (Odyle) Universally Diffused, CertainlyExists, and is Probably the Medium of Symjjathy and LucidVision —Its Characters — Difficulties of the Subject Effects of — — —Odyle Somnambulism Suggestion Sympathy Thought -Read-— —ing — — — Lucid Vision Odylic Emanations Odylic Traces followed —up by Lucid Subjects Magic and Witchcraft The Magic —Crystal, and Mirror, &c., Induce Walking Cl.-iirvoyance —Universal Sympathy — Lucid Perception of the Future. — Chapter XL Interest felt in Mesmerism by Men of Science— — Due Limits of Scientific Caution Practical Hint< Conditions —of Success in Experiments Cause of Failure— Mesmerism a — —Serious Thing Cautions to the Student Opposition to be — Expected. — Chapter XII. Phenomena Observed in the Conscious or —Waking State EfTects of Suggestion on Persons in an. Im-pressible .State — Mr. Lewiss Experiments with and without —Suggestion Cases Dr. — Darlings Experiments— Cases Con- —scious or Waking Clairvoyance, Produced by Passes, or by
  • 298. — — — [advertisements.] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. —Concentration Major Buckleys Method Cases The Magic — —Crystal Induces Waking Lucidity when Gazed at Cases Magic — — — —Mirror Mesmerised Water Egyptian Magic. — Chapter XIII. Production of the Mesmeric Sleep Cases —Eight out of Nine Persons Recently Tried by the Author Throwninto Mesmeric Sleep — Sleep Produced without the Knowledge of — —the Subject Suggestion in the Sleep Phreno-Mesmerism in the —Sleep Sympathetic Clairvoyance in the Sleep Cases Percep- — —tion of Time — Cases; Sir J. Franklin; Major Buckleys Case ofRetrovision. Chapter XIV. — Direct Clairvoyance Cases Travelling— — — —Clairvoyance Cases Singular Visions of Mr. D. Letters of — —Two Clergymen, with Cases Clairvoyance of Alexis Other —Cases. Chapter XV. —Trance — Extasis — Cases— Spontaneous Mes-meric Phenomena—Apparitions — Predictions. Chapter XVI. — Curative Agency of Mesmerism — ConcludingRemarks, and Summary. SPIRIT-PEOPLE: A Scientifically Accurate Description of Manifestations Produced by Spirits, RecetitlySimultaneously Witnessed by the Author and Other Observers in London. BY WILLIAM H. HARRISON. Limp cloth, red edges, price is. ; post-free, Is. id. OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. "As a dispassionate scientific man, he appears to have investigated the sub-ject without preconceived ideas, and the result of his examination has been toidentify his opinions with those of Messrs. Varley, Crookes, and Wallace, infavour not only of the absolute reality of the phenomena, but also of thegenuineness of the communications alleged to be given by the spirits of thedeparted." Public Opinion. " At the outset of his booklet Mr. Harrison disclaims any intention ofproselytising or forcing his opinion down non-Spiritualistic throats, and it isonly fair to admit that the succeedinsr pages are remarkably free from argumentand deduction, albeit bristling wiih assertions of the most dumbfoundingnature." — London Figaro. " He neither theorises nor dogmatises, nor attempts to make converts to hisviews. He states occurrences and events, or what he believes did reallyhappen, in a remarkably clear and narrative style, without any attempt atadvocacy or argument." South IVaies Daily News.
  • 299. — — [ADVr.RTISEMENTS.] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Ilicc 5s,, trowii Svo, richly giluTHE LAZY LAYS, AND PROSE IMAGININGS. By WILLIAM II. HARRISON. An Elegant and Amusing Gift- Hook of Poetical and Prose Writings, Grave and Gay.The Gilt Device on the Cover designed by FLORENCE Claxton and the AuriiuK. CONTENTS. Part I. Miscellaruous Poems and Prose Writings. I. The Lay of the Lazy Author. — 2. The Song of the News- —paper Editor. 3. The Song of tlie Pawnbroker. 4. The Castle. —— 5. The Lay of the Fat Man. — 6. The Poetry of Science. 7. —How Hadji Al Shacabac was Iliotographed (a letter from HadjiAl Shacabac, a gentleman who visited London on usiness con- Inected with a Turkish lx)an, to Ali Muslapha Ben Huckram,Chief of the College of Howlini^ Dcrvisliesat Constantinople).8. The Lay of tlie Broad-Urimmcd Hat. — 9. St. Brides Bay.10. The Lay of the -Market Gardener. 11. — "Fast Falls theEventide." 12. — — Our Raven. 13. Materialistic Religion. 14. — —The Lay of the Photographer. 15. How to Double the Utility ofthe Printing Press. — 16. The Song of the Mother-in-Law. 17. —IVirbel-be.uei.^itng. — Old Joe!" 19. The Human 18. "Poor —Hive. —20. The Lay of the Mace- Bearers. 21. A Love .Song. —22. A Vision. 23. — " Under the Lines." 24. The Angel of —Silence. I Part — The IVobblejaw Ballads, by Anthony Wobblcjaws. II. 25. The Analyst. — Public General Grants Reception at 26.F"oikestone. — The 27. Corps. — 28. Tonys Lament. — 29. The RifleJuly Bug. — 30. The Converted Carman. From the Grapkie. "Those who can appreciate penuinr, iinfmced humour should not fail toread The Lazy Lays and Prose Imagining-i. Written, print-d, piiblrshrd,and reviewed by Wiliiani H. Harrison (38 Gieal Russell Street). Both theverses and the short ess.iys are really funny, and in some of the latter there isa vein uf geuial satire which adds piquancy to the fun."
  • 300. — [advertisements. ] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Price 5s., crown 8vo, cloth, red edges.PSYCHOGRAPHT. BY OX M.A., ON. A Work dealing with the Psychic or Spiritual Phenomenon ofthe production of written messages without mortal hands. Full ofwell-authenticated examples. SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.List of Works Bearing on the Subject.Preface.Introduction.PsYCHOGRAPHY IN THE Past Guldenstubbe Crookes. : —Personal Experiences in Private, and with Public Psychics. General Corroborative Evidence. I. That attested by the Senses 1. Of Sight. Evidence of Mr. E. T. Bennett. „ a Malvern Reporter. ,, Mr. James Burns. ,, Mr. H, D. Jencken. 2. Of Hearing. Evidence of Mr. Serjeant Cox. ,, Mr. George King. ,, Mr. Hensleigh WedgAvood. ,, Miss * * * * J, Canon Mouls. ,, Baroness Von Vay. G. H. Adshead. W. P. Adshead. E. H. Valter. ,, J. L. OSullivan. ,, Epes Sargent. ,, James O. Sargent. ,, John Wetherbee. H. B. Storer. C. A. Greenleaf. ,, Public Committee with Watkins. ,, II. From the Writing of Languages Unknown to the Psychic. — Ancient Greek Evidence of Hon. R. Dale Owen and Mr. Blackburn. (Slade.) Dutch, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese. (Slade.) — Russian Evidence of Madame Blavatsky. (Watkins.) — Romaic Evidence of T. T. Timayenis. (Watkins.) Chinese. (Watkins.)
  • 301. [advertisements.] W. IL HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS.III. From .Special Tests which Preclude Previous Preparation of the Writiiif;. Psychics and Conjurers Contrasted. Sladc l)cforc the Kcscirch Committee of the_British Na- tional As^ociation of Spiritualists. Sladc Tcsttd by C. drier Hlake, Doc Sci. Evidence of Kcv. J. Page Hopps. (SLidc.) „ W. 11. Harrison. (Slade.) ,, J. .Seaman. (Slade.) Writing within .Slates securely screwed together. Kvidence of Mrs. Andrews and J. Mould. Dictation of Words at the Time of the Kxpcrimciit. Evidence of A. K. Wail.nce, F. R.G.S. ,, Ilonslcigh Wedgwood, J. P. ,, Kcv. Tliomas Colley. W. Oxlcy. George Wyld, M.D. ,, Miss Kislingliury. Writing in Answer to ()uestions Inside a Closed Box. Kvidence of Messrs. Ad>he.nd. Statement of Circumstances under wliich Experiments with F. W. Monck were conducted at KciL;liley. Writing on Glass Coated witl> While Paint. Evidence of Benjamin Colenlan.Letters Addressed to the Times on the Subject of the Prosecution of Henry Slade by Messrs. Joy, Joad, and Professor Barrett, F.R.S.E.Evidence of W. H. Harrison, Editor of the .S^/nVwa/ij/.Summary ok Facts Narrated. Deductions, Explanations, and Theoriks.The Nature of the Force Its Mode of Operation. : Evidence of C. Carter Blake, Doc. Sci., and Conrad Cooke, C.E.Detonating Noises in Connection with it. Evidence of Ilensleigh Wedgwood, J. Page Hopps, Thomas Colley.Method of Direction of the Force. Dr. Collyers Theory. Dr. George Wylds Theory. The Oculists Theory. The Spiritualists Theory.Appendix. The Court Conjurer of Berlin on Slade. Slade with the Grand Duke Constant;ne. Recent Experiment wiiii Monck.
  • 302. [advertisements.] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Price 5s., richly gilt, cloth ; or 3s. 6d., red edges, cloth, imperial 8vo. RIFTS IN THE VEIL." A Collection of Choice Poems and Prose Essays given throughMediumship, also of Articles and Poems written by Spiritualists.A useful book to place in Public Libraries, and to present or lendto those who are unacquainted with Spiritualism. The 3s. 6d. Edition consists of one of the cheapest works ofvery high quality ever published in connection with Spiritualism ;the book contains much about the religious aspects of the subject,and its relation to Christianity. CONTENTS. 1. Introduction : The Philosophy of Inspiration. 2. "O! Beautiful White Mother Death." Given through the Trance-Mediumship of Cora L. V. Tappan-Richmond. 3. The Apparition of Sengireef. By Sophie Aksakof. 4. The Translation of Shelley to the Higher Life. Given through the Trance-Mediumship of T. L. Harris. 5. Gone Home. Given through the Trance-Mediumship of Lizzie Doten. 6. The Birth of the Spirit. Given through the Trance-Medium- ship of Cora L. V. Tappan-Richmond. 7. Angel Guarded. 8. An Alleged Post-Mortem Work by Charles Dickens. How the writings were produced ; The Magnificent Egotist, Sapsea ; Mr. StoUop Reveals a Secret A Majestic Mind ; Severely Tried Dwellers in Cloisterham ; Mr. Peter ; Peckcraft and Miss Keep Critical Comments. ; 9. The Spider of the Period. By Georgina Weldon (Miss Tre- herne) and Mrs. .10. Margery Miller. Given through the Trance-Mediumship of Lizzie Doten.11. Ode by " Adamanta."12. Swedenborg on Men and Women. By William White, author of " The Life of Swedenborg."13. Resurgam. By Caroline A. Burke.
  • 303. [advertisrments.] W. H. HARRISONS TUliLICATIONS.14. Abnormal S|)cctrc» of Wolves, D<>g%, and other AniniaU. By Kinilc, Irince of Wuijjcnsicin.15. To You wlio l><)ve<i Mc. liy Florence Marryat,16. Desolation. Hy Caroline A. Hurkc.17. Truth. Given throujjh tiic Mciliumsljip of " M.A., Oxon."iS. Thy Hy Florence Marryat. I..ove.19. Haunting Spirits. Hy the Baroness Adclma Von Vay (Coun- tess Wurmbrand).20. Fashionable Grief for the Departed.31. The Brown I^idy of Kainham. By Lucia C. Stone.22. A Vision of Death. By Caroline A. Burke.23. A Story of a Haunted House. By F. J. Theobald.24. " Love the Truth and Peace." By the Rev. C. Maurice Davics, D.D.25. The Knds, Aims, and Uses of Modem Spiritualism. By Louisa Lowe.26. Dc Profundis. By Anna Blackwell.27. Ancient Thought and Modern .Spiritualism. By C. Carter Blake, Doc. Sci., Lecturer ou Comparative Anatomy at Westminster Hospital.28. Die Sehnsucht. Translated by Emily Kislingbury, from the German of Schiller.29. The Relation of Spiritualism to Orthodox Christianity. Given through the Mediumship of " NLA., Oxon."30. A Stance in the Sunshine. By the Rev. C. Maurice Davies, D.D.31. " My Saint." By Florence Marryat.32. Tlic Deathbeds of .Spiritualists. By Epes Sargent.33. The Touch of a Vanished Hand. By the Rev. C. Maurice Davies, D.D.34. Death. By Caroline A. Burke.35. The Spirit Creed. Through the Mediumship of " M..., Oxon."36. The Angel of Silence. By W. H. Harrison.37. The Prediction. By Alice Worthington (Ennesfallen).38. Longfellows Position in Relation to .Spiritualism.39. Spiritual Manifestations among the Fakirs in India. By Dr. M.iximilian Pcrty, Professor of Natural Philosophy, Berne ; Transl.ntcd from "Psychic Studies" (Leipzig), by Emily Kislingbury.40. The Poetry of Science. ByW. H.Harrison.41. Meditation and the Voice of Conscience. By Alex. Calder.42. Dirge. By Mrs. Eric B.-iker.43. Epigrams. By Gerald Massey.44. Some of the Difficuhie; of the Clergy in Relation to Spiritualism. By Lisette Makdougall Gregory.45. Immortality. By Alfred Russel Wallace, F.R.G..S.46. A Childs Prayer. By Gerald Massey.
  • 304. [advertisements.] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Price 5s., cloth, crown 8vo, red edges.SPIRIT-IDENTITY, BY M.A., OXON. Contains strong evidence that some of the Spirits who com-municate through mediumship are the departed individuals theysay they are. SYLLABUS OF CONTENTS.Introduction. Difficulties in the way of the investigation. Divergent results of investigators. Attitude of public opinion represses publication. This results also from the nature of the facts themselves. The Intelligent Operator has to be reckoned with. The investigator has little choice in the matter. The higher phenomena are not susceptible of demonstration by the scientific method. The gates being ajar, a motley crowd enters in. "We supply the material out of which this is composed. No necessity to have recourse to the diabolic element. Neglect of conditions proper for the investigation. Agencies other than those of the departed. Sub-human spirits —the liberated spirit of the psychic. These have had far more attributed to them than they can rightly claim. Specialism in Spiritualism. Religious aspects of the question. Notes of the age. The place of Spiritualism in modern thought.The Intelligent Operator at the other End of the Line. Scope of the inquiry. The nature of the Intelligence. What is the Intelligence ?
  • 305. — [advertiskments.] V. II. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Difiicultics in the way of accepting the story told by the Intelligence. Assumption of prcat names. Ahsciicc of precise statement. Contradictory ami absurd messages. Conditions under which good evidence is obtained. Value of corrolxirative testimony. Personal experiences Eleven cases occurring consecutively, Jan. I to II, 1S74. A spirit refusing to be misled by a suggestion. A spirit earth-lK)iind by love of money. Influence of association, especially of locality. Spirits who have communicated for a long period. Child-spirits communicating corroborative testimony : from a second source. Extremely minute evidence given by two methods. A possilile misconception guarded against. General conclusions. immortality. Personal recognition of and by friends. Religious aspects.Appendix I. — On the power of spirits to gain access to sources of information.Appendix II. — On some phases of Mediumship bearing on Spirit- Identity.Appendix III. — Cases of Spirit-Identity. (a) Man crushed by steam-roller. (/>) Ilorentine. {c) Charlotte Duckworth.Appendix IV. — Evidence from spirit-photography.Appendix V. — On some difficulties of inquirers into Spiritualism.Appendix VI. — Spirit-Identity — Evidence of Dr. Stanhope Spcer.
  • 306. [advertisements.] W. H. HARRISONS PUBLICATIONS. Price IS., cloth, red edges.A CLERGYMAN ON SPIRITUALISM. D. CLERICUS. With a Dedication to the REV. SIR WILLIAM DUNBAR, BART.; And Some Thoughts for the Consideration of the Clergy, By LISETTE MAKD0UG.LL GREGORY. This Booklet contains the experiences of a Clergyman, whoprayerfully and continuously investigated Spiritualism for a longseries of years. Price I2s. 6d., cloth, red edges ; demy 8vo. Illustrated by various Full-page and Double-page Engravings. TRANSCENDENTAL PHYSICS. By F. ZOLLNER, Professor of Physical Astronomy at Leipsic University. TRANSLATED BY C. C. MASSE Y. This illustrated work is unique in its character, and is one of themost remarkable and philosophical books ever published in con-nection with Spiritualism. Price 5s., crown 8vo, cloth, red edges. PSYCHIC FACTS.Contains striking Selections from the Writings of Mr. WilliamCrookes, F.K.S., Mr. C. F. Varley, F.R.S., Mr. A. R. Wallace,F.R.GS., the Committee of the Dialectical Society, Pro-fessor Hare, of Philadelphia, Professor Zoi.LNER, Mr. SerjeantCox, Captain R. F. Burton, The Lord Lindsay, Dr. A.Butlerof, J. W. Edmonds (Judge of the Supreme Court, NewYork), and other iauthors, demonstrating the reality of the pheno-mena of Spiritualism. The work contains some useful informationfor inquirers.
  • 307. [advertisf.ments.] V. n. HARIRIS ^*S PUBLICATIONS. Price 5s. 6d., crown 8vo, cloth, red edges. THE FIRST VOLUME OFSPIRITS BEFORE OUR EYES. BY WILLI.M H. HARRISON. This Book deals with the nature, characteristics, and philo-sophy of Apparitions, and how to reproduce experimentally someof the phenomena connected with them. It is also full of evidence •of Spirit-Identity. Price 2s. 6cl., cloth, crown Svo, red edges. MESMERISM, WITH HINTS FOR BEGINNERS. BY JOHN JAMES {Formerly Captain^ ^th Light Infantry), An excellent Text-Book by a writer who had thirty yearsexperience in the subject. W. II. HARRISON, 33 MUSEUM STREET, LONDON. i
  • 308. RETURNTO: "rd^aUion - P^y^V^^ojj U^^^LOAN PERIOD 1 Home Use
  • 310. viif;i.5Tn