FOREWORDThis wonderful book is the only comprehensive survey of the most amazing andbaffling phenomena known to mankind.Here are detailed articles and case-histories dealing with Apparitions of the livingand the dead, Apports (solid objects miraculously brought into closed rooms),Clairvoyance, Divination, Fire Immunity, Levitation (individuals or objects floating inthe air in defiance of gravity), Materializations (phantoms built up from someunknown substance in sensitive persons), Prediction of future events, Telekinesis(movement of objects without apparent contact), Telepathy (thought transference) -and a host of other marvels. Here are hundreds of articles and biographies dealingwith such phenomena and the people involved, the famous mediums and wonder-workers who did these things and the reporters and scientists who investigated them.And the really extraordinary thing is that these are not old, far-off tales of occultwonders from ancient times, but sober reports from our own civilization, datingroughly from early nineteenth century to recent times. Many of the witnesses andinvestigators cited are reputable and highly esteemed scientists.This vast survey covers the entire field of Psychical Phenomena and Spiritualism,including Mediumship, Extrasensory Perception and what is now termedParapsychology. Every kind of psychical phenomenon of the period is listed, all theimportant and many lesser-known items, with precise information and detailedbiographical and bibliographical material.Apart from its value as an indispensable reference work, it provides, in effect, a wholelibrary on the subjects concerned. In this single volume are more than eight hundredseparate entries, classifying and cross-referencing all the phenomena, personalitiesand organizations in the field, a crisp systematic summary of thousands of otherbooks and journals, weighed with clarity, impartiality and good judgement. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comAs an Encyclopaedia it is conveniently arranged on an alphabetical plan, but it ispossible to absorb the essential contents without having to start at A.S.P.R. andplough through more than four hundred pages to Zugun! By selecting certain articlesin sequence you can master the basic framework of the subject and then branch offinto reading hundreds of fascinating details.Start by reading the long article on Spiritualism, then the shorter piece on PsychicalResearch. You will now have a master key to the whole volume and the two parallelapproaches which characterize the subject. The first gives the history of theSpiritualist movement in various countries, the beliefs, personalities and mainphenomena. The second article clarifies the scientific approach. It is now possible toturn to individual entries dealing with phenomena like Raps and Table Turning fromwhich the Spiritualist movement started. The fine entry Medium explains the basis ofmediumship, and the entry under Fraud will give valuable information on theproblems of distinguishing genuine from false phenomena. Then there are individualbiographies of great mediums like the Fox Sisters, D. D. Home, Eusapia Palladino,Carlos Mirabelli, Margery Crandon, etc., as well as leading Spiritualists andorganizations concerned in the growth of the movement.
On the side of Psychical Research, the entries on the Society for Psychical Research, inBritain, and the American Society for Psychical Research, with the detailed Indices totheir published Proceedings, will give a useful lead to the history and achievementsof -the scientific side of the subject, the attitudes, terminology and leadingpersonalities. A glance at the main Index will show a number of other organizationsconnected with Psychical Research.Historically, modern Spiritualism and Psychical Research grew out of the Mesmerismand Animal Magnetism that had swept throughout Europe from the end of theeighteenth century onwards; in America it was signalled by the amazing utterances ofthe seer Andrew Jackson Davis (1826-1910), and by the mysterious insistent rappingsin the Fox family at Hydesville, New York State, in 1848. These developments areclearly summarized in this Encyclopaedia.Yet Spiritualism and psychic phenomena are almost as old as the human race.Trance-speaking, possession, clairvoyance, premonitions, prophecy, levitation,communication, with the dead-even table-turning, are all Connected with olderreligions, and many of these phenomena still survive among primitive races. Therehave been careful historical and anthropological studies of these aspects ofSpiritualism by writers like Andrew Lang and Caesar de Vesme, who are both cited inthis Encyclopaedia. It is outside the scope of this book to deal with the importantevidence in detail, but it is valuable to bear it in mind in assessing the differentapproaches of religion and science. There can be no reasonable doubt thatmiraculous events happened and still sometimes happen. If anything, the realproblem is why they should become rare or deceptive in modern life. Part of theanswer may lie in the changes in mans consciousness over the centuries.Primitive man lived in a world where dreams, gods, spirits, ghosts, demons andmiracles were inextricably involved in everyday waking life. But the miraculousevaporated as the vital religious consciousness of ancient times gave way to www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comincreased preoccupation with the practical material world. The wonder and awe atthe mystery of life were displaced by concentration on improved technology - bettertools, housing, social organization, and so on. After many bitter struggles toovercome the outworn formalism into which religion had degenerated, scienceproduced its own miracles, and eventually scientific method took over the authorityof religion. From time to time, however, religious revivals have shaken modern manfrom a materialistic daydream and shown a glimpse of that broader vision ofmeaning and purpose in the universe which had been known in ancient times.Usually the impact of such revivals has been too chaotic to allow a grand synthesisbetween religion and modern science.Spiritualism broke upon the nineteenth century world like a great, incoherent wave ofthe supernatural, at once sublime, trivial, inspiring, degrading, true and false.Throughout the 1850s table-turning became a fashionable preoccupation of rich andpoor, and the communications a strange mixture of the uncanny and the banal. Later,more evidential communications were received through automatic writing, voicemediumship, and other manifestations. It is reported that in 1862 Miss NettieColburn, a powerful young trance medium (listed in the Encyclopaedia under hermarried name of Mrs. Maynard) visited the White House and gave an astonishing
trance address to President Abraham Lincoln on the eve of his AntiSlaveryProclamation.In the intense excitement of Spiritualist fervor, scientists felt that they should asserttheir own authority. To many of them Spiritualism appeared a dangerous reversion tosuperstition. Some determined to expose Spiritualism with the new disciplines andtechniques of science, others, less prejudiced, were sympathetic to the newmovement but thought it needed the restraining hand of science to validate itsphenomena and exclude shameless frauds and the inevitable lunatic fringe.In 1853 Dr. Robert Hare, Professor of Chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, "feltcalled upon," as he wrote, "as an act of duty to his fellow creatures, to bring whateverinfluence he possessed to the attempt to stem the tide of popular madness which, indefiance of reason and science) was fast setting in favor of the gross delusion calledSpiritualism." He devised apparatus and conducted careful tests with mediums.Unfortunately, as a fair-minded investigator, he eventually announced that he wasnow convinced of the facts of Spiritualism! He was immediately condemned by theprofessors of Harvard for "insane adherence to a gigantic humbug" and howleddown by the American Scientific Association, which refused to listen to his lecture.It needed courage to investigate Spiritualism without prejudice and for many years itwas dangerous for individual scientists to risk a reputation. In 1870 the great Britishphysicist William Crookes announced his intention of making an impartialinvestigation of Spiritualism. After several years skilful observations and tests heboldly acknowledged his belief in the reality of psychic phenomena. He was bitterlycriticized by other scientists and eventually found it expedient to discontinue theseresearches, although he never retracted any of his findings and remained a believerin the phenomena of Spiritualism for the rest of his life. It was not until the foundingof the British Society for Psychical Research in 1882, and the American Society threeyears later, that such investigations were treated with the respect that they deserved.The enlightened interest of sincere and intelligent scientists marked a turning point www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comin the history of both Spiritualism and Psychical Research.From the end of the nineteenth century to the opening of the twentieth was thegolden age of great mediums and great psychical researchers - mediums like DanielDunglas Home, Florence Cook, Eusapia Palladino, Mrs. Piper, the Rev. Stainton Moses;investigators like Crookes, Myers, Hyslop, William James, Sidgwick, Lombroso, Richet.There were many others, whose names are all in this Encyclopaedia.For a time the cooperation between Spiritualists and psychical researchers wasreasonably cordial. Eminent scientists endorsed much of the mental phenomena ofTelepathy and Clairvoyance, and gave qualified approval to some of the physicalphenomena of Telekinesis, Materializations and Levitation. But soon irreconcilabledifferences arose. The climate of opinion of the twentieth century, with its emphasison technology and materialistic philosophy, was opposed to the religious outlook ofSpiritualism. With a first World War on its hands civilization had other, moreimmediate problems. The great successes of science in practical affairs made it seemunlikely that there could really be a firm basis to the manifestations of disembodiedspirits. Many of the signs and wonders of mediums evaporated under cold rigidlaboratory tests, and it became difficult to attract funds for psychical research. The
modern world was more interested in life this side of the grave and saw no dividendsin experiments and speculations concerned with an after-life.After the first excitement of its impact Spiritualism had ceased to be a nine dayswonder, and now settled down into its own kind of orthodoxy, with the inevitableproblems of establishment, schisms and federation that face all religions. Spiritualistsbecame a minority in a modern world preoccupied with the hard facts of life as weknow it. A new generation was growing up, unaware of the origins and continuationof Spiritualism; for other people it remained yet another cranky cult. The subject wasgood for an occasional "controversial" article in the tabloid press (it still is!) but it hadlong ceased to be front-page news. At the same time, the general public was notunsympathetic to a little mystery and magic as life became increasingly materialistic.Astrology, fortune-telling, palmistry and other occult. arts never ceased to bepopular, and everybody liked a good ghost story. Popular journalism becameimportant propaganda for Spiritualists, both in the national Press and in Spiritualistnewspapers and journals.On the other hand, psychical researchers frowned on sensationalism and becameincreasingly skeptical. Conscientious investigators were dismayed by the frequency ofvulgar fraud. Inevitably, psychical researchers and Spiritualists tended to drift intoopposite camps. One may see these two rival currents as a renewal of the conflictbetween science and religion.Psychical researchers set their own test conditions and atmosphere, and whethertheir investigations were successful or not their reports were read with respect.Spiritualists objected that mediums were "on trial" in an unsuitable atmosphere.Skeptical and suspicious attitudes powerfully influence the elusive phenomena ofsensitive individuals, and it had long been noticed that unconscious fraud might bebrought about through expectation on the part of the investigators. And an adverseor even inconclusive report by a psychical researcher might damage the reputation ofa medium, whose position was unjustly precarious anyway so far as the law was www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comconconcerned.In Britain, Spiritualists were often persecuted under cruel, old-fashioned legislation.Psychical research might be quite respectable, but until as recently as 1951 a mediumcould be prosecuted under sections of the Witchcraft Act 1735 and the Vagrancy Act1824. In a 1921 case a judge stated: "I cannot reverse the decision on the claim thatthe intention to deceive was not necessarily to be proved. The act of fortune-telling isan offence in itself." Perhaps the most despicable type of prosecution was that inwhich agents provocateur were employed by the police to obtain evidence. Disguisedpolicewomen, posing as bereaved parents, would approach a medium, begging forsome consolatory message. A small sum of money would be proferred as a "love-offering" and if this was accepted the medium could be prosecuted- often for as littleas the equivalent of a 25-cent "donation" to the Spiritualist church funds. Anunsympathetic magistrate, arrogantly convinced that all Spiritualists were frauds,would impose a fine or a sentence of up to three months imprisonment. Thedisgrace, loss of reputation and employment, could ruin a medium for life.In New York, comparable outdated legislation was amended in 1929, to exemptministers and mediums of Spiritualist Associations acting in good faith withoutpersonal fees.
Many Spiritualist seances were in darkness or subdued light, and another hazard formediums was the amateur investigator who would flash on lights and grab atmanifestations, determined to expose what he considered fraud. Whether thephenomena were genuine or not, such crude tactics might cause serious shock orother injury to the medium. It was often not generally recognized that Spiritualistorganizations themselves took care to test mediums and were alert to detect fraud.During the 1930s, Spiritualism and psychical research were uneasy partners. Therewere many intelligent and sincere Spiritualists, but it must be admitted that therewere also lower levels of the movement that were undiscriminating, acceptingdubious phenomena and rather banal "messages." Of course, not all mediums wereSpiritualists, and many were non-professional. The most reliable field for mediumshipwas perhaps the "home circle," composed of family and friends.Much excellent and painstaking work had been achieved by psychical researchers, butsome were very skeptical, too materialistic in approach, and oversensitive to criticism.In the twentieth century, intellect and experimental method were supplanting thefaith and emotional warmth of religion. There was a tendency to assume that nothingwas real unless you could measure and test it.In 1934, the Hon. Alfred Lyttleton, President of the Society for Psychical Research,stated that "after fifty years of steady work the Society, as a Society, would not affirmthat the survival of bodily death has been demonstrated conclusively, or thatcommunication with spirits has been established" (in any case, the Societysconstitution did not insist on corporate opinions). "But," she added: "I think it may besaid that many of those conversant with the work have been convinced by thecumulative effect of the evidence that life does continue after bodily death, and thatsome communication between the living and the dead has been discovered."The present Encyclopaedia, which also appeared in 1934, boldly attempted its ownsummary of the whole history, detail and validity of Spiritualism and Psychical www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comScience. It was a heroic task, yet it emerges as the most comprehensive andfairminded account of the subject ever made.You might expect to find that a careful and complex Encyclopaedia of this kind,involving years of research, study and assessment, would be the result of a team ofinvestigators and writers-yet the fact is that this tremendous compilation is the workof one man-a Hungarian barrister who in exile became a journalist, a psychicalresearcher, and a psychoanalyst. A man of truly international outlook he became anAmerican citizen, travelled to England and became a naturalized Briton, finallyreturning to America where he resumed American citizenship and spent his last years.For just over a century, the strange phenomena which we call "psychical" or"parapsychological" have been studied by theologians, scientists and even conjurers,but it took a legal mind to write the best and most complete account of the wholesubject. There is no biographical entry for Dr. Nandor Fodor himself in hisEncyclopaedia, so it is only proper that this new edition of his major work shouldcontain the leading facts of his life.NANDOR FODOR was born in Berengszasz, Hungary, May 13, 1895. He recalls thatwhile at high school the chief of his class predicted: "Fodor, he will get somewhere!"
He studied law and took his LL.D. at the Royal Hungarian University of Science in1917, acting as a Law assistant from 1917-21; he also received a Ph.D. He marriedAmaria Iren in 1922, and they had a daughter.From 1921 -28, the second chapter of his profession became journalism. Around1921 he paid his first visit to America as a staff reporter on the New York Hungarian-language daily Amerikai Magyar Nepszava (American Hungarian Peoples Voice). Thechance discovery of a book by the brilliant psychical researcher and writer HerewardCarrington fired the imagination of Fodor and gave a new direction to his interests.The book was Carringtons Modern Psychic Phenomena, published 1919, and Fodorrecalls that he found it in a bookshop on Fourth Avenue, New York, in 1921;thereafter he also found his main vocation- psychical research. In a warm tribute toCarrington in Tomorrow (Winter 1959) Fodor wrote: "This work was a revelation tome. From then on I spent my lunch money on books, feasting on psychic knowledgein preference to the nourishing food of the Hungarian restaurants near my work."He approached Carrington for an interview for his newspaper; instead Carringtoncourteously invited him to a reception for the great Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, creatorof Sherlock Holmes and the most sincere and tireless worker for the cause ofSpiritualism. At the reception Fodor was able to interview Conan Doyle.Carrington had a profound influence on Fodor. They became firm friends, andalthough they did not meet again for ten years they corresponded and latercollaborated. It is clear that from this time onwards Fodor took Carrington as a modelfor his own subsequent activities as writer and investigator of psychical subjects,although not yet free to concentrate his energies full time on these matters.In 1926, while still a reporter in New York, Fodor also interviewed Sandor Ferenczi,leading psychoanalyst and associate of Freud. Although psychoanalysis wasnominally unsympathetic to the occult, Ferenczi and even Freud himself were secretlysympathetic to certain psychical phenomena. Strangely enough, psychoanalysis wasto be the second decisive influence in Fodors life and he was destined to link its www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comfindings with psychical research.In the following year, Fodor had what he calls his "first encounter with the dead" at aseance with William Cartheuser, voice medium, in New York City. Fodor received avery moving and evidential direct voice communication from his dead father. Manyyears later, Fodor became disillusioned with the mediumship of Cartheuser, but neverforgot the overwhelming emotional impact of that first seance. He wrote a detailedaccount of it, published in his book The Haunted Mind (Helix Press, 1959).In 1929, after an interview with the millionaire newspaper magnate Lord Rothermere,Fodor was fortunate enough to get a privileged position on his personal staff.Rothermere owned a chain of national British newspapers-the Daily Mail, Daily Mirror,Evening News, and Sunday Dispatch, and was deeply concerned in the restoration ofHungary. Fodors new job took him to England. Here, as a secretary to LordRothermere, he was concerned with Hungarian affairs, such as the revision of theHungarian Peace Treaty after World War 1, but he found himself with plenty of sparetime and a comfortable office in Fleet Street, London.It was in this period that he compiled the present Encyclopaedia. It was aphenomenal undertaking for one man, and it took him several years. When it
appeared, in 1934, Fodor himself explained how he came to undertake this task. Hewrote:I was struck by the fact, when I began my studies in psychical research eleven yearsago, that the enquirer is faced by an endless repetition as he goes on.I wanted a guide, and started to make an index of my own. From this, as time wenton, the idea of an alphabetical encyclopaedia was born.We have few comprehensive books on psychic science, and they are all coloured bytoo much or too little faith. Podmores Modern Spiritualism [This classic work wasreissued by University Books Inc. under the new title Mediums of the 19th Century in1963, with an important Introduction by Dr. E. J. Dingwall. Podmores opinions arecertainly unjustly skeptical, but the book is valuable for its historical survey ratherthan its dogmatic opinions.] is a splendid work, but its narrow views, in the light ofgreater present knowledge, are irritating and occasionally infuriating.Conan Doyles History of Spiritualism is too sketchy and inexact, Campbell HolmsFacts of Psychic Science only deals with phenomena, and, for the purpose I have inmind, in a not sufficiently comprehensive and discriminative manner. CarringtonsStory of Psychic Science is more of a text than a reference book.What we need is a standard work, which, in a dispassionate, detached and impersonalmanner, presents all the facts of history, research, phenomena and mediumship, inwhich, at a minutes notice, we can lay our hands on every important fact....This is a good description of the Encyclopaedia. There can be no doubt that afterthirty years this book still stands as the key reference work on the subject for theperiod covered. When it appeared, it established Fodors reputation overnight as anauthority on psychical matters. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comHe was invited to lecture on Spiritualism and Psychical Research, and in February1934 became Assistant Editor, under David Gow, of Light, the oldest BritishSpiritualist journal. It is still in existence, now published by the College of PsychicScience in London, and the Autumn 1964 issue carried a fine tribute to Fodor fromMiss Mercy Phillimore, who was associated with his early work in Britain. In thosedays, although Fodor was a brilliant journalist and could read and write English withease, he had difficulty in speaking the language. Miss Phillimore recalls:He never failed to speak, and was first up when the chairman declared the discussionopen. This was the occasion for a friendly titter from the audience, for his wordsgushed forth-indeed, splashed forth-in torrents at terrific speed, and in the whirl ofsounds were many amusing mistakes. He was quite willing to learn about his errorsof speech, and joined in the fun.Through the help of the London Spiritualist Alliance, Fodor was able to take part inresearch experiments with mediums. His happy enthusiasm at being able to witnessthe phenomena which he had previously only studied in books is amusing:The commotion caused by his excitement would not be believed by anyone who hadnot been present; his jumping and shouting filled the room with deafening noise. It
was of course a great thrill for him to witness that of which he had read so much, andthe first impact brought acceptance that the phenomena were genuinelysupernormal.Later on he became somewhat more cautious and skeptical.1934 was an important year for psyschical research in England. On June 6, theUniversity of London Council for Psychical Investigation was founded, to take overthe work of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research which had been foundedby Harry Price in 1925. Price presented the Council with his library, laboratory andequipment. He had carried out interesting investigations, but on the wholeSpiritualists objected to laboratory tests by skeptical investigators and scientists. In avigorous newspaper article, veteran Spiritualist Hannen Swaffer commented: ". . .high-sounding degrees do not impress anybody except newspapers, and they haveused it all before, as their files will show, about other institutes, all of which ended inthe same way as I prophesy this one will-in nothing. Spiritualism would rather haveone medium than the enquiries of a thousand scientists."Early in 1934 another organization came into being-the International Institute forPsychical Research, with a Council of both Spiritualists and non-Spiritualists,dedicated to a sympathetic and unprejudiced investigation of psychical phenomena.Professor D. F. Fraser-Harris was announced as Research Officer, but resignedthrough a misunderstanding with the Council. In his place, Dr. Nandor Fodor wasappointed, and thus began his years of practical investigation into psychicalphenomena. It was not until 1938 that Fodor too was involved in an unhappymisunderstanding with his Council.Meanwhile he undertook a number of careful investigations into mediumistictransfiguration, production of apports, direct voice, levitation, hauntings, poltergeistand materializations. He also edited a series of valuable Bulletins issued by theInstitute. It must have been a great satisfaction to Fodor that the first of these, www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comdealing with poltergeist phenomena, was a collaboration with his friend Dr. HerewardCarrington, who was Research Officer of the American Psychical Institute of NewYork. Later on, their modest 44-page booklet became the basis for a more substantialbook Haunted People (New York 1951), British edition titled The Story of thePoltergeist Down the Centuries (London 1953).Between April and May 1934, Fodor also wrote a series of popular articles onmediums, Spiritualism and Psychical Research, for the newspaper Bristol EveningWorld; these were reprinted in book form as These Mysterious People (London,1934). This is perhaps the clearest, most reliable and readable popular work of itskind ever published, covering the important personalities and phenomena andforming one of the best general introductions to the subject.During his time in England, Fodor met Dr. Elizabeth Severn, a well-known practicingpsychoanalyst who had been a pupil of Sandor Ferenczi. This contact renewed hisinterest in psychoanalysis. At that time there was still considerable prejudice againstthe subject in England, since it dealt with the explosive question of sexualmotivations. Fodor, however, believed that psychoanalysis could throw importantlight on psychical phenomena.
Although he seems to have had a natural flair for the subject, his psychoanalyticaltheories and investigations were too far ahead of their time to be generallyacceptable, and some of his best observations were not vindicated until many yearslater. In the Introduction to The Story of the Poltergeist Down the Centuries (London,1953), Dr. Carrington reviewed the developing tendency for psychical investigators toconsider the emotional states and unconscious drives in mediumistic subjects, withparticular reference to poltergeist phenomena. After referring to an early paper by Dr.James Hyslop, he commented: ". . . Aside from a few clinical observations of EusapiaPalladino, this remained practically the only study of the sort until Dr. Nandor Fodorspsychoanalytical analyses of various poltergeist cases. "In 1944, Dr. John Layard, in apaper on "Psi Phenomena and Poltergeists" (Proceedings S.P.R., July 1934) PP. 237-47) concluded ". . . all true poltergeist phenomena ... are purposeful and probablyoccasioned by conditions of Unresolved tension in the psyche of those involuntarilyproducing them."But this was a revolutionary concept in the 1930s when Fodor conducted his owninvestigations, and it needed great courage to maintain such views. He was bitterlycriticized by Spiritualists for introducing a tabooed subject into psychical research.Two of Fodors important investigations were to have far-reaching results. These werethe Ash Manor Ghost and the Thornton Heath Poltergeist, fully reported in FodorsThe Haunted Mind (Helix Press, 1959).It was in 1936 that he investigated the strange dramatic story of the Ash ManorGhost, in which it seemed that hauntings took place because of abnormal sexualrelationships in the family concerned. Suppressed sexual energies appeared toprovide an atmosphere in which a phantom could continue to manifest. Amazinglyenough, the basic diagnosis of the case was through the spirit-guide of a brilliantmedium whom Fodor brought into the case. This medium was Mrs. Eileen J. Garrett,who was later to head the Parapsychology Foundation in America.The Thornton Heath Poltergeist, which he started to investigate February 1938, was a www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comsensational affair of a woman who produced remarkable poltergeist phenomena andappeared to be the victim of vampirism. Whatever the objective nature of thephenomena, Fodor soon found that their occurrence was intimately related to thepersonal problems of the woman concerned. This presented a peculiar difficulty. AsFodor wrote in The Haunted Mind: "The psychical researcher is forced to view hissubjects as material for investigation, but not necessarily as human beings. Thepsychoanalyst can go further. His aim is to analyze, to find the fault, and then, ifpossible, to heal and bring about a new adjustment to life." As an experimenter andobserver it would have been unethical to change to an analyst-patient relationshipwithout full understanding and agreement.Before Fodor could resolve this delicate situation, the opposition to hispsychoanalytical views exploded into a crisis affecting his own position as ResearchOfficer of the International Institute for Psychical Research. Word of his sexualtheories and findings leaked out, and this, bracketed with his vigorous exposure ofmediumistic frauds, aroused intense antagonism. In an obscure work ConsciousnessCreative (Boston, 1937) he had contributed an essay which stated: "For reasons ofpublic propriety, mediumship is very seldom discussed from its most importantangle: that of sex." This was violently criticized in the popular Spiritualist press in
Britain. Horace Leaf, a famous medium and Spiritualist author, came to the defense ofFodor, stating:Owing to the peculiar nature of the subject, Dr. Nandor Fodor wisely restricted itspublication to quarters which guaranteed that it would be read only by thoseinterested in the more technical and scientific aspects of mediumship... Dr. Fodorsarticle is written in a style suitable to the subject and carefully restrained in tone. Asubject so delicate and so liable to misunderstanding demands scientific language,otherwise it would approach vulgarity. Dr. Fodor is to be congratulated on theexcellent manner in which he has handled it.In spite of this sensible and temperate attitude, a reviewer attacked Fodor inunrestrained terms:Although he may not even suspect it, Dr. Nandor Fodor, Research Officer to theInternational Institute for Psychical Research, has confessed his amazing ignorance ofthe nature of psychic phenomena in a curious essay in a very curious book....The reviewer went on to speak of "This insult to the great spirit guides Further articleswere published, baiting Fodor and questioning his competence, until one day inFebruary 1938 he issued a writ for libel against the newspaper concerned. Otherrepercussions followed. J. Arthur Findlay, one of the most respected figures in theSpiritualist movement, was a chief shareholder in the company owning thenewspaper and also Chairman of the International Institute, of which he was afounder. He felt he could no longer be associated with the Institute under thesecircumstances, and accordingly resigned from his position there. Meanwhile theInstitute itself brought Fodors investigation of the Thornton Heath case to a close,and in August 1938 the Council of the Institute sent a letter to their members whichopened:Dear Sir/Madam, www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comAfter carefully reviewing and considering the policy of the Institute, the Council havedecided that the employment of a whole-time director of research is not justified.Accordingly they have terminated with regret the engagement of Dr. Nandor Fodor,who is no longer connected with the Institute in that or any other capacity.Stung by this peremptory dismissal, Fodor wrote a spirited reply on September 2,also published in the journal The Occult Review (October 1938):I have been on holiday in France. On my return I learned with considerable surprisethat I was no more Director of Research for the International Institute for PsychicalResearch. The communique which you published last week was emphatic in statingthat I was no longer connected with the Institute in that or any other capacity. Thepublic warning may make people wonder whether I have been guilty of misdemeanoror was expected to commit such under false pretenses. Let me make it first clear thatI have been one of the founders of the International Institute for Psychical Research. Ihave directed its research for four years with considerable sacrifice. I have built theInstitute with my sweat and blood. It belonged to me more than to any member ofthe Council. Yet the present Council of the Institute felt in no way obliged to inform
me that my services would be no more wanted and to give me a fair chance ofresignation....Fodor went on to disclose that the Institute had also impounded the manuscript ofhis new book. He challenged the Council to inform the membership of the wholetruth of the matter, and concluded: "I am entitled to satisfaction. I mean to get it."This was fighting talk!During this period of an open break with Spiritualists he felt free to speak his mindon some of the lower levels of the movement. His own- unhappiness at being forcedinto an invidious position was reflected in a new series of hard-hitting articles for TheLeader, in which, with talented journalism, he now wrote of "shameless imposture." "Irespect the deep religious convictions of sincere spiritualists," he declared, "but Icannot keep silent about some of our miracle-mongers." The series was announced:"BEGINNING THE GREATEST SHOWUP OF SPIRIT MIRACLES EVER PRINTED." "IExpose the Shams of Spiritualism." Later headlines read: "I Unmask the Muslin andCheese-cloth Ghosts I Debunk These Gifts from Heaven."Spiritualists were alarmed at this tearing aside of the veils, and Fodor was reproachedby his former associates. Answering the charge of now being a "very doubtful friend,"he replied (Light, November 10, 1938): "In Spiritualism, unhappily, one ceases to beconsidered as a friend if he speaks the unpleasant truth."In what must have been the unhappiest chapter of his life, Fodor suddenly securedunexpected support for his position and recognition of his psychoanalytical insightfrom the highest authority. Professor Freud himself, then in England, graciouslyagreed to read Fodors manuscript, and in the course of a letter dated November 22)1938, he wrote sympathetically:Your turning away from interest in whether the observed phenomena were genuineor fraudulent, your turning toward the psychological study of the medium and theuncovering of her previous history, seem to be the important steps which will lead to www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comthe elucidation of the phenomena under investigation.It is very regrettable that the Institute for psychical research would not follow you. Ialso hold it very probable that your conclusions regarding this particular case arecorrect....(full German text and translation in article: by Fodor: "Freud and the Poltergeist,"Psychoanalysis, journal of Psychoanalytic Psychology, vol. 4, No. 2, Winter 1955-56).Fodor wrote a happy and generous letter to the Editor of The Occult Review,published in January 1939:Sir,I would be glad if you would allow me to state that my differences with the Councilof the International Institute for Psychical Research have now been amicablycomposed.The manuscript referred to in my letter of September 8th has now been returned tome, and I am making arrangements for its early publication. It will represent mypersonal views and will in no way bind the Council of the International Institute.
I understand that recognition is being paid to me for my past services in a statementwhich members will shortly receive. On my part I wish the Council good luck for theirfuture work, and sincerely hope that their new policy will receive the same heartysupport which I have enjoyed in the past four years.The libel case did not end so happily. Fodor had complained of four articles which hesaid had libelled him. Judgement was given in March 1939. As a barrister Fodorpartially conducted his own case, and was awarded minor damages Of 50 guineaseach in respect of two of the articles, the jury finding for the newspaper in regard tothe other two. It might seem that the result was evenly divided, but to the newspaperit was a heavy blow which drained away vital funds and made bad publicity forSpiritualism. Fodor had vindicated his reputation but the gap between psychicalresearchers and Spiritualists had widened.At this distance of time, all this might seem a series of trivial domestic issues, but inthe small world of British Spiritualism and Psychical Research of the period, suchissues were critical. I think it is a pity the matter ever came to Court. Perhaps some ofthe attacks on Fodor were extreme and his legal background would suggest anobvious remedy. But in those days Spiritualism had to be very much on the defensiveand could only maintain its position by vigorous journalism- "challenges," "plainspeaking without fear or favor," etc.-to strengthen the emotional solidarity of theSpiritualist rank and file. Behind all this lurked indignation at the precarious positionof Spiritualists, the persecution of mediums, and the superciliousness of manycultured scientific investigators.From Fodors point of view he had felt his honor impugned, and his status as acompetent researcher undermined. Since he was not a medical doctor or anaccredited psychoanalyst his unique insights into relationships between mediumsand psychoanalytical motivations were unjustly discredited. He too had to defend hisposition. The real fault lay in the narrow outlook of the times. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comVery soon after the case Fodor returned to America. Here he practiced successfully asa psychoanalyst in New York, and resumed American citizenship. Here too herenewed contact with his old friend Dr. Hereward Carrington, with whom he had somuch in common.In 1934 Carrington had written to acknowledge a copy of Fodors Encyclopaedia andto congratulate him on the "tremendous amount of work" that had gone into it. Itwas not until two years later that Fodor discovered that Carrington himself had beenworking on a similar project which he had generously yielded.For Dr. Fodor, psychoanalyst, the atmosphere in America was more sympathetic to new ideas, and psand his contributions were acceptable in learned journals. He elaborated hisstimulating ideas on connections between psychical phenomena and psychoanalysis.His studies in the field of meaningful dream analysis had added interest in that theydrew upon his own personal experiences. He also wrote many articles for the finejournal Tomorrow, edited by Mrs. Eileen J. Garrett, whom he had known as a talentedmedium in England. As I mentioned earlier, when Dr. Carrington died (December 26,1959, aged 78) Fodor wrote a deeply-felt tribute in the Winter 1959 issue ofTomorrow.
During the last period of his life Fodor considerably modified some of his earlierattitudes, and perhaps British Spiritualists were pleased to read his remarkably frankavowal in a Psychic Observer article in 1943:My attitude to psychical phenomena has undergone a tremendous change since I leftEngland. Then I was a psychical investigator, following the routine techniques. A freehand for the researcher is none for the medium. Now I am a psychologist and myattitude is exactly the opposite: a free hand for the medium, none for the researcher.He confessed that he had "no more joy in tying up mediums and exaltinginstrumental findings," and commented , "I see now psychical research has tried to betoo scientific for years and has gone bankrupt as a result. Mediums do not functionwell if they are used as guinea-pigs. They are human beings with the same virtuesand vices as the researchers themselves."It is this essential fair-mindedness, the ability to weigh his judgements carefully andeven revise his views, that gives the work of Dr. Nandor Fodor such lasting value. In1956 he wrote a fiery essay defending the late Harry Price from attacks upon him in anew book, while in 1963 he was equally indignant at the publication of Trevor Hallscontroversial book The Spiritualists which attempted to discredit Sir William Crookesand the famous Florence Cook mediumship.In a letter published in the journal of the Society for Psychical Research (December1964) Mr. David Cohen, author of a book on Harry Price, wrote: "Before his death, Dr.Nandor Fodor expressed to me in a letter his fear that fresh denigrations of deadresearchers would follow after those of Price and Crookes, and now F. W. H. Myershas been included.... Who will be next on the list? Mr. R. S. Lamberts final words in hisforeword should be heeded by all investigators: We need more tolerance, lesscynicism and greater respect for human nature. "Dr. Fodor himself was responsible for nine important books and a great many www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comvaluable articles. In 1962 his book Mind Over Space (New York) reviewed the strangephenomenon of teleportation. At the time of his death his final work, The VoiceWithin, a study of Freuds early years, was unpublished. On May 17, 1964, Dr. Fodorhimself crossed the frontier of that great unknown which he had studied andinvestigated for so many years of his life.The Encyclopaedia of Psychic Science lives on as his greatest achievement. In thisbook, as in his life, he tried to hold the scales between the extreme attitudes ofSpiritualists and psychical researchers. Those who lived through those exciting inter-war years in England will appreciate the immense difficulties of producing animpartial work of this kind.When the book first appeared, its value was instantly recognized, but Spiritualistscomplained at the suggestion that cases like the Crandon mediumship and thefamous thumbprints were "considerably clouded" by doubts, while psychicalresearchers objected to "undue leniency"I Obviously it is impossible to reconcile bothviewpoints.My own suggestion is that on this and similar points where psychical researchersinsist on suspicions which Spiritualists deny, the reader should consult all the
references which Dr. Fodor has conveniently provided, and in addition studysubsequent evidence and opinion in sources like the Journal and Proceedings of theSociety for Psychical Research, London.Spiritualists also regretted that some personalities in the movement had short entriesor were omitted. Of course, no work of this kind would claim perfection, and Dr.Fodor himself stated: "Future editions may take care of deficiencies. In the meantime,I trust, it will be judged by its merits, by what it contains and not by what it does not."There were no new editions during the authors lifetime and nobody has produced abetter book of this kind. It has served as an indispensable reference work for thirtyyears and is now a scarce item. In the present reissue hundreds of typographical andfactual slips have been carefully corrected. The publishers would be glad to know ofany other essential factual matters which may have escaped notice. I have added afew notes at the end of this Foreword on some of the Spiritualist personalities whodid not get detailed entry, and on other relevant matters. Apart from this, I think theEncyclopaedia will stand as a unique reference work and review of the whole field to1934, and it would be misleading to attempt to rewrite it in its existing form. Itexpresses the terminology and outlook of the period covered. It is to be hoped thatnew material and revaluations can be the subject of further books by authors asexperienced and dedicated as the late Dr. Nandor Fodor.It would need another Encyclopaedia even larger than the present one to cover thedetailed developments of the last thirty years. Meanwhile it is possible to give a verybrief outline of the general trends and some important new directions.The main issues between Spiritualists and Psychical Researchers remain those of thedifferent approaches of religion and science. Midway between the two camps aremany intelligent individuals and organizations not committed either to the simplefaith of religion or the rigorous disciplines of scientific method. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comThe Spiritualist movement is an active one with many thousands of sincere followers,who accept general principles of human survival after physical death, personalresponsibility for ones deeds, and evolution of the soul. These are admirableprinciples in an age that has become increasingly materialistic and cynical. In herobituary on Dr. Fodor (Light, Autumn 1964) Miss Phillimore recalls that on one of hislater visits to London during the last American period, he gave a lecture at theLondon Spiritualist Alliance in which he said, smilingly, that he was in favor ofSpiritualism, "not on account of the truth or otherwise of its claims, but because itpromoted such a happy outlook on life."Spiritualist phenomena relies largely upon spirit guides, clairvoyance, clairaudience,trance sermons, and generally subjective evidence of survival. It must be admittedthat this is often very strong. The acceptance of trance personalities and spirit guides(Red Indians, children, Eastern mystics, etc.) is a great stumbling-block for manyenquirers, but I see no reason why it should not be regarded simply as a conventionif it leads to the disclosure of paranormal phenomena.Perhaps the most important development of recent years is the great revival anddevelopment of Spiritual Healing. Here, too, there are various conventions. Manyhealers, like well-known Harry Edwards, work by laying on of hands. Others claim to
be controlled by spirit guides. Some believe that the spirit of a dead doctorinfluences them, and mime operations while in a trance condition. Some perform realoperations with miraculous incidentals. It seems that the actual conventions are lesssignificant than the healing forces liberated through them. Recently the Filipinohealer Tony Agpaoa was reported to perform amazing psychic operations whichinvolve real incisions without any instrument. By a movement of the hand an openingappears in the flesh of the patient. A malignant growth is removed with bare handsor with scissors, and a miraculous suture of the wound takes place instantly as thehealer rubs his hand across the incision. Skeptics are referred to the explicit andincontrovertible photographs in the British newspaper Psychic News (September 4,1965) where there is a detailed account of Tony Agpaoa, who is reported to haveperformed as many as 317 "psychic operations" in one day, some completed in onlyfive minutes. One can only consider such incredible events with humility.Spiritual Healing has, made a great impact on the whole field of Christian faith; manyChurches are now concerned with sympathetic consideration of psychicalphenomena.Against the warmer emotional climate of the miraculous, psychical researchers haveoften seemed dull skeptics. The golden age of physical mediumship has passed and ithas been difficult to find impressive phenomena. Over thirty years the concept of"proof" has hardened. The methods of science are not as sensational as those ofreligion, and it is easy to overlook the patient, skilled and sympathetic work of manymembers of the Society for Psychical Research. If some of this is of a high intellectualquality so much the better; static lower levels of both mind and emotions are to bedeplored.Over the years the Society has continued to maintain its high reputation withdistinguished Presidents such as Professor C. D. Broad, Professor H. H. Price, Dr.Robert H. Thouless, Professor Gardner Murphy, and Professor E. R. Dodds. The Societyhas carried out investigations over a wide field of old and new phenomena; the www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comreader is referred to the Journal- and Proceedings for reports of importantexperiments by skilled researchers like W. H. Salter, Whateley Carington, G. N. M.Tyrrell, S. G. Soal, etc., and for critical articles by Dr. E. J. Dingwall, Dr. D. J. West, R. G.Medhurst, Mrs. K. M. Goldney and many other experienced contributors.Unfortunately, modern extremist views are often identified with psychical research asa whole, especially where supplementary research materials have been used to throwdoubts on the classic cases of the past. A recent book The Spiritualists by Trevor Hallsuggested that Crookes used the famous investigations of medium Florence Cook asa cover for a love affair with her, and that the manifestations of the spirit form "KatieKing" were frauds to which Crookes was a party. It should be said unequivocally thatthe evidence for these charges is unsatisfactory and the reasoning highly speculative.[Some indication of the problems raised by new and old evidence is shown in theimportant article "William Crookes and the Physical Phenomena of Mediumship" (R.G. MEDHURST & K. M. GOLDNEY) in Proceedings of S.P.R. Vol 54, Pt. 195 (March1964).]A great deal of mystification was also caused by a whispering campaign that after thedeath of Dr. Gustave Geley in 1924 some very suspicious photographs of themediumship of "Eva C." (Marthe Beraud) were found among his papers. Apparently
these photographs suggested the possibility of fraud, but it is difficult to see therelevance of this to the two hundred published photographs and the careful reportsof Baron von Schrenck-Notzing and Dr. Gustave Geley in their books dealing withthese investigations. [The facts and speculations involved are covered in the detailedarticle "Dr. Geleys Reports on the Medium Eva C." (RUDOLF LAMBERT) in Journal ofS.P.R. vol. 37, No. 682 (November 1954).]A major issue between Spiritualists and psychical researchers is still the survivalquestion. Psychical researchers are reluctant to accept the validity of many allegedcommunications from the dead, preferring more general concepts of the elusivequalities of the human mind; Spiritualists continue the belief in the soul which isbasic to most religions. Papers on psychical research have become more specializedin the direction of psychology, and often only comprehensible to those with basiceducation in physics, mathematics, and other disciplines. But two important pointsneed to be stressed here. The Society for Psychical Research in London has oftenbeen attacked for skepticism. It must be emphasized that the opinions of individualresearchers and writers do not represent a corporate view of the Society, whichincludes amongst its membership people of varying outlooks (including those whoaccept survival) and encourages a wide range of expression of opinion in itspublications.Of course, the whole question of survival is intimately related to the riddle ofpersonality itself. Many apparently discarnate entities are clearly as fictitious as thecreations of a novelist. We regard our own personalities as stable reference points,but we too change radically during the course of our lives, and personality may bepowerfully enhanced or demolished in various circumstances, such as "star worship"by fans, bullying, "brain-washing," shock, dissociation or other abnormalpsychological conditions. Even our own personalities sometimes have an air offiction, and so far only- the ancient religions of the East have attempted anexplanation of the complexities involved. Obviously in all these matters, faith must betempered by sensible discrimination, and in questions of survival blind belief in spirit www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comguides or other entities can be misleading.Looking back over the last century of Spiritualism and psychic science, it is curious toreflect that the problem has been essentially one of communication at all levels. Ineach case, communications were reinforced by actions or other demonstrations ofauthenticity in the physical field. The Spiritualists thought this "something" wassimply from the realm of dead spirits; the psychical researchers thought that ifanything it was some unknown area of the human mind trying to reach other areas ofconsciousness.Clearly the religious levels of man were trying to communicate with the scientificlevels. After thousands of years of preoccupation with practical affairs man had, so tospeak, forgotten what he knew before he first turned his attention to scientificmethod-he had lost or forgotten his religious sense. Both Spiritualists and psychicalresearchers were part of the same communications problem. Although they hadcertain terms in common and studied similar phenomena they just could not agreeon a common concept. And while Spiritualists were trying to get their own messageacross to psychical researchers who just could not see it that way, the researchers toowere trying desperately to explain themselves to a world of modern science thatregarded their studies as nonsense!
In many ways, the problem was a linguistic one, and the newer attempts atcommunication involved agreement on words and concepts. After the 1930s majordevelopments in outlook and method all over the world could be summed up in asingle word: PARAPSYCHOLOGY.These developments stemmed from the work of Dr. J. B. Rhine, who was deeplyconcerned with problems of the nature of man and the light which psychical researchmight throw upon the question. In 1927 Dr. Rhine resigned a teaching post at WestVirginia University to go to Duke University, North Carolina, to study psychicalresearch under the guidance of the great psychologist Professor William McDougall.Dr. Rhine became a Professor of Psychology and in 1930 was named Director of theParapsychology Laboratory at Duke."Para" means beside or beyond, and Dr. Rhine preferred the new term to the older"psychical research" which had associations likely to prejudice modern scientists.Rhines radical departure was to remove research from the seance-room, with thespecial talents of mediums, into the laboratory, under systematic control conditions,testing the unknown or "extra-sensory" faculties (ESP for short) of ordinaryindividuals. Rhine and his associates devised tests with simple apparatus to validatetelepathy, clairvoyance, precognition and even psychokinesis (influencing themovements of objects by will-power). Rhines great contribution was to combinegood experimental method with statistical evaluation. In this way he built upscientifically acceptable evidence for extrasensory perception which had a strongbearing also on the whole question of the nature and faculties of man and hisresponsibilities in the world.The ESP experiments were basically simple card-guessing tests, using the special packdesigned by psychologist Dr. Zener. Zener Cards use five simple diagramsCircle,Rectangle, Cross, Wavy Lines, and Star, and there are twenty-five cards to the pack,i.e. five of each symbol. Psychokinetic experiments (PK) began with simple attempts www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comto influence the fall of dice.In his own books Extra-Sensory Perception (1934), New Frontiers of the Mind (1938)and The Reach of the Mind (1947) Dr. Rhine gives the background of these researchesand acknowledges earlier work in the field. Amongst other important researchers oneshould stress S. G. Soal, K. M. Goldney, Whateley Carington, and G. N. M. Tyrrell.Tyrrells excellent book Science and Psychical Phenomena, issued in one volume withhis other classic work Apparitions in 1961 (University Books Inc.) gives a fulldescription of the work of Rhine and other investigators.It would be a great mistake to suppose that Dr. Rhine was only concerned withlaboratory work - card-guessing, dice-throwing, etc. - far removed from thecircumstances of everyday life. These experiments were designed to validate ESPunder the stern scrutiny of modern science. Dr. Rhine also believed thatParapsychology would touch upon the great issues of religion, and specifically statedthat the survival question must be kept open for investigation by scientific method. Inthis way modern man could replace belief by knowledge.The word "Parapsychology" also became indissolubly linked with work of one otherindividual-Mrs. Eileen J. Garrett.
In 1933 Mrs. Garrett also contacted Professor William McDougall during a visit toDuke University, and at his suggestion cooperated with Dr. Rhine in theparapsychology experiments. Strangely enough her own exceptional extrasensorypowers did not show to best advantage in the routine card tests at Duke, althoughfrom time to time high scores had been obtained from individuals with mediumisticabilities. One of the fascinating results of this paradox was that Mrs. Garrett wasstimulated to investigate in further detail the mechanics of her own special sensitivity.In her book Adventures in the Supernormal (Helix Press) Mrs. Garrett tells the story ofher attempts to come to terms with her own strange mediumistic powers. Thisextraordinarily important book is one of the few firsthand subjective accounts wehave of the development of mediumship against a maturing intellectual awareness ofthe objective problems. For many years Mrs. Garrett generously put her unique giftsat the disposal of psychical researchers and parapsychologists in Great Britain,Europe and America, cooperating with an intelligence and understanding thatdisarmed the usual skepticism and suspicion of so many investigators.Mrs. Garrett is founder President of the Parapsychology Foundation, New York,established in 1951 as a non-profit organization "to support impartial inquiry into thetotal nature and working of the human mind, and to make available the results ofsuch inquiry." In 1953 the Foundation organized the First International Conference ofParapsychological Studies, held at the University of Utrecht, Holland. Since then it hasencouraged and supported a vast programme of worldwide studies and reportsdealing with all aspects of Parapsychology. It has many publications, ranging fromhigh standard semi-Popular journals to specialized Parapsychological Monographswith contributions from leading researchers and scientists. The six large volumes ofthe International journal of Parapsychology issued from 1959 onwards contain anamazing collection of valuable papers, with multi-lingual summaries. The areacovered by the Foundations interests includes laboratory experiments inextrasensory perception (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, PK) as well as reportson spontaneous phenomena like poltergeist, unorthodox healing, etc., covering the www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comwhole field of psychical research and theory with broader terms of reference. Infourteen years, the studies assisted or reported upon by the Foundation have bridgedthe gap between psychical research and the general world of science. These studiesrange from reappraisal of early psychical cases to modern anthropological,ethnological and scientific researches. Since the early days of psychical research,newer branches of the paranormal have been investigated. For example, Psychedelics.This is the field of hallucinogenic drugs and the experiences which they release; thesehave some bearing on the transcendental experiences of mystics and perhaps containclues to the nature of reality itself. Amongst earlier subjects that have now beenrevived for scholarly and scientific evaluation are Astral Projection, Reincarnation, andDermo-Optic Perception (first studied intensively by Jules Romains and reported inhis book Eyeless Sight, London, 1924).Although French names played an important role in Dr. Fodors Encyclopaedia, muchresearch in the thirty years following was considerably set back by the last war.Perhaps the most important developments in France relate to the work of the lateRene Warcollier, President of the Institut Metapsychique since 1951, especially hislater investigations into Telepathy. In Germany, psychical research was thoroughlydisrupted by the Nazi blight, but in recent years some very interesting work has beendone by the Institute for Border Areas, in Freiburg, under Professor Hans Bender.
Undoubtedly the most remarkable European development, however, is the rebirth ofinterest in psychic science in the Soviet Union, especially associated with the name ofVasiliev, and also in Communist Czechoslovakia with the work of Ryzl.Clearly the American work in Parapsychology connected with the names of Rhine andGarrett looms as the major achievement of the thirty years since this Encyclopaedia. Ishould add that I am only able to follow American events from abroad, but learn thatvery recently, particularly since Professor Gardner Murphy became President of theAmerican Society for Psychical Research, a great deal of new research and study hasbegun, much of this noted so far only in the interim reports. The important namesare: Gardner Murphy, Director of Research, Menninger Foundation, Topeka, Kansas,directing work in Creativity & ESP; Dr. Ian Stevenson, Head of the Department ofNeurology and Psychiatry at the University of Virginia Medical School, who has doneimportant original research in Reincarnation, and Dr. Karlis Osis, Director of Researchfor the A.S.P.R. Beyond these remarks, I recommend the interested student to applyto the A.S.P.R. and its library at 880 Fifth Avenue, New York.It must have been very satisfying for enthusiasts like Dr. Fodor to witness such a rapidand unparalleled development of fields which thirty years earlier needed intensivejournalism and pioneer experiment to justify as proper subjects for study. Dr. Fodorwrote for the International journal of Parapsychology and other Foundationpublications.The Foundation is now in constant touch with over fifty parapsychologicalassociations or publications in some seventeen different countries. Through theInternational journal of Parapsychology, a Newsletter and International Conferences,there is a regular flow of communication and information on all aspects ofparapsychology. In this way all reputable researchers are kept in touch with currentwork and the scientific world as a whole is informed on a responsible level. With theannouncement of a 1965 International Conference on Religion and Parapsychologythe wheel has turned full circle to the origins of modern interest in the paranormal. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comThere is a tendency in modern life to over-emphasize research and study, in contrastto earlier attempts to depreciate it. Vast research projects have been built up inUniversities and Foundations, and archives are overflowing with data that will needcomputer analysis to sift and classify. It started with anthropology and folklore and ithas now reached parapsychology, but in every other field of knowledge more andmore information is accumulating-faster than it can be studied or applied. Studentscan now spend a whole lifetime at college, and everyone is looking over everybodyelses shoulders. I cannot help recalling a song popularized by the great comedianZero Mostel in 1947, with a chorus about "Whos gonna investigate the man whoinvestigates the man who investigates me?"If there is a single coherent message from the whole of parapsychological studies it isthat they must be part of everyday life, of a new religious awareness as exact asscience.After a certain amount of research and study it is only reasonable to expect that wecan drop a superior position as privileged observers of life, and get in the game.Otherwise we shall spend a lifetime rehearsing for a life which we have no time tolive.
Parapsychology must now be related to the totality of meaning in the universe and inthe individual life experience. If we can learn to combine the fine judgement anddiscrimination of science with the deep inspired intuition of religion we shall nothave lived in vain.London, England LESLIE SHEPARDFebruary 1966Grateful thanks are due to Mr. Maurice Barbanell and the staff of "Psychic News,"London, for their generous help in providing research material during thecompilation of this Foreword.NOTESA great many corrections have now been made in the Encyclopaedia itself. Inaddition,I have listed below some of the personalities Spiritualists feel should have beenincludedwhen this book was first issued, and have added some supplementary notes of myown.COATES, JAMESPioneer writer on Spiritualism and Spirit Photography, Light and Two Worlds journals.Author of many books, including Photographing the Invisible; Is Modern SpiritualismBased on Fact or Fancy?EMANATIONS (see page 127). Re. Dr. Charles Russ, see article "AnInstrument which is set in Motion by Vision by Dr. C. Russ, The Lancet, July 30, 1921,pp. 222-4. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com"EYELESS SIGHT" A Study of Extra-Retinal Vision and the Paroptic Sense,(published 1924), an English translation of Vision Extra-Retinienne by Jules Romains(Louis Farigoule), important French author and dramatist. This was the first majorwork devoted to the phenomenon of what is now called "Dermo-Optic Perception"(DOP). The researches of M. Romains met great opposition and he let the matterdrop, but the subject was recently revived by Russian and American experimenterswith promising results. (See Encyclopaedia entries: CLAIRVOYANCE PP. 45-9 &TRANSPOSITION OF SENSES p. 395).FITZSIMONS, F. W. F.Z.S., F.R.M.S. Curator of Natal Societys Museum,Pietermermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa, expert on snakes, wrote books on thesubject. Prominent South African scientist and Spiritualist. Visited WILLIAM HOPE, andsat with Mrs. WRIEDT in London in 1920. Author of Opening the Psychic Door(London 1933).HOLMS, A. CAMPBELL Born Scotland Naval Architect and Psychical Investigator.Author of Practical Shipbuilding; The Facts of Psychic Science and Philosophy(important early collation published 1925, cited by Dr. Fodor).
HOPE, WILLIAM (see page 175). It is incorrect to state that the packet containing theplates "was lying about for four weeks in the offices of the S.P.R."MCINDOE, JOHN B. An important and active Spiritualist in Scotland and England. PastPresident of National Spiritualists Union; Trustee and Advisory Committee Member ofEdinburgh Psychic College & Library. A great authority on spirit photography.Reported on controversial mediumship of Mrs. HELEN DUNCAN (See p. 111),mentioned elsewhere pages 45 & 93MYERS, JOHN Versatile personality. Leading British medium, psychic photographer,healer and artist. For biography see: Maurice Barbanell He Walks in Two Worlds(London 1964).OATEN, ERNEST W. A leading Spiritualist of the period. President of the SpiritualistsNational Union for five years, and of the International Spiritualist Federation(Federation Spirite Internationale) for six years. Edited Two Worlds 1919-36. Studiedevery phase of psychical phenomena. Did valuable work as Chairman ofParliamentary Committee of S.N.U. in pressing for reform of the law relating tomediumship (see FORTUNE TELLING ACT, P. 143).PERRIMAN, MRS. F. E. Voice medium tested by Dr. Fodor, who was not favorablyimpressed at the time. Her seance at Victoria Hall, London, is described in Fodorsbook The Haunted Mind (pp. 247-251); see also report in Psychic News 4/5/1936.PSYCHIC MUSEUM Founded by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (entry p. 312 & FRIENDSHIPCENTRE P. 150) Unfortunately this Museum was dispersed at a later date and some ofthe collection appears to have been destroyed. Some archives of British College ofPsychic Science were also dispersed, but items from International Institute forPsychical Research (of which Dr. Fodor was Research Officer) were absorbed by theSociety for Psychical Research. Harry Price archives are still kept at London University.SEEKERS, THE (p. 341). Although entry stated "There is no charge", many patients www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.compaid for treatment, and there were severe criticisms in the Spiritualist press followingthe organizations failure to keep proper records or statistics. In some instances,healing prayers were said for patients who had already died.STEAD, ESTELLE (mentioned p. 35 & 187). The Stead Bureau closed 1936.STOBART, MRS. Chairman and Leader of Spiritualist Community, LondonST. CLAIR (concerned with religious and educational aspects of Spiritualism). LifePatron of British College of Psychic Science. Active lecturer and campaigner foralliance between Spiritualism and Christianity.TAYLOR, JOHN British medium who demonstrated levitation in good light.TWEEDALE, REV. CHARLES L, F.R.A.S. Famous Spiritualist writer. Vicar of Weston after1901, studied natural sciences, inventor, wrote books on astronomical matters,discovered a comet. Author of Mans Survival After Death (1909), translated intoItalian, Norwegian, Dutch, Greek, Swedish and other languages; News from the NextWorld (1940); The Vindication of William Hope (rebutting criticisms of Hope andSpirit Photography). Died 29/6/1944.
TYRRELL, TOM Important British clairvoyant from Lancashire; usually gave names andaddresses of spirits.Although many Journals listed in the Encyclopaedia are defunct, the followingare still published:LIGHT British journal, published quarterly by the College of Psychic Science Ltd., 16Queensberry Place, London, S.W. 7.PSYCHIC NEWS British newspaper, published weekly: 23 Great Queen Street, London,W.C. 2.TWO WORLDS British journal, published monthly: 23 Great Queen Street, London,W.C. 2.SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH The Society has now moved to a new address:49 Marloes Road, Kensington, London, W8 6LA. Tel. 0171-937-8984 www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com
OBITUARYThe list below covers a number of persons who have died since publication of theEncyclopaedia:BOND (Frederick Bligh) d. 8/3/1945BOZZANO (Ernesto) d. 1945BROWN (Dr. William) d. 17/5/1952CARINGTON (Whately) d. 2/3/1947CARRINGTON (Dr. Hereward) d. 26/12/1959CRANDON (Dr. Le Roi Goddard) d. 1939CRANDON (Mrs. Mina Stinson-" Margery") d. 1/11/1941DAWSON-SCOTT (Mrs. Catharine Amy) d. 4/11/1934DE BRATH (Stanley) d. 20/12/1937DE CRESPIGNY (Mrs. Rose Champion) d. 10/2/1933DE VESME (Count Caesar Baudi) d. 18/7/1938DRIESCH (Hans) d. 16/4/1941EVERITT (Mrs. Florence) d. 1940FEILDING (The Hon. Everard) d. 8/2/1936FINDLAY (J. Arthur) d. 24/7/1964HAMILTON (Dr. T. Glendinning) d. 7/4/1935LODGE (Sir Oliver Joseph) d. 22/8/1940MAETERLINCK (Maurice) d. 6/5/1949McDOUGALL (Professor William) d. 28/11/1938MURRAY (Professor Gilbert) d. 20/5/1957NEUMANN (Therese) d. 18/9/1961NIELSEN (Einar) d. 26/2/1965OSTY (Eugene) d. 20/8/1958PRINCE (Dr. Walter Franklin) d. 7/8/1934RICHET (Professor Charles) d. 3/12/1935 www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comSHIRLEY (The Hon. Ralph) d. 29/12/1947SILBERT (Frau Maria) d. September 1936SOULE (Mrs. Minnie-"Mrs. Chenoweth") d. 1937SWAFFER (Hannen) d. 16/1/1962THOMAS (Rev. Drayton) d. 14/7/1953TISCHNER (Dr. Rudolph) d. 24/4/1961TWEEDALE (Violet Chambers) d. 10/12/1936WARCOLLIER (Rene) d. 23/5/1962YEATS (W. B.) d. 28/1/1939The following important books on Psychical Research, currently available fromUniversity Books Inc., New York, U.S.A. are valuable for supplementary study:FEILDING (Everard): Sittings with Eusapia Palladino & Other StudiesFLOURNOY (Theodore): From India to the Planet MarsFODOR (Nandor): The Haunted MindJAMES (William) edited Gardner Murphy & Robert O. Ballou: William James onPsychical Research
MYERS (F. W. H.): Human Personality and its Survival of Bodily DeathOSBORN (Arthur W.): The Future Is NowPODMORE (Frank): Mediums of the 19th centuryPRINCE (Walter Franklin): Noted Witnesses for Psychic Occurrences The Case ofPatience WorthSIDGWICK (E. M.)/GURNEY, MYERS PODMORE: Phantasms of the LivingSMITH (Susy): The Mediumship of Mrs. LeonardTYRRELL (G. N. M.): Science and Psychical Phenomena, and Apparitions (in onevolume)SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS BY DR. NANDOR FODOREncyclopaedia of Psychic Science (1934)These Mysterious People (1934)The Lajos Pap Experiments (1936)The Search for the Beloved (1949)Freud: Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (with Frank Gaynor) (1950)Haunted People (with Hereward Carrington, 1951; British edition: Story of thePoltergeist Down the Ages, 1953)New Approaches to Dream Interpretation (1951)Freud and the Poltergeist (article in Psychoanalysis, Journal of PsychoanalyticPsychology, vol. 4, No. 2, Winter 1955-56)On the Trail of the Poltergeist (1958)The Haunted Mind (1959)Sandor Ferenczis Psychic Adventures (article in International journal ofParapsychology, vol. 3, No. 3, 1961Mind Over Space (1962) www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com
PREFACEAn encyclopaedia of Psychic Science! - I had not thought that such a preparation waspossible, nor would it have been possible without a combination of great energy withconsiderable knowledge such as is possessed by the Hungarian Dr. Nandor Fodor. Hehas gone through the records of a century in the most industrious manner, and hassucceeded in making a very readable book out of the material. Wherever aninvestigator has indicated doubts about a phenomenon those doubts are indicatedby the compiler; and though his scepticism does not come quite up to S.P.R. standardit may be said that he has not excluded hostile opinion, and on the whole hassurveyed the whole subject with fairness and ability. To anyone entering anew uponthe enquiry the present work will be of special assistance. There is much that willexplain the repulsion felt by orthodox scientific people, and some that will beregarded as incredible. I do not suppose that Dr. Nandor Fodors judgment as towhat he should include is infallible, but it may be claimed that he has exercised asound judgment in a difficult task.The opposition of scientific workers in the past when really good material wasavailable is regrettable, but the time is coming when they can no longer plead thatthings even violently incredible do not occur. Soon it will be impossible for them toshut their eyes to a whole department of knowledge, to ignore it, and leave it to afew pertinacious explorers. It is remarkable that these still persist in their assertionsand uphold what they conceive to be true, in spite of the ridicule and determinedopposition of the majority of those who claim to be the unprejudiced upholders ofnatural knowledge. I realise the cause of this hostile prejudice, and cannot helpsympathising to some extent. They have their authentic method of procedure and arefully occupied with orthodox science, and yet are asked to step outside their well-explored territory, whose problems they well know how to tackle and where theirvictories have been won, and enter an unfamiliar and apparently grotesque jungle, www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comwhich has hitherto been abandoned to the vagaries of superstition. They seethemselves introduced to people in an abnormal state, asked to take note of theirutterances, to pay critical attention to phenomena which may or may not besimulated, and to make sure of the facts; in the expectation that thereby they will beled to a deeper understanding of the mental aspect of the universe and into regionswhich cannot be explored by the present methods of science.Yet when we consider our own composite nature we ought not to be surprised orincredulous at asserted occurrences that testify to an existence beyond and apartfrom the obvious bodily organs with which we are provided. The facts only seemincredible if we limit our attention to the obvious features of mundane life. If wereally believe that we have a psychic existence more real and permanent thananything connected with this normal and transitory body, we shall not be incredulousabout evidence for supernormal facts, nor rebellious at the novel methods foundappropriate for dealing with them.This book contains a fair sample of the kind of material which will be encountered bya student who decides to enter on this quest. Some have already done so, and havesuffered loss of reputation accordingly; but few have regretted the attempt, for theirview of existence is thereby enlarged far beyond the material scheme, and the
successful explorers become aware of a reality in accordance with their instincts, sothat they gradually grow a conviction of the reality of a spiritual world, whichconfirms and strengthens their religious faith.4th October, 1933 OLIVER LODGE www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com
INTRODUCTIONPSYCHIC science embraces both psychical research and spiritualism. The factschampioned by the spiritualists differ but in their interpretation from those we meetwith in psychical research. Basically they are the same, though in spiritualisticexperience they steep deeper into the marvellous. To the facts of psychical research,by the exercise of great care, I added, from books and periodicals, many Strangeaccounts which seem to rest on good authority though, from the experimental,viewpoint, wanting in evidential value. For only by so doing could I hope toilluminate the full domain of this coming science.Of occultism, theosophy and mysticism I steered clear. The issues of psychicalresearch and spiritualism are purely empirical and merge into orthodox science. Theinquirer needs no initiation, no preparation, no mystic disposition, no specialfaculties. The claims withstand the same deliberate, dispassionate and exact inquirywhich built up our knowledge of the visible world. This will be amply borne out bythe records associated with many brilliant names. The captions given to thesescientists, I am confident, could have been considerably increased in number. Of thelesser lights I might have also given personal treatment to many more, but this is notan Encyclopaedia of a movement but of a new science and I drew the line wherepublic records would arouse the laymans interest.First attempts in the encyclopaedic line are usually fraught with enormous difficulties.I should have been assisted by an editorial committee to make this work perfect.Future editions may take care of deficiencies. In the meantime, I trust, it will bejudged by its merits, by what it contains and not by what it does not.I wish to acknowledge a great debt of obligation to Mr. Stanley de Brath for readingthe entire MS. and making notes and suggestions for its improvement. I am similarlyindebted to Count Cesar Baudi de Vesme, of Paris, for a last minute reading of the www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comFrench and Italian items. My thanks are due to the Council of the S.P.R., for their kindpermission to quote from the Proceedings and the Journal and for the loan of somephotographs, to the Institut Metapsychique Internationale, to the National Laboratoryof Psychical Research, to the British College of Psychic Science, to the LondonSpiritualist Alliance, to Dr. Hereward Carrington of New York, to Dr. L. R. G. Crandonof Boston, and Dr. Glen Hamilton of Winnipeg, for courteously providing theillustrations of the book, and finally to Mr. Y. Leutscher of Haren, Holland, for his dataon Nostradame.DR. NANDOR FODOR
CONTENTSA.S.P.R.Academia de Estudo Psychicos Cesar LombrosoAdare, LordAdditorAdeptAge of Progress, TheAksakof, Alexander N.Alleyne, JohnAmerican Institute for Scientific ResearchAmerican Psychical SocietyAmerican Psychical Institute and LaboratoryAmerican Society for Psychical ResearchAmherst Mystery, The GreatAndrade, Mme.Andrews, Mrs. MaryAngels of MonsAnimal Magnetism, See MesmerismAnimalsAnimismAnnales des Sciences PsychiquesAnnali dello SpiritismoAnthropoflux, See EmanationsApostolic CircleApparitionsApportsAriola, PepitoAsports www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comAssociation of Progressive Spiritualists of Great BritainAstral BodyAstral WorldAstronomical CommunicationsAubert, GeorgeAuraAutomatismAutomatic WritingAutomatic Drawing and PaintingAutomatic SpeakingAutoscopeAutoscopyBailey, CharlesBalfour, The Earl ofBangs SistersBaraduc, HyppoliteBanner of LightBarker, ElsaBarkel, Mrs. KathleenBarrett, Sir William Fletcher
Bastian, HarryBeale, Dr.Bealings BellsBeattie, JohnBenedict, Mrs.Beraud, MartheBerry, CatherineBesinnet, Ada M.Besterman, TheodoreBeyondBianchi, Dr. P. BenignoBillot, Dr. G.BilocationBiological PhenomenaBiological Review, TheBiometer of BaraducBird, J. MalcolmBlake, Mrs. ElizabethBlatter aus PrevorstBlavatsky, Mme. Helene PetrovaBoiracl EmilBond, Frederick BlighBook TestsBorderlandBorderland Library, The W. T. SteadBoston Society for Psychic ResearchBottazzi, PhilippeBournsnell, RichardBozzano, ErnestoBradley, H. DennisBrath, Stanley de www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comBray, CharlesBreathingBrewster, Sir DavidBritish College of Psychic ScienceBritish Journal of Psychical ResearchBritish National Association of SpiritualistsBritish Spiritualists Lyceum UnionBritish Spiritual TelegraphBrittain, Mrs. AnnieBritten, Mrs. Emma HardingeBritten Memorial Institute and LibraryBrofferio, Prof. AngeloBrown, Dr. WilliamBrowning, RobertBuchanan, Prof. J. RhodesBuguet, E.Bull, Dr. TitusCabinetCahagnet, AlphonseCamp Meetings
CantileverCarancini, FrancescoCarrington, Dr. HerewardCartheuser, WilliamCastelwitch, CountessCatalepsyCensus of HallucinationCenturione Scotto, Marquis CarloChambers, Dr. RobertCharing Cross Spiritual CircleChase, WarrenChemical PhenomenaChiaia, Dr. ErcoleChilds, EdwardChristian SpiritualistsChristian Spiritualist, TheClairaudienceClairvoyanceCocklane GhostCoincidenceColburn, NettieColman, ArthurColley, ThomasConklin, J. B.CommunicationCommunigraphCommunity of SensationsCompacts of Death, See ApparitionsCompton, Elizabeth J.Conant, Mrs. J. H.Consciousness www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comControlCook, Miss FlorenceCook, Miss KatieCooper, Mrs. BlancheCooper, MargaretCoover, John EdgarCopyrightCorrales, Ophelia. .Cosmic ConsciousnessCosmic Picture GalleryCottin, AngeliqueCox, E. W.Craddock, Frederick FosterCrandon, Mrs, MargeryCrawford, Dr. W. J.Crespigny, Mrs. Philip Champion deCrewe CircleCristo dAngeloCrookes, Sir WilliamCrosland, Mrs. Newton
Cross-CorrespondenceCross-ReferenceCryptesthesiaCryptomnesiaCrystal GazingCure dArsCummins, Miss GeraldineCurran, Mrs. John H.Davenport BrothersDavey, S. T., See EglintonDavies, Mrs. Russel, See Bessie WilliamsDavis, Andrew JacksonDawson-Scott, Mrs. Catharine AmyDeane, Mrs. Ada EmmaDeathDEsperance, Mme. ElisabethDeceiving Spirits, See CommunicationsDee, Dr. JohnDelanne, GabrielDeleuze, Jean Philippe FrancoisDelphiDelphic CircleDematerialisationDemon of Socrates, See Guiding SpiritsDenis, LeonDenton, WilliamDermographyDesmond, ShawDiagnosis, Psychic, See Healing and Clairvoyance,DiakkaDialectical Society www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comDickensDidier BrothersDingwall, Dr. Eric JohnDirect Drawing and PaintingDirect VoiceDirect WritingDivinationDivining RodDoctorDoten, Miss LizzieDoubleDowden, Mrs. HesterDowsing, See Divining RodDoyle, Sir Arthur ConanDream BodyDreaming TrueDreamsDriesch, Prof. HansDrummer of TedworthDuguid, David
Duncan, Mrs. Helen VictoriaDunraven, The Earl of, See AdareDu Potet, Baron Jules DenisDu Prel, Baron CarlDynamistographEarthquakesEcstasyEctenic ForceEctoplasmEddy BrothersEdinburgh Psychic College and LibraryEdmonds, John WorthEglinton, WilliamElberfeld HorsesEldred, CharlesElectric PhenomenaElliotson, Dr. JohnElongationEmanationsEmmaEnglebrecht, JohnEpworth PhenomenaErmacora, Dr. Giovanni BattistaErto, PasqualeEtheric Double, See DoubleEva C.Evans, Fred P.Evans, W. H.Everitt, Mrs. ThomasEvidenceEvil Spirits www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comExteriorisation of MotricityExteriorisation of SensitivityExtraFairchild, Mrs.FairiesFairlamb, Miss Annie, See Mrs. MellonFaith Healing, See HealingFakirsFalcomer, Prof. Marco TullioFancher, MollieFaraday, MichaelFaunus Message, See LodgeFay, Mrs. Annie EvaFay, Mrs. H. B.FedaFerguson, The Rev. Jesse BabcockFiguier, LouisFindlay, J. ArthurFire ImmunityFirman, Mr. and Mrs. A. H.
Fish, Mrs. LeahFlammarion, CamilleFletcher, John WilliamFlournoy, Prof. TheodorFluid MotorForthuny, PascalFortune Telling ActFontenay, Guillaume deFoster, Charles H.Fourth DimensionFowler, Edward P.Fowler, LottieFox, GeorgeFox SistersFraser-Harris, Prof. DavidFraudFrench, Mrs. E. J.French, Mrs. Emily S.Friendship Centre, TheFronczek, JanuszFukurai, Dr. T.Funk, Dr. Isaac KauffmannFuture, Foretelling of, See Prediction, Premonition, Prevision, ,Garrett, Mrs. EileenGasparin, Count Agenor deIGazzera, LindaGeley, Dr. GustaveGeniusGhostGibier, Dr. PaulGladstone, W. E. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comGlanville, Rev. JosephGlastonbury ScriptsGlottologuesGlossolaliaGoethes Psychic ExperiencesGoligher CircleGordon Davis Case, See Blanche CooperGordon, HenryGreater World, TheGow, DavidGreatrakes, ValentineGreeley, HoraceGroup-SoulGuideGuiding SpiritsGrunewald, FritzGruber, Prof. KarlGuldenstubbe, Baron L. deGuppy, Mrs. Samuel .Guppy, Mrs. Samuel .
Gurney, EdmundGuzyk, JanHafed, See DuguidHaines, Frederick HHallucinationHamilton, Dr. GlenHarbinger of Light, TheHardinge, Miss Emma, See BrittenHardy, Mrs. MaryHare, Prof. RobertHarmonial SocietyHarris, Mrs. SusannahHarris, The Rev. Thomas LakeHartmann, Dr. Edward vonHauffe, Frau FredericaHauntingHaxbyHayden, Mrs. W. R.Healing, PsychicHellenbach, Baron Lazarus de PaczolayHenslow, Prof. GeorgeHerne, FrankHindu Spiritual Magazine, TheHodgson, Dr. RichardHolland, Mrs.Hollis, Mrs. Mary J.Holmes, Mr. and Mrs. NelsonHolt, HenryHome, Daniel DunglasHope, WilliamHopedale Community www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comHooper, T. DAuteHoudini, See MagiciansHoughton, Mrs. GeorginaHowitt, WilliamHudson, Frederick A.Hudson, Thomson JayHugo, VictorHuman NatureHusk, CecilHydesvilleHyperaesthesiaHypnotismHyslop, Prof. James HerveyIdentityIdeomorphs, See PlasticsIdeoplasmIgnath, Mrs. Lujza LinczeghIgnis FatuusIllusionImmunity to Fire, See Fire Immunity
ImmortalityImmortality and SurvivalImperatorImpersonation, See PersonationImprints, Psychic, See PlasticsIncombustibility, See Fire ImmunityIndependent Associated Spiritualists, Inc.Independent Spiritualist AssociationIndependent Spiritualist Churches of AmericaIndependent writing, drawing, painting and Voice, See Direct-Indridason, IndrideInfluenceIngeborg, Mrs.Inner VoiceInspirationInspirational SpeakersInstitut General PsychologiqueInstitut Metapsychique InternationalInternational Congress of Psychical ResearchInternational Psychic GazetteInternational Spiritualist Federation, TheInternational Spiritualist CongressInterpenetration of Matter, See MatterInternational Institut of Metapsychical Research, See InstitutIntuitionIrving, Rev. EdwardJacob, Auguste HenryJames, T. P.James, Prof. WilliamJeanne DArcJobson, Mary www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comJohnson, Mrs. RobertsJoire, Dr. PaulJonson, J. B.Journal du Magnetisme et du Psychisme ExperimentalJournal of ManJournal of the A.S.P.R.Journal of the S.P.R.Judd, PearlJulias BureauJung, Johann HeinrichKaKahn, LudwigKaiser, A. W.Kant, ImmanuelKane, Dr. Elisha KentKardec, AllanKeeler, Pierre L. A.Keeler, W. M.Kelly, Edward, See Dr. DeeKerner, Dr. Justinus
Kilner, Dr. Walter J., See AuraKing, johnKing, KatieKing, RobertKluski, FranekKnot Tying Experiments, See MatterKoons, JonathanLang, AndrewLeaf I HoraceLees, Robert JamesLeonard, Mrs. Gladys OsborneLevitationLifting Game, See BreathingLightLight, Psychic, See Luminous PhenomenaLight, weeklyLily DaleLincoln, AbrahamLindsay, The Master ofLink, TheLinton, CharlesLivingston, Mrs. MarjorieLodge, Sir OliverLombroso, CesarLondon DialecticalSociety, See DialecticalLondon Spiritual AllianceLord, Miss jennyLord, Mrs. MaudLourdesLuce e Ombra.Lucidity www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comLuminous PhenomenaLycanthropyLyceum Banner, TheLying Spirits, See CommunicationsLynn, T.Lytton, BulwerMacterlinck, MauriceMagiciansMaginot, AdeleMagnetic PhenomenaMagnetometerMagusMaison des SpiritesMansfield, J. V.Mapes, Prof. James J.Margery, See CrandonMarryat, FlorenceMarshall, Mrs. MaryMarylebone Spiritualist Association, Ltd.Maskelyne, J. N., See Magicians
Massey, GeraldMaterialisationMatter Passing Through MatterMaxwell, Dr. JosephMaynard, Mrs.McDougall, Prof. WilliamMcKenzie, James HewatMediumMedium and Daybreak, TheMellon, Mrs. J. B.Melzer, HeinrichMental Body Travelling, See ClairvoyanceMental Healing, See Mind CureMental Phenomena of Spiritualism, See SpiritualismMentorMesmerismMessages from Spirits, See CommunicationsMetagnomyMetapsychic Institute, See InstitutMetapsychicsMetagraphologyMethetherialMeyer, JeanMiller, C. V.Millesimo CastleMind CureMind Reading, See TelepathyMirabelli, CarloMiraclesMompesson, John, See Drummer of TedworthMonck, Rev. Francis Ward www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comMonitionMonitions of ApproachMorgan, Prof. Augustus deMorse, J. J.Morselli, EnricoMorris, Mrs. L. A. MeurigMorris Pratt InstituteMoses, William StaintonMotor Automatism, See AutomatismMotricity exteriorised, See ExteriorisationMoulds, Psychic, See PlasticsMountain Cove Settlement, See Apostolic CircleMovementMoyes, WinifredMuller, Fraulein AugusteMullins, J., See Divining RodMultiple Personality, See PersonalityMumler, William H.Mummifying Mediums, See EmanationsMunnings, F. T.
Murphy-Lydy, Mrs.Murphy, Dr. GardnerMurray, Prof. GilbertMuscle ReadingMusicMyers, Frederick William HenryMyers, JohnMysticism National Coloured Spiritualist Association of the U.S.National Laboratory of Psychical ResearchNational Psychological Institute, Inc.National Spiritualist Association of the U.S.National Spiritualist, TheNature Language, See XenoglossisNeumann, ThereseNeurypnologyNew Motor, See J. M. SpearNew Thought Movement, See Mind CureNewbold, Prof. William RomaineNewbrough, Dr. John BallouNewspaper TestsNewton, Dr. J. R.New York CircleNichols, Miss Agnes, See Mrs. Guppy II.NictalopesNielsen, EinarNielsson, Prof. HaraldNostradame, Michael deObjective PhenomenaObsessionOccult Review, TheOccultism www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comOchorowicz, Dr. JulienOd, Odic F Force, OdyleOesterreich, Dr. KonstantineOlcott, Col. Henry SteelOliphant, Laurence, See T. L. HarrisOssowiecki, StephanOsty, Dr. EugenOuija BoardOwen, the Rev. George ValeOwen, RobertOwen, Robert DalePaladino, EusapiaPansini BrothersPantomnesiaPap, LajosParaffin Casts, See PlasticsParapsychic PhenomenaParkes, F. M.Paton, Mrs.Patterson, Mrs. S.E.
Pelham, GeorgePentecostPepper, Mrs. MayPerfumesPerispiritPeriodicalson Spiritualism, See SpiritualismPersonalityPersonationPerty, Dr. MaximilianPeters, Alfred VoutPhelps, The Rev. Dr. EliakimPhenomenaofSpiritualism,See SpiritualismPhilosophusPhinuitPhoenix, WilliamPhysical Phenomena, See SpiritualismPhone-VoyancePierart, A. T.Pioneer of Progress, ThePiper, Mrs. Leonore E.Plaat, Frau LottePlanchettePlanetary TravelsPlasticsPneumatographers hersPodmore, FrankPolyglot Mediumship, See XenoglossisPoliti, AugustusPoltergeistsPossessionPowell, Evan www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comPowell, W. H.PranaPrayerPreceptorPrecognitionPre-ExistencePredictionPremonitionPresentimentPrevisionPrice, HarryPrince, Dr. Walter FranklinProceedingsProceedings of the old A.S.P.R.Proceedings of the A.S.P.R.Proceedings of the National Laboratory of Psychical ResearchProceedings of the Psychological Society of Great BritainProceedings of the S.P.R.Progressive Thinker, TheProphecies
Prophet, ThePrudensPruden, Mrs. LauraPsychePsychicPsychic Evidence Society, ThePsychic ForcePsychic Imprints, See PlasticsPsychic Lights, See Luminous PhenomenaPsychic Moulds, See PlasticsPsychic MuseumPsychic Music, See MusicPsychic NewsPsychic PhotographsPsychic Research, monthlyPsychic Research QuarterlyPsychic SciencePsychic Science, quarterlyPsychic Sounds, See SoundsPsychic TelephonePsychic Touches, See TouchesPsychical ResearchPsychische StudienPsycho -Therapeutic Society, ThePsychodePsychographPsychographyPsychological Society of Great Britain, See Psychical ResearchPsychologyPsychometryPsychophone www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comPsychoplasmlPsychorrhagic DiathesisQuimby, Phineas Parkhurst, See Mind CureRadiations of the Human Body, See EmanationsRadio-Activity of the Human Body, See Electric PhenomenaRadiesthesieRandall, Edward CalebRandolph, P. B.RapportRapsRasmussen, Mrs. AnnaRayleigh, LordRaymond, See LodgeRebusRectorReese, BertReevesReflectographRegurgitationReichenbach Phenomena, See Od and Emanations,
ReincarnationReligio-Philosophical Journal, TheRescue CirclesResurrectionRetrocognitionReuter, Florizel vonRevivalsRevue des Etudes PsychiquesRevue Metapsychique, LaRevue Scientifique et Moral du Spiritisme, LaRevue Spirite, LaRevue Spiritualiste, LaRhabdic ForceRhabdomancy, RhabdomancistsRicercia Psichica, LaRichet, Prof. CharlesRichmond, Mrs. Cora L. V.Richmond, ThomasRidley, Miss HazelRita, A.Rivail, Hyppolite Leon Denizard, See KardecRivista di Studi PsichiciRoberts, Mrs. EttaRoberts, Mrs. EstelleRochas, Lt.-Col. Eugene Auguste Albert DAiglunRochester RappingsRosma, Charles B.Rothe, Frau AnnaRuggles, A. D.Ruskin, JohnS.P. R. , See Society for Psychical Research www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comSamborSandwich, The Earl ofSanders, The Rev. C. B.Sanders, Mrs. Celestine G.Santoliquido, Dr. RoccoSardou, VictorienSargent, EpesSawyer, Mrs. Carrie M.Schermann, RaphaelSchiller, Prof. Ferdinand Canning ScottSchneider BrothersSchrenck-Notzing, Baron A.Scientific American, TheScryingSeanceSecond SightSecondary Personality, See PersonalitySeer, SeeressSeekers, TheSeer, The
Seeress of Prevorst, See HauffeSenses, transposition of, See TranspositionSensitiveSensitivity, Exteriorisation ofSerjeant Cox, See CoxSexton, Dr. GeorgeSeybert CommissionShaking of the Room, See MovementShekinahShepard, Jesse Francis GriersonShowers, Miss MarySidgwick, Prof. HenrySignsSilbert, Frau MariaSinclair, UptonSixth SenseSkin Writing, See DermographySkotographSlade, Dr. HenrySlater, JohnSlater, ThomasSleepSloan, John C.Smead, Mrs.SmellsSmith, Mlle. HeleneSociety for Psychical ResearchSociety for the Diffusion of Spiritual KnowledgeSociety for the Study of Supernormal Pictures, TheSomnambulismSordi, Signora Lucia www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comSoulSoule, Mrs. Minnie MeserveSoundsSound Waves, See VibrationsSpear, John MurraySpectral FlamesSpeculumSpeculariiSpheresSpiritSpirit Body, See DoubleSpirit ChildrenSpirit Communication, See CommunicationSpirit Diagnosis, Spirit Doctors, See HealingSpirit Drapery, See MaterialisationSpirit Hands of Flame, See TouchesSpirit HypothesisSpirit InterventionSpirit Language, See XenoglossisSpirit Lights, See Luminous Phenomena
Spirit MessengerSpirit Obsession, See ObsessionSpirits of the Living, See Automatic Writing, Control, Materialisation, Personation,Possession, TelepathySpirit Spheres, See SpheresSpirit TeachingsSpirit World, TheSpirit Writing, See Direct WritingSpiritismSpiritoidSpiritual Age, TheSpiritual AthenaeumSpiritual Clarion, TheSpiritual Herald, TheSpiritual InstitutionSpiritual Magazine, TheSpiritual Messenger, TheSpiritual NotesSpiritual Philosopher, TheSpiritual Quarterly Magazine, TheSpiritual ReviewSpiritual Scientist, TheSpiritual TelegraphSpiritual Times, TheSpiritualismSpiritualistSpiritualist, TheSpiritualist Camp Meetings, See Camp MeetingsSpiritualists Central Council, TheSpiritualist Community, TheSpiritualistic Dramatic Society www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comSpiritualist Mediums AllianceSpiritualist National UnionSpiritualistische BlaetterSpriggs, GeorgeSquire, J. R. M.Stanislawa, P.Stead, William T.Stella C.SthenometerStewart, Prof. BalfourStigmataStiles, Joseph D.Stone Throwing, See PoltergeistsStratford Phenomena, See PhelpsSubconsciousSubjective PhenomenaSubliminalSudre, ReneSuggestionSummerland
Sunderland, The Rev. LeroySupernaturalSupernormalSurvivalSurvival League, TheSurvival MagazineSwaffer, HannenSwain, Mrs. Marcia M.Swedenborg, EmanuelSymbolismTable TurningTallmadge, Nathaniel P.Tappan, Mrs. Cora L. V., See Mrs. RichmondTedworth Phenomena, See Drummer of TedworthTelekinesisTelepathyTeleplasmTelergyTelesthesiaTelesomaticTelluricTemperature Changes, See WindsThackeray, W. M.Thayer, Mrs. M. B.Theobald, MorellTheologusTheophilusTheosophyThomas, The Rev. Drayton, See Book Tests and Newspaper Tests,Thompson, Mrs. R.Thoughtforms www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comThought-ReadingThought- TransferenceThury, Prof. MareTillyard, Dr. R. J.Tischner, Dr. RudolphTimeTippie, John, See KoonsTissot, James Joseph JacquesTomezyk, Mlle. StanislawaTongues, the gift of, See XenoglossisTouchesTranceTrance Personalities, See ControlTransfigurationTransportationTransposition of the SensesTravelling Clairvoyance, See ClairvoyanceTravers-Smith, See DowdenTrollope, Adolphus T.Trumpet
Turvey, Vincent NewtonTuttle, HudsonTwain, MarkTweedale, Mrs. VioletTwo Worlds, TheTyptologyUhland, LudwigUnderhill, Mrs. DavidUnion Spirite FrancaiseUnivercoelumUbersinnliche WeltVagrancy Act, See Fortune TellingValiantine, GeorgeVampireVandermeulen Spirit IndicatorVanishing Objects, See MovementVarley, Cromwell FleetwoodVatesVay, Baroness AdelmaVerrall, Mrs. A. W.Vesme, Count Cesar Baudi DeVibrationsVisionVisitants, See ApparitionsVital Force, See Emanations and Psychic Force,VoicesVollhardt, Maria, Frau RudloffVolometer, See WillWalker, William, See Psychic PhotographsWallace, Dr. Alfred RusselWallis, E. W. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comWalterWarner, AbbyWatseka Wonder, TheWesley, The Rev. Samuel, See Epworth PhenomenaWhymant, Dr. Neville, See ValiantineWidows Mite, See Spirit InterventionWillWilliams, BessieWilliams, CharlesWilliams, Mrs. M. A.Willington MillWillis, Dr. F. L. H.WindsWingfield, Miss KateWitchcraftWood, Miss C. E.Worth, PatienceWraith, See Double.Wriedt, Mrs. EttaWyllie, Edward
XenoglossisYeats, W. B.YogaYorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, See British Spiritual TelegraphZancig, Julius and Mrs.Zeitscrift fur Metapsychische ForschungZeitscrift fur ParapsychologieZoistZöllner, Prof. Johann C. F.Zuccarini, AmedeeZugun, Eleonore www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com
Encyclopaedia of Psychic ScienceA.S.P.R., American Society for Psychical Research. See.ACADEMIA DE ESTUDO PSYCHICOS "CESAR LOMBROSO," Cesar LombrosoAcademy for Psychical Research, founded in Sao Paolo by Jose de freitas Tinoco inSeptember, 1919. He was elected honorary president and Dr. de Castro chairman. Thefounder presented the institution with much useful apparatus. The first investigationundertaken by the Academy was the mediumship of Mirabelli. In 392 sittingsremarkable results were obtained. See Mirabelli.ADARE, LORD (1841-1926), author of a remarkable record: "Experiences inSpiritualism with D. D. Home," printed privately in 1869 at the request of his father,the Earl of Dunraven. To make this exceedingly rare book accessible to a large publicand in memory of his father to whose title he succeeded, the author agreed in 1925to a second edition by the S.P.R. in extenso, less the attestation of fifty prominentwitnesses of the phenomena. The probable reason for the privacy of the firstpublication was that the Earl of Dunraven, being a Roman Catholic, disliked incurringthe censure of the Church.The friendship of Lord Adare and D. D. Home dates from 1867. It began at Malvern inDr. Gullys hydropathic establishment where Home was a guest and Lord Adare apatient. For the next two years he spent a great deal of time in Homes company. Hisfriendship for Home-as stated in his preface to the 1925 publication-neverdiminished or changed thereafter. But having thoroughly satisfied himself that thefacts were not due to trickery or fraud he abandoned psychical research, as thephenomena, which were physically very exhausting to him, showed little progress andthe study of occult forces was not congenial to him, having other plans andambitions for his life; moreover, he grew afraid lest absorption in the subjectweakened his selfdependence and the necessity of submitting everything to reason.The phenomena recorded in the book are of a very wide range and embrace almost www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comevery spiritualistic manifestation. The absence of apport phenomena and generallythe penetration of matter through solid matter is conspicuous. Its possibility wasstoutly denied by D. D. Home. To scientific requirements the records fail in manyways. The control is left to the senses, no instruments were introduced and in thenarrative many points are left not cleared up or incomplete. No attempt was made tofind the laws in operation. Miracle worship is a not very exaggerated adjective of theattitude of Lord Adare and of his fellow-sitters.On the other hand, deficient as they are, the records give the impression ofconscientiousness. In the form of letters addressed to the Earl of Dunraven they weredrawn up shortly after the seances. An important point is that Lord Adare, for almosttwo years, lived most of the time with Home. This alone eliminates the possibility ofdeception on a large scale. The preface definitely states: "We have not, on a singleoccasion, during the whole series of seances, seen any indication of contrivance onthe part of the medium for producing or facilitating the manifestations which havetaken place." The nature of the phenomena, too, in most cases, was such as toexclude every supposition of fraudulent production. One cannot shake a whole room,vibrate a table, generate moaning winds, phantom hands, transparent apparitions,music without instruments or levitation of ones own body without paraphernalia of
sleight-of-hand and a stage to produce the optical illusions. If no other records wereavailable concerning the phenomena of D. D. Home, Lord Adares book alone wouldestablish a prima facie case for the genuine and unusual Powers of this famousMedium.ADDITOR, ouija board modified by a little round, hollow box with a pointerprotruding from it. The hollow box serves as a miniature cabinet and moves underthe fingers over a polished board printed with the alphabet.ADEPT, the highest initiate of Eastern esoteric science, member of the Great WhiteBrotherhood (Rishis, Rahats, Mahatmas), a guiding influence over mankind, a man,who-in contrast to the Christian saintconsciously developed his psychic powers to thedegree of controlling great forces of this and the spiritual world for the purpose ofattaining union with God. (Yoga).AGE OF PROGRESS, The, early American Spiritualist weekly of Buffalo, edited byStephen Albro.AKSAKOF, ALEXANDER N. (1832-1903), Imperial Councillor to the Czar, the pioneerspiritualist of Russia, a Swedenborg enthusiast whose introduction to modernspiritualism was effected by Andrew Jackson, Daviss Natures Divine Revelations in1855. In order to form a correct judgment of both physiological and psychologicalphenomena he studied medicine at the University of Moscow for two years. Hetranslated Swedenborgs Heaven and Hell, Count Szaparys Magnetic Healing and theprincipal works of Prof. Hare, Crookes, Edmonds, Owen and the Report of theDialectical Society. As, however, works on spiritualism in Russian we re suppressed bythe censor but German publications were tolerated, his literary activity, of a necessity,centred in Germany. He founded the Psychische Studien which, under the changedtitle Zeitschrift fur Parapsychologie, is still running, and was instrumental inprovoking the first strictly scientific Russian investigation of spiritualism. D. D. Homevisited Russia for the first time in 1861. He became connected, through marriage, www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comwith Aksakofs family and was in 1871 introduced by him to Prof. Boutlerof, and toother professors of the University of St. Petersburg. However, the body of savants wasleft unconvinced. In 1874 the French medium, Camille Bredif paid a visit. ProfessorWagner attended a seance and was deeply impressed. His article in the Revue delEurope aroused such a storm that the University felt impelled to delegate aninvestigating committee and asked Aksakof to make the necessary arrangements forthem. Aksakof went to England in 1875 and engaged, after a previous failure with thePetty Brothers of Newcastle, a non-professional medium, using the name of Mrs.Clayer, to whom he was introduced by Crookes, for presentation to the committee.The lady, who is mentioned in Crookes Researches on pages 38-39, produced strongphysical phenomena in light. The committee, however, refused to be impressed andProf. Mendeleyeff, its principal member, in his report Materials by Which to JudgeSpiritualism, declared that the medium had an instrument under her skirts andproduced t able movements and raps by this agency. To this report Aksakof returned,under the titleA Monument of Scientific Prdudice, a caustic reply. In 1876 he asked permission topublish in St. Petersburg a monthly, Review of Mediumship. It was refused.Thereupon, in 1881, an organ with an unmeaning title, Rebus, was founded andlargely subsidised, after funds went low, by Aksakof to popularise the teachings of
Spiritualism. He experimented with Slade and Williams when they visited St.Petersburg and he made arrangements for Mrs. Kate Fox-Jencken when the Czardesired to consult her for the safe conduct of the coronation ceremonies. Eglinton,Mme. dEsperance and Eusapia Paladino were the next mediums who engaged hisattention. His wife herself was mediumistic and became thereby a help in his work. Ina Case of Partial Dematerialisation (1896) he recorded testimonies of an astoundingoccurrence with Mme. dEsperance. His most important book, Animismus undSpiritismus, Leipzig, 1890 was published in answer to Dr. Edward von HartmannsSpiritualism. Myers, in his review in Proceedings, Vol. VI. p.665, states: "I may say atonce that on the data as assumed I think that Mr. Aksakof has the better of hisopponent." In the book Aksakof says that for the comprehension of mediumisticphenomena we have not one hypothesis only, but three hypotheses: 1. Personism (orchange of personality) may stand for those unconscious psychical phenomena whichare produced within the limits of the mediums own body, those intra-mediumisticphenomena whose distinguishing characteristic is the assumption of a personalitychanging to that of the medium. 2. Under the name animism we include unconsciouspsychical phenomena which show themselves outside the limits of the mediumsbody. Extra-mediumistic operation of objects without contact and finally materialisation.We have here the highest manifestation of the psychic duplication; the elements ofpersonality overstep the limits of the body ... up to the point of completeexternalisation and objectification. 3. Under the name spiritism we includephenomena resembling both personalisation and animism but which we muchascribe to some extra-mediumistic and extra-terrene cause. They differ from thephenomena of personalisation and animism in their intellectual content which affordsevidence of an independent personality.Spiritualism and Science was another of Aksakofs important works. His literaryoutput was considerable. One of his last translations was Col. Rochas Exteriorisationof Motricity. Under dreadful physical handicaps he kept on working to the last. His www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comright hand became useless, his eye almost sightless. A final attack of influenza onJanuary 17th, 1903, carried him away.ALLEYNE, JOHN -(Capt. John Allen Bartlett, 1861-1933), retired English marineofficer, song writer, the medium of part of the Glastonbury Scripts (See), in whichprecise indications were given as to the site of the long lost Edgar and LorettoChapels of the Abbey. The truth of the statements was proved by the excavations ofFrederick Bligh Bond. Capt. Bartlett also drew a series of automatic sketches of thelost chapels which contained interesting and archaeologically correct information.AMERICAN PSYCHICAL SOCIETY, founded in Boston in 1882, issued seven quarterlyjournals and ceased after two years of existence.AMERICAN PSYCHICAL INSTITUTE AND LABORATORY, organised in New York in1920 by Dr. Hereward Carrington for specialised research.It existed for two years. In 1933 it was reorganised and incorporated under 20 W.58th Street, New York. Carrington became its director, his wife, Marie SweetCarrington, Secretary. A long list of scientific men of international repute make up theadvisory council. The Institute publishes Bulletins.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, founded by Dr. Hyslop in 1906in New York with Section A., meant to cover the field of abnormal psychology, andSection B., to cover psychical research. The intention was to combine the aims of theS.P.R. and the Salpetriere under Charcot and Janet, to effect a co-ordination betweenthe phenomena of psychical research and the study of normal and abnormal mentalprocesses. Section A., however, was, owing to scientific orthodoxy, never reallyestablished and Section B. became known as the independent A.S.P.R.AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR PSYCHICAL RESEARCH (A.S.P.R.), founded on Prof.Barretts initiative, in 1885, in Boston, first president Prof. Simon Newcomb, secretaryN. D. C. Hodges, vicepresidents: Prof. Stanley Hall, Prof. George S. Fullerton, Prof.Edward C. Pickering and Dr. Charles S. Minot; owing to a decline of interest anaffiliation to the English S.P.R. was effected in 1889 under Prof. S. P. Langleyspresidency. The research work of the A.S.P.R. was conducted from 1887 by Dr. RichardHodgson until his death in 1905. The society was then dissolved to be re-establisheda year later as an independent body under the guidance of Dr. James H. Hyslop.When he died in 1920 Dr. Walter Franklin Prince assumed charge. He resigned in1925 and founded the present Boston S.P.R. J. Malcolm Bird, former assistant editorto the Scientific American, was appointed as research officer in his place. Hissuccessor, the present research officer, is B. K. Thorogood. Publications: Proceedings and Vournal. President: W. H. Button. Address: 15, LexingtonAvenue, New York.AMHERST MYSTERY, THE GREAT. See Poltergeist.ANDRADE, Mme., private physical medium in Spain, subject of a long series ofexperiments by Dr. dOliveira Feijao, Professor of Surgery in the Lisbon University."Formerly I believed nothing of these things," he declared. "Now I have seen andobserved and I repent my incredulity." Mme. Frondoni-Lacombe, in her MerveilluexPhenonemes de lau-dela, Lisbon, 1920, describes many telekinetic experiments often www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comconducted in daylight: Prof. Richet, in Thirty Years of Psychical Research, attributessome of the very surprising results to the psychic powers which Mme. Frondoni-Lacome may have unwittingly contributed.ANDREWS, Mrs. MARY, of Moravia, near Auburn, U.S.A., one of the earliest mediumsfor materialisation. She was a plain, uneducated peasant woman. Her seances wereheld in the house of a farmer named Keeler. The manifestations commenced with adark circle. Questions were answered by spirit lights physical phenomena weredisplayed in abundance, the piano was sounded, water was sprinkled into the face ofthe sitters, they were touched by phantom hands and spirit voices were heard. In thelight seances, the second part of the exhibition, the medium sat in a cabinet, busts,arms and hands materialised, the lips of phantom faces were seen in motion and,despite the dim light, many departed relatives were recognised. These sittings beganin 1871 and Mrs. Andrews sat nearly every day, without going into a trance. The roomwas often pervaded by delicious perfume of no known origin. T. R. Hazards ElevenDays in Moravia, Epes Sargents Proof Palpable of Immortality and Dr. EugeneCrowells The Identity of Primitive Christianity and Modern Spiritualism, contain manyinteresting records of these seances. An adverse sketch is to be found in John W.Truesdells The Bottom Facts, New York, 1884.
ANGELS OF MONS, the story by Arthur Machen, a London journalist, in the EveningNews for September 14, 1915 on the apparition of English phantom bowmen fromthe field of Agincourt during the terrible retreat from Mons. He quoted the testimonyof an officer as follows: "On the night of the 27th I was riding along the column withtwo other officers... As we rode along I became conscious of the fact that in the fieldson both sides of the road along which we were marching I could see a very largebody of horsemen.The other two officers had stopped talking. At last one of them asked me if I sawanything in the fields. I told them what I had seen. The third officer confessed that he,too, had been watching these horsemen for the past twenty minutes. So convincedwere we that they were really cavalry, that at the next halt one of the officers took aparty of men out to reconnoitre and found no one there. The night then grew darkerand we saw no more."Confirmations began to pour in. Similar visions of phantom armies were related fromdifferent battle fronts. Books were written on the occurrence. Harold Begbie, in Onthe Side of the Angels, quoted testimonies of soldiers. A dying prisoner spoke of thereluctance of the Germans to attack the English lines "because of the thousands oftroops behind us." Then Machen confessed that he invented the whole story. Arevelation in 1930 added another feature to the complexity of the problem. FriedrichHerzenwirth, a director of the German espionage system, published his memoirs inFebruary, 1930, and writes that the Angels of Mons were motion pictures, projectedby German flyers on the clouds to make the English troops believe that even. God ison the German side.ANIMAL MAGNETISM. See Mesmerism.ANIMALS exhibit psychic faculties similar to man. Miss R. C. Morton, in her accountof a case of haunting in Proceedings Vol. VIII, mentions two dogs who saw the ghostand were terrified. On one occasion a terrier ran to greet it, wagging its tail and www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comjumping up. It suddenly discovered its mistake and ran in terror. Mrs. Conants petdog and cat saw the spirits which she described clairvoyantly. The dog barked andsnarled, the cat arched its back, spat and ran to hide. Sir William Barrett records thecase of the Misses Montgomery. They saw a ghost floating across the road on whichthey were driving home.The horse stopped and shook with fright. The watchdog of the Rev. Samuel Wesleycrouched in terror during the poltergeist manifestations at Epworth Vicarage. In apoltergeist case on the Baltic Island of Oesel in 1844 a number of horses werefrightened by thunderous noises coming from a nearby underground vault. The caseis described in Robert Dale Owens Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World.Mr. Ernesto Bozzano collected many cases (Animals and Psychic Perceptions, Annalsof Psychic Science, Aug. 1905; Animaux et Manifestations Metapsychiques, Paris,1926), in which animals as agents induce telepathic hallucinations; in which they actas percipients simultaneously with, or previously to, men; in which they see human oranimal phantoms occurring outside of any telepathic coincidence, collectively withmen; in which phantom animals are seen in haunted spots or periodically appear as apremonition of death. Out of a total of 69 cases, in 13 the animals were subject tosupernormal psychic perceptions in precedence to man and in 12 they perceived
things which persons present were unable to see. In more than one-third of thecases, therefore, the animals perception had precedence to man. Bozzano points outthat animals "besides sharing with man the intermittent exercise of faculties ofsupernormal psychic perception, show themselves furthermore normally endowedwith special psychic faculties unknown to men, such as the so-called instincts ofdirection and of migration, and the faculty of precognition as regards unforeseenatmospheric disturbances, or the imminence of earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.Although man is destitute of such superior faculties of instinct, nevertheless thesesame faculties exist in the unexplored recesses of his subconsciousness."In the case of avalanches. the presentiments, especially attributed to horses, is stillmore mysterious. The death-howl of dogs in anticipation of the death of their masteror a member of the household is a well attested phenomenon. Geley records apersonal experience in From the Unconscious to the Conscious.Supernormal perception may work in a lower scale of life. Sir William Barrett suggeststhat the colour changes of insect life to suit the environment might be due to causes,reminding of stigmata, i.e., suggestion unconsciously derived from the environment.Elliott ODonnell in Animal Ghosts quotes many statements in proof that the animalshave doubles which are sometimes seen simultaneously in two different places.That there are latent high faculties in animals which vie with the powers of geniuswas irrefutably proved by the famous case of the Elberfeld horses (See). Theirmathematical gift was not unique. An Italian horse, Tripoli, showed similar talent aftera course in mathematics. Rolf of Mannheim, a dog, learned to reckon by attendingthe lessons given to a child. He made his knowledge known himself. (ProceedingsA.S.P.R., Vol. XIII., 1919). Among the puppies of Rolf, Lola attained considerable fameas narrated in Henry Kindermanns Lola: or the Thought and Speech of Animals. Shecould calculate, tell the time and spell out phonetically answers to questions. Whenshe was asked what was the name of the Mannheim dog she replied "mein fadr" www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.com(Mein Vater). All present expected her to answer Rolf. A cat called Daisy was alsoknown for curious powers.In C. Borderieuxs Les Nouveaux Animaux Pensants, Paris, 1927, the story of Zou, theauthors calculating dog, is narrated. Theodore Besterman in Proceedings, Vol.XXXVIII. describes his personal encounter with Mme. Carita Borderieuxs dog andclaims to have discovered that the dog interpreted unconscious movements of Mme.Borderieuxs hand.Unconscious signals or secret code falls far short as a theory of explanation in thecontemporary case of Black Bear, the Briarcliff pony who not only can solvemathematical problems and spell answers by selecting letters from a rack, but,according to narratives in Psychic Research, April, 1931, exhibits clairvoyant ortelepathic powers by describing playing cards of which he only sees the back. BlackBear either answers correctly or refuses to venture an answer at all. He is neverdiscrepant and solves his problems with a supreme indifference. Some of theexperiences of his visitors are extremely curious. Mrs. Fletcher, whose birthday wasshortly to occur - a fact which could not normally have been known to either BlackBear or Mr. Barett (his trainer) - asked these questions: "Black Bear, there is ananniversary coming soon. Can you tell me what it is? whereupon the pony at once
spelled out "Birthday." Mrs. Fletcher then said "That is right, now, can you tell mewhen it will be?" and Black Bear replied "Friday." "What date will it be?" was the nextquestion, and Black Bear at once spelled out "August 3rd."As regards the survival of animals no definite proof is available. Materialisationseances in which sometimes animals are also seen do not offer evidence inthemselves of survival. It is the continuation of personality and memory of whichproof is demanded. Obviously, the barking of dogs is not sufficiently expressive forthe purpose. After-death communications, however, do assert that animals alsosurvive. It is not clear where the line is drawn and the ground is full of pitfalls. Beinginaccessible to experimental proof, psychical research is not concerned in thisproblem. Nevertheless, as an interesting speculation the direct voice communicationgiven to Dennis Bradley should be registered. According to this, animals such astigers and snakes, etc., go to an animal kingdom there to be redrawn upon forphysical life on earth. Animals capable of love and loyalty live with the spirits in theirplane. The dog is eminently such. Said Andrew Lang: "Knowing cases in whichphantasms of dogs have been seen and heard collectively by several personssimultaneously, I tend to agree with the tribes of North-West Central Queenslandthat dogs, like men, have khoi-have spirits."ANIMISM, "the concept that a great part, if not the whole, of inanimate nature, aswell as of animate beings, is endowed with reason and volition identical with that ofman." (Lewis Spence). As opposed to spiritism the meaning is restricted to the sensethat the spirit of the medium is alone responsible for the observed transcendentalphenomena. This speculation is exhaustively dealt with in Aksakofs Animisme etSpiritisme. An intermediate stage between animism and spiritism is the theory ofcollective consciousness which Maxwell postulated to escape the spiritisticexplanation of seance-room phenomena.ANNALES DES SCIENCES PSYCHIQUES monthly magazine founded in 1891 by Prof.Richet and Dr. X. Dariex, edited, from 1905, by Count Cesar Baudi de Vesme, having www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comabsorbed his Revue des Etudes Psychique. It ran until 1919 when it was replaced bythe Revue Metapsychique, the official organ of the Institut MetapsychiqueInternational. An English edition, under the title Annals of Psychic Science, waspublished between 1905-1910. It was edited by Laura L. Finch.ANNALI DELLO SPIRITISMO (Annals of Spiritualism), the first representativespiritualistic journal in Italy. It was started in Turin in 1863 by Signor Niceforo Filalete,(Pseudonym of Prof. Vincenzo Scarpa) and ran until 1898.ANTHROPOFLUX, See Emanations.APOSTOLIC CIRCLE, a sectarian group of early American spiritualists that claimed tobe in communication, through the mediumship of Mrs. Benedict of Auburn, with theapostles and prophets of the Bible. The sect believed in a second advent. In 1849James L. Scott, a Seventh Day Baptist Minister of Brooklyn, joined the group. Hedelivered trance utterances in the name of St. John and edited, jointly with the Rev.Thomas Lake Harris, a periodical of the Apostolic Movement: Disclosures from theInterior and Superior Care for Mortals. Not long after, the partnership was dissolvedand in October, 1851 the sect settled at Mountain Cove, Fayette County, Virginia.Scott declared himself medium absolute. Owing to strife and dissension in February,
1852, the settlement was given up. Scott went to New York and as Thomas LakeHarris succeeded in arousing the interest of several wealthy men for the movements,the surrendered property was re-purchased and a new era began in which Scott andHarris, the first the mouthpiece of St. John, the second of St. Paid, acted as "thechosen mediums" through which "the Lord would communicate to man on earth."Their house was called the House of God, and Mountain Cove the Gate of Heaven.They proclaimed themselves as the two witnesses named in the Tenth Chapter ofRevelations and claimed the powers spoken therein to their fullest extent. In one ofhis prayers Harris said: "Oh Lord, thou knowest we do not wish to destroy man withfire from our mouths" However, the two perfect prophets could not smother thegrowing discord against their autocratic rule and very soon the whole communitydispersed.APPARITIONS, supernormal appearances suggesting the real presence of someonedistant or dead, or reminding of the latters continuity of existence. The perception isvisual, mostly spontaneous, but sometimes it may be experimentally induced. Thestate of the percipient may be normal (waking or dream state) or abnormal, the agentmay be living or dead. The first systematic inquiry into the reality of phantasmalappearances was instituted by the Society for Psychical Research in 1882. The resultwas embodied in the Phantasms of the Living by Myers, Podmore and Gurney. It waspublished in 1886 after 5,705 persons, chosen at random, had been canvassed foreventual phantasmal visions within the previous 12 years. It concluded: "Betweendeath and apparitions a connection exists not due to chance alone. This we hold aproved fact." As the scientific world did not consider the evidence of 702 acceptedcases sufficient for such a momentous conclusion, an international statistical inquiry,called the Census of Hallucination, was decided upon in 1889. Thirty-two thousandanswers were received, 17,000 in English. The report published in 1894 fills almost thewhole of Volume X of the Proceedings. Chance coincidence was more powerfullyruled out than before and the previous conclusion has been confirmed. The enquiryof the American S.P.R. and the census of Flammarion have led to the same result. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comThe belief in apparitions is as old as humanity. But the scientific age has reduced thephantoms to human shapes. No more do we encounter accounts like Plutarchs ofBrutus: "A little before he left Asia he was sitting alone in his tent, by a dim light, andat a late hour. The whole army lay in sleep and silence, while the general, wrapped inmeditation, thought he perceived something enter his tent; turning towards the doorhe saw a horrible and monstrous spectre standing silently by his side. "What art thou"said he boldly. "Art thou God or man, and what is thy business with me?" The spectreanswered, "I am thy evil genius, Brutus! Thou wilt see me at Philippi." To which hecalmly replied, "Ill meet thee there." When the apparition was gone he called hisservants, who told him they had neither heard any voice, nor seen any vision."About the true nature of apparitions we do not know much. As Andrew Lang stated:"Only one thing is certain about apparitions, namely this that they do appear. Theyreally are perceived." How are they seen? When Lord Adare submitted this questionto the control of D. D. Home, he received the following answer "At times we makepasses over the individual to cause him to see us, sometimes we make the actualresemblance of our former clothing, and of what we were, so that we appear exactlyas we were known to you on earth; sometimes we project an image that you see,sometimes you see us as we are, with a cloudlike aura of light around us."
The perception is not restricted to the small hours of the night or to times ofseclusion. It may occur at the most unexpected moments and publicly. A ghost inevening dress was seen one morning in a London street in 1878. The Daily Telegraphreported: "A woman fled in affright, the figure had a most cadaverous look, but thenext person the apparition encountered recognised it as that of a friend, a foreigner."This next person was Dr. Armand Leslie. His friend was found dead in evening clothesin a foreign city at the time his phantasm was seen. However, occurrences like this arevery rare. In the majority of cases there is some mediumistic intervention or somesufficientlypotent driving motive to achieve the manifestation to non-sensitive people providedthey happen to be in a receptive state. An instance of the first is Cromwell Varleysoft-quoted testimony before the London Dialectical Society in 1869: "In the Winter of1864-5 I was busy with the Atlantic cable. I left a gentleman at Birmingham to testthe iron wire. He had seen something of Spiritualism but he did not believe in it. Hehad had a brother whom I had never seen in life. One night in my room there were agreat number of loud raps. When at length I sat up in bed I saw a man in the air-aspirit-in military dress. I could see the pattern of the paper on the wall through him.Mrs. Varley did not see it. She was in a peculiar state and became entranced. Thespirit spoke to me through her. He told me his name and said that he had seen hisbrother in Birmingham but that what he had to communicate was not understood.He asked me to write a message to his brother, which I did, and received an answerfrom Birmingham "Yes, I know my brother has seen you, for he came to me and wasable to make known as much." The spirit informed me that when at school in Francehe was stabbed. This fact was only known to his eldest surviving brother and hismother. When I narrated this to the survivor he turned very pale and confirmed it."Why do they appear?The driving motive is usually an urgent message of extreme danger, worry, illness ordeath on the part of the agent. But it is also often a warning of impending danger or www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comdeath of someone closely connected to the percipient. The mode of delivery in thefirst group may disclose a confused, perturbed mentality. A phantom form may rushinto a room and alarm the inhabitants by its sudden appearance or by the noises itmakes. The purpose, nevertheless, is mostly clear and the apparition may come backmore than once as if to make sure that the information of the fact of decease wasduly understood. Sometimes more is conveyed, especially in cases of accidental orviolent death. Successive pictures may arise as if in a vision of the state of the bodyor of subsequent steps taken in regard to it.The announcement of death may be quite explicit as in the case of Proceedings S.P.R.Vol. X. p. 380-82 . "On June 5th, 1887, a Sunday evening, between eleven and twelveat night, being awake, my name was called three times. I answered twice, thinking itwas my uncle, "Come in, Uncle George, I am awake," but the third time I recognisedthe voice as that of my mother, who had been dead sixteen years. I said "Mamma!"She then came round a screen near my bedside with two children in her arms, andplaced them in my arms and put the bedclothes over them, and said "Lucy, promiseme to take care of them, for their mother is just dead." I said "Yes, Mamma."She repeated: "Promise me to take care of them." I replied "Yes, I promise you," and Iadded: "Oh, Mamma, stay and speak to me, I am so wretched." She replied: "Not yet,
my child." Then she seemed to go round the screen again, and I remained, feeling thechildren to be still in my arms, and fell asleep. When I awoke, there was nothing.Tuesday morning, June 7th, I received the news of my sister-in-laws death. She hadgiven birth to a child three weeks before which I did not know till after her death."In a similar case a mother brought the news of the death of her grandson bydrowning, the drowned man also appearing to the percipient. In an instance quotedby Flammarion in The Unknown, the percipient, whose brother was killed in theattack at Sedan awoke suddenly during the night and saw "opposite to the windowand beside my bed my brother on his knees surrounded by a sort of luminous mist. Itried to speak to him but I could not. I jumped out of bed. I looked out of the windowand I saw there was no moonlight. The night was dark and it was raining heavily,great drops pattering on the window panes. My poor Oliver was still there. Then Idrew near. I walked right through the apparition. I reached my chamber door, and asI turned the knob to open I looked back once more. The apparition slowly turned itshead towards me, and gave me another look full of anguish and love. Then for thefirst time I observed a wound on his right temple, and from it trickled a little streamof blood. The face was pale as wax, but it was transparent." A letter later receivedproved that the dead man had a wound corresponding to that shown by theapparition.The warning of death is sometimes veiled. The type is well illustrated by the instancerecorded by the A.S.P.R. of a commercial traveller who, in a distant city, had suddenlyseen the phantasmal appearance of his sister, full of life and natural, with a bright redscratch on the right side of her face. Perturbed by the vision he immediately brokehis journey. At home his mother nearly fainted when the scar was mentioned.Nobody knew of it. She had accidentally scratched her daughters face after her deathand carefully obliterated all the traces with powder. A few weeks later the motherdied. But for the vision her son would not have seen her in life again. It is known thatJosephine appeared to Napoleon at St. Helena and warned him of his approachingdeath-Mozart saw an apparition who ordered him to compose a Requiem and www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comfrequently came to inquire after its progress. The Requiem was completed just intime to be played at his own funeral.The message is usually brief as if the power to convey it were limited. The apparitionseems to be drawn to the spot by the personality of the percipient. The place mayhave been totally unknown to him when in life. It may be a boat on the open sea.When a picture, for instance. a scene in a death chamber, is presented, the alternativeexplanation of clairvoyance should be considered. In a curious group of cases imagesare seen instead of the lifelike figure. Miss Anna Blackwell testified to such anexperience before the Dialectical Committee. The face of a beloved relative, like alife-size daguerrotype, appeared on a window pane of the house opposite to herwindow. It faded away several times, and appeared again. There seemed to be uponthe pane a sort of dark iridescence out of which the face evolved, each appearancelasting about eight seconds, and each being darker and fainter than the precedingone. She also quoted the case of Mrs. M. G. who in the tortoise-shell handle of a newparasol saw the face of Charles Dickens soon after his death. The face was small butwith every feature perfectly distinct; and as she gazed upon it in utter amazement,the eyes moved and the mouth smiled.
These images usually appear on polished surfaces. They may be seen by severalpeople and they disappear after a while. In Vol. 11. of Phantasms of the Living thereis recorded an apparition of this kind of Capt. Towns which was witnessed by eightpeople. His face was seen on the polished surface of a wardrobe six weeks after hisdeath.In seeing apparitions of the dead or the dying, the percipients often feel a chilliness.The phenomenon may be related to the cold air of the is also suggestive that inthose cases sleep together and one suddenly wakes to see an apparition the other isin abnormally deep sleep.Shackletons experience, recorded in his book South, borders on abnormalperception: "I know that during that long and racking march of 36 hours over theunnamed mountains and glaciers of South Georgia it seemed to me often that wewere four, not three. I said nothing to my companions on the point, but afterwardsWorsley said to me: "Boss, I had a curious feeling on the march that there wasanother person with us." Crean confessed to the same idea. Being interviewed by theDaily Telegraph (February 1, 1922) on this point, he said: "None of us cares to speakabout that. There are some things which can never be spoken of. Almost to hintabout them comes perilously near sacrilege. This experience was eminently one ofthose things."Apparitions may be accompanied by bright light. A case in the Proceedings of theAmerican S.P.R. (Vol. I. p. 405) proves objectivity. A physician and his wife, sleeping inseparate but adjoining rooms, were awakened by a bright light. The physician saw afigure, his wife got up and went into her husbands room to see what the light was.By that time the figure had disappeared. In the Rev. Tweedales house thedisappearance of a phantom on Nov. 14th, 1908, was accompanied by a big flash oflight and a cloud of smoke which filled the kitchen and the passage. The smoke hadno ordinary smell. On another occasion the figure touched and spoke to his wife,then dissolved into a pillar of black vapour. www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comThere are some cases in which the apparition is behind the percipient yet clearlyseen. Again, the phantom may appear quite solid yet objects may be seen beyond it.Occasionally it is a reflection only. Mrs. Scarle (Phantasms of the Living, Vol. 8. p. 35)fainted. Her husband saw her head and face white and bloodless about the sametime in a looking glass upon a window opposite him.Meeting CasesApparitions seen at death-beds are in a class of their own. In these so-called"meeting cases" it appears as if deceased friends, relatives would hasten to theborderland to extend a welcome to the dying."The dying person," writes Miss Frances Power Cobbe, in Peak in Darien, "is lyingquietly, when suddenly, in the very act of expiring, he looks upsometimes starts up inbed-and gazes on what appears to be vacancy, with an expression of astonishment,sometimes developing instantly into joy, and sometimes cut short in the first emotionof solemn wonder and awe. If the dying man were to see some utterly-unexpectedbut instantly recognised vision, causing him great surprise, or rapturous joy, his face
could not better reveal the fact. The very instant this phenomenon occurs, Death isactually taking place, and the eyes glaze even while they gaze at the unknown sight."There are numbers of cases on record to prove that such supernormal perception anddeath are not always simultaneous. "Among all the facts adduced to prove survivalthese seem to me to be the most disquieting," writes Professor Richet who tries toexplain all the spiritistic facts by his theory of cryptesthesia. Hallucination iseffectively barred out by those cases in which others in the room also perceive thephantom forms but there is sufficient evidence for a genuine phenomenon if theperson was not known to be dead to the dying at the moment of perception, or ifindependent evidence comes forth to prove that the perception was veridical. Astriking illustration of the latter instance is the case of Elisa Mannors whose nearrelatives and friends, concerned in the communications received through Mrs. Piper,were known to Dr. Hodgson. His account (Proc. S.P.R. Vol. XIII. p. 378) says:"The notice of his (F., an uncle of Elisa Mannors) death was in a Boston morningpaper, and I happened to see it on my way to the sitting. The first writing of thesitting came from Madame Elisa, without my expecting it. She wrote clearly andstrongly, explaining that F. was there with her, but unable to speak directly, that shewished to give me an account of how she had helped F. to reach her. She said thatshe had been present at his deathbed, and had spoken to him, and she repeatedwhat she had said, an unusual form of expression, and indicated that he had heardand recognised her. This was confirmed in detail in the only way possible at the time,by a very intimate friend of Mme. Elisa and myself, and also of the nearest survivingrelative of F. I showed my friend the account of the sitting, and to this friend, a day ortwo later, the relative, who was present at the deathbed, stated spontaneously that F.when dying said that he saw Madame Elisa who was speaking to him, and herepeated what she was saying. The expression so repeated, which the relative quotedto my friend, was that which I had received from Madame Elisa through Mrs. Piperstrance when the death-bed incident was, of course, entirely unknown to me."As Ernesto Bozzano points out, a curious feature of these visions is that the dying www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comonly claim to see deceased persons, whereas, if his thoughts alone would beconcerned in it, he might be expected to see living persons as frequently as deceasedones. Again, even people who have been sceptical of survival all their life sometimeshave given evidence of such visions. The effect on those who witness such rending ofthe veil is very dramatic. Dr. Wilson of New York who was present at the death of thewell-known American tenor, Mr. James Moore, wrote:"Then something which I shall never forget to my dying day happened, somethingwhich is utterly indescribable. While he appeared perfectly rational and as sane asany man I have ever seen, the only way that I can express it is that he was transportedinto another world, and although I cannot satisfactorily explain the matter to myself, Iam fully convinced that he, had entered the Golden City-for he said in a strongervoice than he had used since I had attended him: There is Mother. Why, Mother, haveyou come here to see me? No, no, Im coming to see you. Just wait, Mother, I amalmost over. I can jump it. Wait, Mother. On his face there was a look of inexpressiblehappiness, and the way in which he said the words impressed me as I have neverbeen before, and I am as firmly convinced that he saw and talked with his mother as Iam that I am sitting here."
In his Psychic Facts and Theories, Dr. Minot J. Savage quotes the following wellauthenticated instance in which the death in question was not known to the dying:"In a neighbouring city were two little girls, Jennie and Edith, one about eight yearsof age, and the other but a little older. They were schoolmates and intimate friends.In June, 1889, both were taken ill with diphtheria. At noon on Wednesday Jenniedied. Then the parents of Edith, and her physician as well, took particular pains tokeep from her the fact that her little playmate was gone. They feared the effect of theknowledge on her own condition. To prove that they succeeded and that she did notknow, it may be mentioned that on Saturday, June 8th, at noon, just before shebecame unconscious of all that was passing about her, she selected two of herphotographs to be sent to Jennie, and also told her attendants to bid her goodbye.She died at half-past six oclock on the evening of Saturday, June 8th. She had rousedand .bidden her friends goodbye, and was talking of dying and seemed to have nofear. She appeared to see one and another of the friends she knew were dead. So farit was like the common cases. But now suddenly, and with every appearance ofsurprise, she turned to her father and exclaimed Why, papa, I am going to take Jenniewith me! Then she added "Why, papa, why, papa, you did not tell me that Jennie washere." And immediately she reached out her arms as if in welcome, and said: "Oh,Jennie, I am so glad you are here ...Stainton Moses is quoted by Prof. Richet as the source of the following case: Miss H.,the daughter of an English clergyman, was tending a dying child. His little brotheraged three to four years, was in a little bed in the same room. As the former wasdying, the child woke up, and, pointing to the ceiling with every expression of joy,said: "Mother, look at the beautiful ladies round my brother. How lovely they are,they want to take him." The elder child died at that moment.There is a group of cases in which only some sort of a presence is felt or a cloud ofdepression experienced which becomes instantly relieved when the actual news ofdeath arrives. Phenomena of sound are often recorded in place of a visual apparition.Sometimes they attempt to prove identity, imitating the professional work of the www.survivalafterdeath.blogspot.comdeparted, for instance the work in a carpenters shop. They differ from Poltergeistphenomena as the latter do not coincide with death.If no definite message is