This e-book is a collection of articles that were originally published on  www.utilizewindows.com. As we update articles o...
CONTENTSBASICS ..............................................................................................................
ENABLE FAX SERVICES IN XP ...................................................................................................
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                             Users and G...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                 Users a...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                Users an...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                               Users and...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                   Users...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                 Users a...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                               Users and...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                 Users a...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                  Users ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                Users an...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                            Users and Gr...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                              Users and ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                              Users and ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                    User...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                    User...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                            Users and Gr...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                 Users a...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                 Users a...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                    User...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                  Users ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                   Users...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                               Users and...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                     Use...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                               Users and...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                              Users and ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                              Users and ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                        ...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                       H...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                    Hard...
Utilize Windows XP                                                                                                      Ha...
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com

2,134 views

Published on

Read about common administration tasks in Windows XP. Among other things you will learn about user and group management, hardware management, network settings configuration, file system management, security including NTFS permissions, printer configuration, optimization tools, recovery options, and a few things considering the process of installation.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,134
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
26
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Utilize Windows XP www.utilizewindows.com

  1. 1. This e-book is a collection of articles that were originally published on www.utilizewindows.com. As we update articles on our site, we will also update this e-book. Check our site for the latest version of this e-book on www.utilizewindows.com/e-books This e-book is published under Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0 We offer free quizzes which you can use to test your knowledge about Windows operating systems. You can find them here: www.utilizewindows.com/quizzesIf you have a comment or if you would like to report some error, please use our contact form: www.utilizewindows.com/contact-us If you would like to support us, you can take action (www.utilizewindows.com/support-us) or you can donate (https://flattr.com/thing/710994)
  2. 2. CONTENTSBASICS ......................................................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION TO WINDOWS XP ............................................................................................................................... 1 USER INTERFACE IN XP ............................................................................................................................................. 3 MICROSOFT MANAGEMENT CONSOLE (MMC) IN WINDOWS XP ..................................................................................... 8 GROUP POLICY IN WINDOWS XP .............................................................................................................................. 12 REGIONAL AND LANGUAGE OPTIONS IN XP................................................................................................................. 16USERS AND GROUPS ..............................................................................................................................................18 MANAGE USERS IN XP............................................................................................................................................ 18 GROUP MANAGEMENT IN XP .................................................................................................................................. 26 MANAGE USER PROFILES IN XP ................................................................................................................................ 34 USER RIGHTS AND GROUP POLICY IN XP .................................................................................................................... 41HARDWARE ............................................................................................................................................................44 DEVICES IN XP ...................................................................................................................................................... 44 QUALITY OF DRIVERS IN XP ..................................................................................................................................... 48 POWER OPTIONS IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 52 HARDWARE PROFILES IN XP..................................................................................................................................... 57NETWORKING ........................................................................................................................................................62 MANAGE NETWORK COMPONENTS IN XP .................................................................................................................. 62 TCP/IP SETTINGS IN XP ......................................................................................................................................... 67 CONFIGURE DNS IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 76 CONFIGURE DIAL-UP AND DIRECT CONNECTION IN XP .................................................................................................. 82 CONFIGURE VPN IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 90 CONFIGURE ICS IN XP ............................................................................................................................................ 94 REMOTE ASSISTANCE IN XP ................................................................................................................................... 106 REMOTE DESKTOP IN XP ....................................................................................................................................... 117FILES AND FOLDERS .............................................................................................................................................133 FILE COMPRESSION IN XP ...................................................................................................................................... 133 ENCRYPTION IN XP............................................................................................................................................... 138 DISK QUOTAS IN XP ............................................................................................................................................. 143 CONFIGURE NTFS PERMISSIONS IN XP .................................................................................................................... 151 SHARE FOLDERS IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 180 OFFLINE FILES IN XP ............................................................................................................................................. 204 IIS IN XP ............................................................................................................................................................ 213FILES SYSTEM .......................................................................................................................................................225 CONVERT FILE SYSTEM IN XP ................................................................................................................................. 225 MANAGE HARD DISKS IN XP .................................................................................................................................. 230 MOUNT A VOLUME IN XP ..................................................................................................................................... 245 MULTIPLE OPERATING SYSTEMS AND XP .................................................................................................................. 250PRINTERS ..............................................................................................................................................................252 INSTALL PRINTER IN XP ......................................................................................................................................... 252 PRINT MANAGEMENT IN XP .................................................................................................................................. 263 ADVANCED PRINTER CONFIGURATION IN XP ............................................................................................................. 281 REPLACE PRINT DEVICE IN XP ................................................................................................................................ 290
  3. 3. ENABLE FAX SERVICES IN XP .................................................................................................................................. 293 SEND A FAX IN XP ................................................................................................................................................ 298OPTIMIZATION .....................................................................................................................................................303 TASK MANAGER IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 303 OPTIMIZE DISKS IN XP .......................................................................................................................................... 309 PAGING FILE IN XP ............................................................................................................................................... 314 BACKUP TOOL IN XP ............................................................................................................................................ 316 RECOVER WINDOWS XP ....................................................................................................................................... 324SECURITY ..............................................................................................................................................................328 CONFIGURE AUDITING IN XP.................................................................................................................................. 328 SECURITY TEMPLATES IN XP................................................................................................................................... 336 INTERNET EXPLORER SECURITY IN XP ....................................................................................................................... 341INSTALLATION ......................................................................................................................................................348 PREPARATION FOR WINDOWS XP INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................... 348 HOW TO UPGRADE FROM OLDER SYSTEM TO WINDOWS XP ....................................................................................... 350 PREREQUISITES FOR NETWORK INSTALLATION OF WINDOWS XP ................................................................................... 354 CREATE AN ANSWER FILE IN SETUP MANAGER .......................................................................................................... 356 TYPICAL WINDOWS XP INSTALLATION PROBLEMS ...................................................................................................... 360
  4. 4. Utilize Windows XP Basics Basics Introduction to Windows XP Parent Category: XP Category: Basics XP is quite different from any OS that has come before. To understand why XP works so differently we need to understand the state from which it emerged. Before you start Objectives: introduction to Windows operating systems. Learn about Windows versions and technologies they were built on. Learn about new XP features, editions and system requirements. Prerequisites: no prerequisites. Key terms: history of Windows, DOS and NT, XP editions, new features in XP, minimum system requirements. History of Windows Microsoft sold the first PC operating system to IBM in 1981. It was called DOS and it had no user interface (working in command line). First version of Windows shipped in 1985, and it was called Windows 1.0. It was very slow and unstable. Breathtaking Windows 2.0 shipped in late 1987. It let you overlap windows (place one windows on top of another). Windows 2.1 (also known as Windows 286) shipped in 1988. It came on a single diskette. Windows 3.0 arrived in 1990, and the computer industry changed forever. Windows 3.1 arrived in 1992, and it rapidly became the most widely used operating system. Windows 3.x was built on MS-DOS, and that caused all sorts of headaches. DOS simply wasnt stable enough to make Windows solid operating system. They knew all that in Microsoft, so in 1988 they decided to build a new version of Windows from scratch. In 1993 Windows NT (New Technology) 3.1 was shipped, but it was also unstable. Because of bad reactions to NT edition Microsoft decided to further develop Windows based on DOS/Windows 3.1, and on the other side to work on NT versions of Windows. Versions of Windows based on DOS are: 95, shipped in 1995 98, shipped in 1998 ME, shipped in 2000 NT editions: NT 3.5, shipped in 1994 NT 4.0, shipped in 1996 2000, shipped in 2000 Microsoft patiently waited while sales on the NT side gradually picked up. When that happened, Microsoft shipped XP (XP stands for eXPerience). XP is 100% based on NT. Microsoft took a lot of effort to make XP look like Windows ME, but beneath the facade, XP is based on Windows NT/2000. About Windows XP XP is an operating system developed by Microsoft and it was released in 2001. It is build on NT kernel, which is known for its improved stability and efficiency over the 9x versions of Microsoft Windows. Windows XP comes in 6 editions: 1
  5. 5. Utilize Windows XP Basics Home (for home users) Professional (for power and business users) Media Center (additional multimedia features) Tablet PC (designed to run stylus applications) 64-Bit (designed to run on Intel Itanium processors) Professional x64 (supports the x86-64 extensions of Intel IA-32 architecture) XP has a significantly redesigned graphical user interface which is now more user friendly. It is the first version of Windows which uses product activation to fight illegal copying. XP is available in many languages, and in addition to that, Language Interface Packs translating the user interface are also available in certain languages. New Features Among other things, Windows XP introduced: Faster start-up and hibernation sequences, fast user switching Enhanced device driver verification (driver signing), ability to discard newer device driver in favor of the previous one (driver rollback) Code enhancements (better protection for code, less likely-hood that somebody can come in and tamper with key system files), and Windows File Protection which, together with file signings, discovers modified system files Encrypted File System (EFS) which enables us to encrypt files on our hard drive IP Security (IPSec) enables us to encrypt data sent over computer networks Clear type font rendering mechanism (improved readability on LCD monitors) Built in support for CD-RW Hot docking support (great for Laptop users who use Docking stations) Remote Desktop support which enables us to control other computer over network using RDP protocol Remote Assistance support Enhanced Wireless network communication software (in tune with wireless standards) Windows Messaging services Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) which enables us to share one Internet connection with multiple computers Embedded firewall (Internet Connection Firewall - ICF) which enables us to protect our Local Area Network Improved deployment tools for Windows XP itself, and also for software packages. Sounds great, doesnt it? But the truth is that XP has been strongly criticized for its vulnerability to malware, viruses, trojan horses, and worms. Windows, with its large market share, has always been a tempting target for virus creators. Security holes are often invisible until they are exploited, making preemptive action difficult. Microsoft recommends that all systems have automatic updates turned on to prevent a system from being attacked by an unpatched bug. System Requirements Recommended system requirements for running Windows XP:o Processor: 300MHz or highero Memory: 128MB RAM or highero Hard drive disk free space: 1.5 GB or higher (additional 1.8 GB for Service Pack 2 and additional 900MB for Service Pack 3) Remember XP is based on NT. Two most important XP editions are Home and Professional. System requirements are: CPU 300MHz or higher, RAM 128MB RAM or higher. 2
  6. 6. Utilize Windows XP BasicsUser Interface in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Basics Before we can manage and administer our operating system we should be familiar with some basic Windows terms. For example, you all probably know how to create a new user in Windows. But, what is a user account? Is it just a user name? Before you startObjectives: learn about user interface, common terms and expressions, appearance and functionality of certaininterface elements.Prerequisites: installed Windows XPKey terms: Welcome screen, Desktop, Taskbar, Notification Tray, Start button, Start menu and Control Panel.Instruction on how to add Administrative Tools to the Start menu.Common TermsXP can store preferences for each person who uses a PC. Logging on to Windows is the process of tellingWindows who you are, so Windows knows which preferences to load. Having different users on one PC alsoenables us to secure sensitive or personal data. When we turn on our computer, Windows XP will start up, andthe Welcome screen will appear, asking us to log on.Welcome ScreenDefault Welcome screen looks like this: Image 70.1 - Welcome ScreenWhen the Welcome Screen appears we must select our user name. If we have a password protected account, wemust provide our password (to have a password is highly recommended). If everything is OK, our user 3
  7. 7. Utilize Windows XP Basicspreferences will load, and our personal Windows Desktop will appear. We can also set up automatic Log On withany user name and password.DesktopThe screen that Windows shows us every time we start our computer is called the desktop. It is the mainworkspace in Windows XP, and everything we do in Windows starts from Desktop. With fresh Windows XPProfessional installation, Desktop looks like this: Image 70.2 - DesktopTaskbarWindows taskbar shows us opened windows and computer programs which are currently running. Image 70.3 - TaskbarNotification Area (Tray)Notification area (or tray) can show us status of some operation, or notify us about an event. For example, whenwe are printing something we see a small icon which shows us that print job is under way. Small window may popup telling us that an update is available for Windows XP or some other installed application. Current time, volumecontrol and anti-virus programs also appear in this area. While working with laptops, we can see power options,battery and wireless status icon in notification area. 4
  8. 8. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 70.4 - Notification AreaStart ButtonStart button gives us access to everything our computer can do. Image 70.5 - Start ButtonStart MenuWhen we click the Start button, Start menu, which contains all links to our folders and applications, shows up. Image 70.6 - Start MenuControl PanelOn the Start menu there is a shortcut to Control Panel. When we click it, this window shows up (switched toClassic View): 5
  9. 9. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 70.7 - Control PanelIn Control Panel there are bunch of tools that we can use to manage our operating system.Display SettingsTo check display settings in XP, we can right-click on the desktop and select Properties. This will open theDisplay Properties applet. We can also open Display Settings from the Control Panel. 6
  10. 10. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 70.8 - Themes TabIn the Themes tab we can choose a theme that Windows will use. In the Desktop tab we can change thebackground on the Desktop. Appearance tab enables us to change the style and color scheme and font size ofWindows. In the Settings tab we can configure settings related to our monitor. Image 70.9 - Settings TabNotice that in our case we have single monitor attached. Here we can change the screen resolution and the colorquality.Adding Administrative Tools to the Start MenuBecause we are administrators of Windows XP, we might want to add a shortcut for Administrative Tools to theStart Menu or to the All Programs menu to make them more accessible. To do that simply right-click the Startbutton and select Properties to open the Start Menu and Taskbar Properties window. Here click Customize toopen the Customize Start Menu window. Go to the Advanced tab, in the "Start menu items" scroll box, navigate tothe System Administrative Tools section. Choose the "Display on All Programs menu and Start menu" option andclick OK to exit the window.RememberLogging on to Windows is the process of telling Windows who you are. We log on to Windows using the Welcomescreen. The main workspace in Windows is called the Desktop. Taskbar shows us opened windows andcomputer programs. Notification area (or tray) will show us status of some operation, or notify us about an event. Start button gives us access to everything our computer can do. Start menu contains all links to our folders andapplications. Control Panel contains bunch of tools that we can use to manage our operating system. 7
  11. 11. Utilize Windows XP BasicsMicrosoft Management Console (MMC) inWindows XP Parent Category: XP Category: Basics Microsoft Management Console is available in Windows XP. First, lets take a look at available pre-configured MMCs that ship with our Windows XP. Later we will configure our custom Console. Before you startObjectives: learn about available pre-configured consoles, how to open and use pre-configured and also how tocreate custom Microsoft Management Consoles.Prerequisites: you have to know what is Microsoft Management Console.Key terms: microsoft management console, mmc, pre-configured console, computer management console,custom consolePre-configured ConsoleComputer Management ConsoleLets take a look at pre-configured MMC that ships with our Windows XP. Go to Administrative tools(in ControlPanel, or your Start Menu or All Programs menu if you have created shortcut), and click on the ComputerManagement. The following window opens: Image 118.1 - Computer Management MMCIcons on the left group individual tasks. Each icon is a Snap-in that lets us work with related configuration values.For example, Event Viewer is a snap-in that we can use to view system messages. Disk Management isanother snap-in that we can use to manage disks and volumes. When we select a snap-in from the left, panel onthe right changes to show us actions that we can perform with that snap-in. 8
  12. 12. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 118.2 - Event Viewer Snap-in Pre-configured Consoles Windows XP ships with a bunch of pre-configured consoles. We can launch them using Run menu (type in the name of the console and click OK). Available pre-configured consoles are: Certificates - certmgr.msc Component Services - comexp.msc Computer Management - compmgmt.msc Device Manager - devmgmt.msc Disk Defragmenter - dfrg.msc Disk Management - diskmgmt.msc Event Viewer - eventvwr.msc Group Policy - gpedit.msc Indexing Service - ciadv.msc Local Security Settings - secpol.msc Local Users and Groups - lusrmgr.msc Performance - perfmon.msc Removable Storage - ntmsmgr.msc Removable Storage Operator Requests - ntmsoprq.msc Resultant Set of Policy - rsop.msc Services - services.msc Shared Folders - fsmgmt.msc Windows Management Infrastructure (WMI) - wmimgmt.msc The majority of the pre-configured XP consoles are set to work on the local machine by default, but if we have the appropriate permissions, consoles can be used to administer remote computers. We can right-click on Snap-in and select Connect (not every Snap-in supports this), and enter the name of the remote computer we want to manage (or select Browse if we dont know the name). Custom Console We can create our own consoles containing the snap-ins that we use the most. To do that, first we need to open MMC shell. Go to Start Menu, and then click on Run. In Run dialog, type in mmc and click OK. Image 118.3 - Run dialog The following window will open: 9
  13. 13. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 118.4 - Empty MMC ConsoleNotice that this MMC is blank. It only contains Console Root object which we can rename as we like. Just right-click it and click Rename. We can now add snap-ins. To do that, we must go to theFile menu and clickon Add/Remove Snap-in, and then click Add... New window opens and now we can select which Snap-ins wewant to see in our MMC (we can select multiple Snap-ins). After we are done selecting, we click on Close, andOK. Image 118.5 - Adding MMC Snap-inIn our example we have added Performance Logs and Alerts snap-in. Our console now looks like this: 10
  14. 14. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 118.6 - Custom MMCTo save this Snap-in, go to the File menu, and select Save. Notice the folder in which the new Snap-in will besaved (its Administrative Tools). Write the name of your console, and click Save. Microsoft ManagementConsoles use the extension .msc which stands for Microsoft Common Console Document (MCCD). By default,files which use the .msc extension open with the application Microsoft Management Console (MMC). If we goback to Administrative tools in Control Panel, notice that we dont see our newly created console. But, if we createshortcut to Administrative Tools in our All Programs menu, we will see our custom Snap-in in Administrative Toolsthere.RememberWindows XP ships with a bunch of pre-configured consoles. We can launch them using Run menu (type in thename of the console and click OK). We can create our own consoles containing the snap-ins that we use themost. To do that, first we need to open MMC shell. Microsoft Management Consoles use the extension .mscwhich stands for Microsoft Common Console Document (MCCD). 11
  15. 15. Utilize Windows XP BasicsGroup Policy in Windows XP Parent Category: XP Category: Basics It can be of great importance to know how to work with Group Policy console, especially if you often administer Windows systems. Lets take a look at local Group Policy in Windows XP. Before you startObjectives: learn how to open and navigate trough pre-defined Group Policy console.Prerequisites: you have to know what is Group Policy, and how to work in Microsoft Management Console.Key terms: run Group Policy, Console organization, example settings, gpedit.msc, software settings, windowssettings, administrative templates, password policy, security options.Local Group Policy ConsoleWe will use the Start menu run command to open our Local Group Policy console. In Run menu, we can openMicrosoft Management Console by typing in mmc, and then add the Group Policy Snap-in to our console. We canalso open pre-defined Group Policy console by typing gpedit.mscin Run menu. Image 138.1 - Run Group Policy 12
  16. 16. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 138.2 - Group Policy Console Organization There are two major sections - Computer Configuration section, and User Configuration section. Computer Configuration section contains settings that are applied for the entire computer, and these settings are applied when the computer boots. User Configuration node contains settings that are applied only to users. If user settings are defined in AD, then they are independent of the computer on which the user logs on to. If settings are configured locally, settings are valid only for local users. User settings get applied at user log on. Under Computer Configuration, as well as under User Configuration, there are three categories of setting: Software Settings are used to control the installation of software, and there are no local settings for this. This section can only be configured through AD. Windows Settings are used to set a wide range of system and startup values. Administrative Templates contain Registry-based policies. In each category there are additional objects that group related settings. If we look at Group Policy in AD, we will see more options than in Local Group Policy. Example Settings Lets take a look at some Group Policy settings on a local Windows XP workstation. 13
  17. 17. Utilize Windows XP Basics Image 138.3 - Password Policy Image 138.4 - Security OptionsNotice that when we make a selection on the left, the right part of the window shows us two columns. In the firstcolumn we see a descriptive Policy name, and in the second column we see current settings for our Policies. Ifour computer is on a domain, then the current settings are a combination of local settings and settings defined inAD. 14
  18. 18. Utilize Windows XP Basics To edit a setting, just click double on policy name and choose the appropriate setting. Remember We can open pre-defined Group Policy console by typing gpedit.msc in Run menu. There are two major sections in Group Policy console: Computer Configuration section and User Configuration section. Computer Configuration section contains settings that are applied for the entire computer. User Configuration node contains settings that are applied only to users. Software Settings are used to control the installation of software, and there are no local settings for this. Windows Settings are used to set a wide range of system and startup values. Administrative Templates contain Registry-based policies. Commands that are mentioned in this article gpedit.msc - run pre-defined Group Policy console (enter in Start menu Run command). 15
  19. 19. Utilize Windows XP BasicsRegional and Language Options in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Basics Windows XP supports many languages and different regional settings. As we go to the Control Panel, we will find an icon for our Regional and Language settings. Before you start Objectives: find out where can you configure regional and language options in XP.Prerequisites: no prerequisites.Key terms: language, regional, keyboard, format, displayRegional OptionsIn previous versions of Windows, in order to move between various languages, we had to install separatepackages. Windows XP now allows us to navigate quickly and easily and select which language options we wouldlike to use. As we go in to the Regional and Language options in Control Panel, we will notice that we have threetabs of information. First, we have Regional options, then Language options, and then Advanced options. Image 190.1 - Regional OptionsIn Regional Options we can define how we want to represent our numbers, currency, time and date. For example,in United States a common format for representing the date is: mm/dd/yyyy. In Europe a common format for datesis: dd/mm/yyyy. The same thing is for our currencies. In United States we use commas (1,000 = one thousand), 16
  20. 20. Utilize Windows XP Basicsand in Europe we use decimals to separate thousands (1.000 = one thousand). In addition to having the numbersettings, we also have the ability of setting up our location. Our location is used by programs such as InternetExplorer. This is handy for getting news, weather, etc.Language SettingsIn Language settings we have the ability of selecting a bunch of different languages, as well as Keyboard layouts.This becomes very handy when we are using our Word processing applications. For example, if we need tocreate a document in different languages, we can hot-key between various language inputs. This means that byusing our keyboard, we can quickly switch between letters that we will be typing in and in which format. Image 190.2 - Language OptionsWe can also choose to have different keyboard layout. We can have the standard QWERTY keyboard or we canuse, for instance, Dvorak keyboard. Dvorak keyboard has different key layout and it is optimized for efficiency. Wehave also additional language support for countries that use right-to-left writing, and we can also add support foreast Asiatic languages. Advanced language options are intended for non-Unicode programs.Windows can ship in Localized version or in Multi-language version. In both versions we can change date, time,measurement display, create, view, and edit documents in multiple languages (including East Asian and right-to-left languages), but we cant display Windows menus and dialogs in multiple languages in Localized versions ofWindows.RememberIn Regional Options we can define how we want to represent our numbers, currency, time and date. In Languagesettings we have the ability of selecting different languages, as well as Keyboard layouts, which comes veryhandy when we are using our Word processing applications. 17
  21. 21. Utilize Windows XP Users and GroupsUsers and GroupsManage Users in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Users and Groups There are two different ways to manage user accounts in Windows XP. We can use the User Accounts applet for basic account management, or we can use Local Users and Groups snap-in for advanced user management. Before you startObjectives: learn to create new users, change passwords and edit other properties for existing users. We willwork with local user accounts. For advanced user management go to Local Users and Groups Management.Prerequisites: before you read about user management, you have to be aware of what a user account actuallyis.Key terms: account, user, password, new user, user management, local userUser Accounts AppletIf the computer is a standalone workstation or a member of a workgroup, we can use the User Accounts applet inthe Control Panel to easily create user accounts and modify user account properties. To open User Accountsapplet go to Start > Control Panel > User Accounts. Image 167.1 - User Account AppletThe User Accounts applet lists common tasks at the top of the windows, such as Change an account, Create anew account, and Change the way users log on or off. Accounts are listed at the bottom of the applet.Creating New Account 18
  22. 22. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups To create a new user, we have to click on Create a new account, and we need to type a name for the new user account. Image 167.2 - Account Name On the next window, we will have to choose an account type. We have two options: Computer administrator - with the administrator account we have the ability to make system wide changes, create, change and delete accounts, install programs and access all files. Limited - with the limited account we can only make changes to our own account settings, view files that we have created and files in Shared Documents folder. We will not always be able to install programs. Image 167.3 - Account Type Anders is a computer administrator, so we will choose that option and click on Create Account. Notice that now we can see Anders Parkers account in the list of the user accounts. Image 167.4 - Anders Parker Account User Management In User Accounts applet we can perform basic user account administration tasks, such as add or delete users, change passwords and modify account capabilities. To modify properties for specific account, we can select it 19
  23. 23. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groupsfrom list, or we can click on the Change an account option, and then select an account that we want to change.In this case we will change the properties for Kims user account. Image 167.5 - Kim Verson AccountNotice that Kim Versons account is configured as Computer administrator, and that it doesnt have a password.To create a password for this account, click on Create a password. Image 167.6 - Password OptionsWe have to type in a new password, and then type it in again to confirm it. We also have to type in a hint for ourpassword in case we forget it. When we click on Create Password button, Kim Verson will have passwordprotected user account.We can also change Kims account type. We dont want her to be computer administrator anymore. To do that,lets click on Change the account type option, select Limited option, and click onChange Account Type button. 20
  24. 24. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 167.7 - Account TypeGuest AccountTo enable Guest account, select Change an account option, and pick a Guest account. In this case, Guestaccount is turned off. There arent many configuration settings that we can change for the Guest account.Basically, we can just turn it on or off. Image 167.8 - Guest AccountLogon and Logoff OptionsWe can also use User Accounts applet to change the way users log on or off to the computer. Notice thatcurrently we are using the Welcome screen for users to log on to this computer. If we use the Welcome screen forlogging on we will see all user names for accounts that are currently active on our computer. This is not as secureas traditional log on, because everyone can see all user accounts that are active on the computer. Because ofthat, here we can select to use traditional log on method. But, if we do that we will not be able to use Fast UserSwitching feature anymore. 21
  25. 25. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 167.9 - Logon OptionsLocal Users and Groups Snap-inFor advanced user account management we will use the Local Users and Groups snap-in which is located inComputer Management console. We can find the Computer Management console in Administrative Tools (inControl Panel), or we can right-click on My Computer icon and select Manage option from the pop-up menu.Either way, the following window appears: Image 167.10 - Local Users and Groups Snap-inWe have to browse to Local Users and Groups. With this tool we can create users and groups, assign groupmembership and manage user and group properties.Creating New AccountTo create a new user account, click on Users folder, then in Action menu select New User... option. We can alsoright-click on Users folder, or we can right-click on the right side of the window, where all users are listed, to getthe same option. 22
  26. 26. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 167.11 - New User 1 Image 167.12 - New User 2Now we need to type in the user name. Ally Anderson will use this account, so we will type inaanderson as auser name, and Ally Anderson as her full name. We need to type in Allys password too, and then confirm it byentering it again. Image 167.13 - New User MenuBy default, user would have to change the password at the next logon, and this is the most secure choice. WhenAlly logs on for the first time she will be forced to change her password to something different. In that way onlyshe will know the password. If we clear the User must change password at the next logon checkbox, we canselect User cannot change password or Password never expires option. We would do that in case if we havemore users that are using the same user account. Here, we can also disable an account if we want to. We woulddo that, for example, in a case when a user is not going to use that account right away, or he is not going to use itfor a long time. In this case we will select that a user must change password at the next logon, and well clickon Create button to create her account, and click Close to close the New User menu. When we look into theUsers folder, we can see the new account for Ally Anderson. 23
  27. 27. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 167.14 - User aandersonUser ManagementUsing the Local Users and Groups snap-in we can easily edit user settings. For instance, if a user forgets his/herpassword, we can easily set new password for him/her. To do that, we right-click the user account and select SetPassword... option. Image 167.15 - Set New PasswordWhen we select Set Password... option we will get a warning that we should use this feature with caution. This isbecause if a user has, for example, encrypted files, he/she wont be able to access them any more. Image 167.16 - Password WarningIf a user know his password, he should log in, then press CTR+ALT+DEL and then click Change Password. In ourcase we will click on Proceed button for now. We need to type in the new password and then confirm it by typingit again. 24
  28. 28. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 167.17 - Set New PasswordIf we have set up account lockout policy, to three log on attempts for example, then it might happen that the useraccount is locked out, because the user entered wrong password too many times. To unlock a user account, weneed to right-click the user account, select Properties, and clear the Account is locked out checkbox. Then, wehave to select User must change password at next logon option. This will force the user to change his passwordwhen he/she logs on again.We can also easily rename an account. We simply right-click on the account and click Rename. We can alsochange the full name by clicking on accounts Properties.If we know that some user wont log on to the computer for a while, we can disable his account to prevent anyoneto log on using that account. To do that we have to right-click a user account, select Properties, select Account isdisabled option and click on the OK button. You will notice the icon change on the user that we have disabled.When the user returns we simply clear the Account is disabled option to re-enable the account.When we create a new account we should always set a password to protect the account. The password shouldnot be something easy to guess (for example, user name). We should always force the user to change thepassword at the next logon. We should also disable accounts that wont be used for a while. If a user leaves andis replaced by someone else with similar access needs, we should rename the existing account (rather thendeleting the account and creating a new one).RememberFor user management in XP we can use User Accounts applet or Local Users and Groups snap-in. The UserAccounts applet can be used to change an account, create a new account and change the way users log on oroff. For advanced user account management we will use the Local Users and Groups snap-in. 25
  29. 29. Utilize Windows XP Users and GroupsGroup Management in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Users and Groups When we start dealing with a lot of users, rather then using individual users to control access to resources, it is useful to group users because usually many users have the same requirements. Because of that we need to know how to manage groups. By default, XP already has some built-in groups. Before you start Objectives: learn how create or delete groups and how to manage group membership.Also you will familiarize yourself with built-in local groups in XP.Prerequisites: you should know how to manage user accounts in XP.Key terms: group, membership, user, local, account, member, rights, access.Local Users and Groups Snap-inWe can manage groups with Local Users and Groups snap-in in Computer Management console. We cancreate our own groups or modify existing groups. We can also modify some groups which the system has createdfor our usage (we cant modify the SYSTEM, INTERACTIVE, Everyone, and the NETWORK group). Lets saythat we have a shared folder on a network. We want some people to be able to manage files in that shared folderand other people to be able to only read files in shared folder. In this situation we can create different user groupsand put our users that need to have read rights in one group, and those that need to have read rights in anothergroup. Then we can assign resource permissions to that particular user groups. Image 171.1 - Local Users and Groups Snap-inFrom this particular screen we have the ability of adding new user groups, modify the membership of the existinggroups, and we also have the ability to delete or rename user groups. To manage group membership, we have toedit the group properties. To edit group properties, simply right-click the desired group, and select Properties. 26
  30. 30. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 171.2 - Right Click On GroupWhen we get into the group properties, we can use Add... or Remove button to edit group membership. Forexample, lets add a user to the Helpdesk group. We have to click on Add... button and the following windowsappears: Image 171.3 - User SelectionHere we will going to click on Advanced... button to generate a list of users. This computer is not on a domain, sowe can only search for users on a local machine (in this case, on ADMIN-8268F4658). When we are ready, wecan click on Find Now button. The list of local users now appears, as shown below. 27
  31. 31. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 171.4 - List of UsersIn this case, we will select two users - Kim Verson and wdelmonte. When we are done selecting, we will click onthe OK button, and then on the next window click OK again. Now we can see our two users in the member list ofthe Helpdesk group. 28
  32. 32. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 171.5 - Helpdesk GroupWe can also manage group membership for individual users. To do that, we can go to the user list, right-click on aparticular user, and select Properties. Then we have to go to the "Member Of "tab and add or remove groups thatthe user belongs to. 29
  33. 33. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 171.7 - Individual User MembershipCreate New GroupTo create a new group we have to right-click on the group list window and select New Group... option. We haveto provide group name (Developers in our case), and optional, group description. We can also add members tothe group right away by clicking on Add... button. In this case, we will add the anderson user account. When weare done, we have to click on the Create button to create a group. 30
  34. 34. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 171.6 - New Group Delete Existing Group To delete a group of users, we have to select a group we want to delete and then click on the Remove button. When we delete a group from the computer, we dont delete the users that were members of the group. We only delete the group, and the users stay on the local machine. Removing a user account from a group does not delete the group or the user account. We can not remove the local Administrator user account from the Administrators group and Guest user account from the Guests group. Built-in Groups Whenever possible, we should use built-in groups to assign rights and permissions. For example, to allow someone to back up and restore the system, we should make the user account a member of the Backup Operators group. We should use caution when modifying the default rights and permissions assigned to built-in groups. When assigning security, we should make user accounts members of groups, then assign the rights or permissions to the group rather than the user accounts. Built-in local groups are: Administrators - Members have complete and unrestricted access to the computer, including every system right. The Administrator user account and any account designated as a "computer administrator" is a member of this group. Backup Operators - Members can back up and restore files (regardless of permissions), log on locally, and shut down the system. Members cannot change security settings. Guests - Members have limited rights (similar to members of the Users group). Members can shut down the system. Users - Members can use the computer but cannot perform system administration tasks and might not be able to run legacy applications. Members cannot share directories or install printers if the driver is not yet installed. Members cannot view or modify system files. Any user created with Local Users and Groups is automatically a member of this group. User accounts designated as "limited user" accounts are members of this group. A user account created as a "computer administrator" is made a member of this group. 31
  35. 35. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Power Users - Members can create and modify user accounts and local groups. They can remove users from Power Users, Users and Guests groups. They can change the system date and time, and install applications. They can not change the membership of the Administrators or Backup Operators groups, take ownership of files, back up or restore files, load or unload device drivers, and manage security settings. Windows XP also includes the following local groups: Network Configuration Operators Remote Desktop Users Replicator In order to participate in one of the groups, a user has to be added to a particular group and they automatically inherit particular privileges. Special Built-in Groups There are also other specific built-in user groups, like the Everyone group. The membership of the Everyone group is everyone. Its created for simplified access to the resources. We can not modify the membership of the Everyone group because everyone belongs to it. As we look into original permissions and security settings in Windows XP, we will notice that the default is always is the Everyone group. The first thing that we will probably want to do is remove the Everyone group from the list, and add our own groups of users to have access to particular resources. Two groups that we should also mention are INTERACTIVE group, and the NETWORKgroup. Lets say that we have two computers that are linked over computer network. One user is logged on to the particular machine and is actively using the keyboard, the mouse and looking at the monitor of that particular computer. In that case we consider that that user is a member of INTERACTIVE group because he is interactive with that computer. It is important to know where the user comes from. If that user access the resources on some machine on the network (shared folder), he becomes a member of a NETWORK group. Sometimes we refer to those groups as implicit groups or special identities. They act as variables to represent either a set of users or a set of programs running on the computer. The identity and membership of these groups is dynamically configured, so they are not listed in Local Users and Groups. In many cases, user accounts are being dynamically made a member of these groups when users perform certain actions (such as logging on or creating a file). Implicit local groups are: ANONYMOUS LOGON - Membership is obtained by logging on without a user name and password (anonymous logon is commonly permitted if the computer is acting as a web server) AUTHENTICATED USERS - Membership is obtained by logging on with a user name and password CREATOR GROUP - Membership is obtained by creating an object CREATOR OWNER - Membership is obtained by creating an object (such as a file) DIALUP - Membership is obtained by connecting to the computer through a dial-up connection Everyone - Membership is obtained by gaining access to the computer except through anonymous logon INTERACTIVE - Membership is obtained by logging on interactively (also called logging on locally) through the computer console NETWORK - Membership is obtained by logging on to the computer through a network connection REMOTE INTERACTIVE LOGON - Membership is obtained by logging on to the computer through a remote desktop connection Except the Everyone group, we can recognize these groups because their names are all written in caps. Remember We can manage groups with Local Users and Groups snap-in. We can create our own groups or modify existing groups. To manage group membership, we have to edit the group properties. To create a new group we have to right-click on the group list window and select New Group... option. To delete a group of users, we have to select 32
  36. 36. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groupsa group we want to delete and then click on the Remove button. Whenever possible, we should use built-ingroups to assign rights and permissions. Administrators have complete and unrestricted access to the computer.Members of Users group can use the computer but cannot perform system administration tasks. ANONYMOUSLOGON membership is obtained by logging on without a user name and password. NETWORK membership isobtained by logging on to the computer through a network. INTERACTIVE membership is obtained by logging oninteractively. 33
  37. 37. Utilize Windows XP Users and GroupsManage User Profiles in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Users and Groups User profiles help us to separate files and settings that belong to different users. Along with local user profiles, we can also create roaming user profiles or mandatory user profiles. Before you startObjectives: learn where to find user profile, how to create roaming or mandatory profile and how to change targetlocations for specific folders.Prerequisites: you should know what is user profile in general and how to manage user accountsin XP.Key terms: profile, user, account, documents, ntuser, roaming, mandatoryProfile LocationUser profile contains all of our custom settings that we have made to our computer. In Windows XP user profilesare stored in C:Documents and Settings folder. Inside this directory we will see a folder for each user whichhas logged on to the computer. Image 178.1 - Documents and Settings FolderIf we open a folder for some particular user we will see, among other things, an NTUSER.dat file, which containsuser settings. Specific user files are contained in folders like Desktop, My Documents etc. In the picture below wecan see Administrator profile. Note that hidden files have to be shown to see NTUSER.dat file. 34
  38. 38. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 178.2 - Administrator ProfileTypes of ProfilesAlong with local profile we can also have a Roaming user profile. We would use Roaming profile if we often logon to multiple computers on the network, and we want our settings to follow us around. Another type of profile thatwe can create is the Mandatory user profile. Mandatory profile is a read only profile, so that any changes madeby a user will be lost when they log off.Create Roaming ProfileTo create a roaming profile we have to create a shared folder on some server. In this example, we have createdshared folder called Profiles on a computer named server. The UNC (Universal Naming Convention) path to thisfolder is now serverprofiles. We will use this path when providing profile path for particular user(serverprofiles%username% syntax).The next step can be done in two ways. We can either copy existing profile to the network share or we can simplydefine new profile path for particular user. If we copy existing user profile to the shared folder, we have to ensurethat the proper permissions are set on that folder, so that only particular user has access to it. In this case wewould set the user profile path to that particular directory. To do that we can go to the Computer Management,then Local Users and Groups, Users folder, right-click on particular user and then select the Profile tab. In ourexample we have copied existing user folder for anderson user account. On the picture below, notice that wehave changed the profile path for that particular user. 35
  39. 39. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 178.3 - Profile PathAnother option is that we only set the profile path (without copying user profile to the shared folder). In this casesystem will automatically create new user profile on a shared folder when a user logs on to the computer. Thatsbecause no user profile for that user account will exit on that location.Create Mandatory ProfileThe first step in specifying the mandatory profile is to create a profile that will be shared by multiple users. In ourcase we will create a user account named Students. 36
  40. 40. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 178.4 - Students User AccountNext thing we need to do is to log on to the system using the Students user account and make the appropriatechanges. After we configure all the settings we want, we have to log off from the Students account and then logon using some other account with administrative privileges (Administrator in our case). The next step inconfiguring a mandatory profile is to save it to a central location. Lets go to the Start Menu, right-click MyComputer and select Properties to open system properties. Now, we will go to the Advanced tab, and under UserProfiles section we will click on the Settings button. In this window we can see all profiles that are currently savedon the system. Image 178.5 - List of User ProfilesWe are currently logged on as Administrator so we can not copy or delete this particular user profile. This is whywe have created different user account that we will be using as a mandatory user account. Now, we want to copyStudents profile, so we will select that account, and then clickCopy To button. We have already created a folderin which we will save this profile, so we will click on Browse button, navigate to the C:MandatoryProfile folder,and click on the OK button. Now , we have to change permissions for this user profile, so we have to click on theChange button in Permitted to use section. Normally, profile is used by a single user, but this profile is going tobe used by multiple users, so we will give the Everyone group permission to use this profile. 37
  41. 41. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 178.6 - Copy ProfileThe next step is to make that profile a read-only profile. To do that, we will browse to the C:MandatoryProfilefolder and rename the NTUSER.dat to NTUSER.man. This makes it a mandatory profile. If you dont seeNTUSER.dat file, its because its hidden by default. In that case, we have to select Show hidden files andfolders in Folder Options menu. Image 178.7 - Renaming NTUSER fileThe final step is to configure local user account to use the mandatory profile (Students in our case). Lets go backto Computer Management, and Users folder under Local Users and Groups. We right-click on the Studentsuser, select Properties option, go to the Profile tab, and enter the Profile path, which is in our caseC:MandatoryProfile. 38
  42. 42. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 178.8 - Students Profile PathWe can point any other user to use that same mandatory profile, at the same time. We dont have to create aseparate mandatory profile for different user accounts (but we can if we want to).Create Custom Default ProfileThe Default User profile is used to create a new profile for users who have never logged on to the machinebefore. To create a custom default profile we have to begin by logging in with some random user account (in ourcase we will use IMadruga account), and make changes that we want to be available for all new users. When wemake changes to user profile, we will copy that profile to the Default User location. Lets go to the Start Menu,right-click My Computer, select Properties to open System Properties, go to the Advanced tab, andunder User Profiles click on the Settings button. Now we will copy the IMadruga user profile, so we will select itand click the Copy To button. We have to select the new location for our user profile and in this case, we willnavigate to theC:Documents and SettingsDefault User folder, because we want this profile to be used as thedefault user profile. Image 178.9 - Copy to Default User Location 39
  43. 43. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups When we click the OK button, we have to change the permissions for default user profile. We want everyone to be able to use this profile, so we will select the Everyone group. We have to keep in mind that the old default profile is now overwritten. If we wanted to save old settings, we should have backed it up. Now, whenever a new user logs on to this particular machine, he will get our newly defined default user settings. Redirect Folders XP creates My Documents folder for each user account. This folder is used to store files saved by the user. Lets take a look to the properties of My Documents. We will right-click it and select the Properties option. Image 178.9 - Target Location for My Documents Folder Notice the target location. This My Documents folder is located on the C drive, in Administrator profile folder. If we want to, we can change or move the location of My Documents folder, even to a network path. Moving My Documents folder is useful for data protection or for easier backup. End users can only redirect the following folders: My Documents, My Music, My Pictures, and My Videos. Group Policy can only redirect the following folders: Application Data, Desktop, My Documents, My Music, My Pictures, My Videos, and Start Menu. We can use the %username% variable to redirect folders to unique parent folders based on user name. When we redirect folders, the default is to copy the existing folder contents to the new location. Redirecting folders does not delete the existing folder or prevent data from being stored in the folder. It only redirects the shortcut that points to the target folder. By default, users are given the necessary permissions to manage their redirected folders. Remember NTUSER.dat file is hidden by default. Roaming profile is saved on a network share. To create a roaming profile we can simply change the path of the profile to point to the network share, and the system will create new, roaming profile for that particular user. To create a mandatory profile we have to rename the NTUSER.dat file to NTUSER.man, which will make it a read-only profile. Everyone must have permisions to access the Default profile. We can change target location for specific folders like My Documents, Desktop etc. Paths that are mentioned in this article C:Documents and Settings - folder in which all user profiles are located by default serverprofiles - shared folder which was used to save roaming user profile C:MandatoryProfile - folder which we used to create mandatory profile C:Documents and SettingsDefault User - path to the defualt user profile 40
  44. 44. Utilize Windows XP Users and GroupsUser Rights and Group Policy in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Users and Groups User rights define special local system actions that are permitted for specific users and groups. To add or remove rights for users and groups we can use Group Policy editor. Before you start Objectives: learn how can you confgure user rights trough Group Policy editor.Prerequisites: you should know what is Group Policy.Key terms: policy, user, group, rights, assignment, editor, securityUser Rights AssignmentWe can open GP editor through Run menu by typing in gpedit.msc and clicking on the OK button. This opensGroup Policy editor for local computer. Next, we have to navigate to the Computer Configuration, WindowsSettings, Security Settings, Local Policies, and then User Rights Assignment. Image 183.1 - User Rights Assignment SectionLets find and open the Change the system time policy. Notice that Administrators and Power Users can currentlychange time on the system. 41
  45. 45. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 183.2 - Change the system time PolicyLets remove the Power Users from this list, so that only administrators can change the system time. Lets addPower Users the right to Debug programs. We will open Debug programs policy, click Add User or Group...button, and look for the Power Users group. Before we can reach groups, we have to select Groups option in theObject Types section. 42
  46. 46. Utilize Windows XP Users and Groups Image 183.3 - Object TypesWhen we are finished, we can click on the OK button to exit this policy. Power Users will now be able to debugprograms.As you can see, we have a lot of options for setting up user rights. Remember that we can do this for any user orgroup that we create. 43
  47. 47. Utilize Windows XP HardwareHardwareDevices in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Hardware We can use Device Manager to view and configure computer hardware. The Device Manager MMC is included as a part of a Computer Management console. Before you start Objectives: learn how to use Device Manager to check installed devices, and how to add non-plug and play devices using Add New Hardware wizard.Prerequisites: you should know about devices in Windows in general.Key terms: device, hardware, manager, wizard, computer, resourcesDevice ManagerTo open Device Manager, click Start, right-click My Computer, and select Manage to open up the ComputerManagement. Then, browse to the Device Manager under System Tools. We can also open Device Manager as astandalone console. Again, lets go to the Start menu, right-click My Computer, but this time select Properties toopen system properties. Then go to the Hardware tab, and click on the Device Manager button. Image 199.1 - Device ManagerNotice that devices are organized in a tree view, by type. So, for example, if we look at Display adapters, we cansee the video card on this machine. We can also use the View menu to change the organization. Organizationcan be Devices by type or Devices by connection, or we can look Resources by type or Resources byconnection. We can also show hidden devices. If we select this option we will also see Non-Plug and Play driversas well as printers, in our tree view. 44
  48. 48. Utilize Windows XP HardwareWe can use the device icons to view and manage our devices. For example, lets look at the properties of theCOM port COM1. Right-click the device and open its properties. Image 199.2 - COM1 PropertiesDevice properties typically have a General and a Driver tab. The General tab gives us the device status. Forexample, COM1 port in our case is working properly. If we are having problems, we can run the Troubleshooterby clicking on the Troubleshoot... button to get more information on how to solve our problem. On the Driver tab,we can see driver details or we can update, roll back, or un-install our drivers. Many devices also havea Resources tab. Here we can configure resources such as IRQs and I/O ranges. Keep in mind that we dontusually configure resources for Plug and Play devices. Also, depending on the hardware device, we may haveother tabs. For example, there is a Port Settings tab on COM1 device. These are typical settings that we canconfigure for a COM port. Different type of device would have different tabs.If a device is no longer used on our computer, begin by physically removing the device. In most cases, Windowswill detect that the hardware no longer exists, and it will remove the corresponding icon in the Device Manager. Ifthe icon remains after the hardware is removed, we can right-click the icon and select Uninstall option. Thisuninstalls the device from the computer. If the device is no longer used, and it can not be physically removed, wecan use the Disable option instead. For example, suppose that we have a network card thats integrated on themotherboard, but we have installed a new network adapter and we dont want to use the integrated NIC. In thiscase, we can use the Disable option to prevent the integrated network adapter from being used by Windows.Although the device still appears in the Device Manager, it can no longer be used.TroubleshootingMost hardware devices are Plug and Play devices, and they will be automatically installed and configured onwindows. If windows does not detect the device, or the device is not fully installed, we can use the Add HardwareWizard to manually install it. Lets go to the Start Menu > Control Panel > Add Hardware Wizard. 45
  49. 49. Utilize Windows XP Hardware Image 199.3 - Add Hardware WizardTake a look at the warning message here. If we have an installation CD, we should use it rather than this wizard.Lets click next. At this point wizard is doing the plug and play search, similar to Scan for new devices in DeviceManager. Now we need to answer a question. Have we already connected the hardware or not? If we select theNo option, the wizard finishes and prompts us to connect the device. Lets select the Yes option and click Next. Atthis point we get a list of installed devices, and if we scroll down all the way, we can select the Add a newhardware device option. We will select that option and click Next. 46
  50. 50. Utilize Windows XP Hardware Image 199.4 - New Device Option Next, we can choose from two options. If we choose the first option, computer will search and install the hardware automatically. This search is more extensive than the previous search. It will search for detectable legacy or detectable non-plug and play devices. We can also select the device from the list. To do that, we have to select the second option and click Next. First we have to select the device category and then click Next. Now we have to select the manufacturer and the model. After we made all of the selections, and provided all of the resources settings, our new device should be up and running, and also visible in Device Manager. Remember We can use Device Manager to check our devices. Many devices in Device Manager will have options for resources utilization. Resources are things such as IRQs and I/O ranges. Keep in mind that we dont usually configure resources for Plug and Play devices. If some device is no longer used, but we cant remove it physically, we can disable it in Device Manager. If windows does not detect newly added device, or the device is not fully installed, we can use the Add Hardware Wizard to manually install it. Paths that are mentioned in this article Start Menu > Control Panel > Add Hardware Wizard - path to the Add Hardware wizard 47
  51. 51. Utilize Windows XP HardwareQuality of Drivers in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Hardware Since device drivers can cause system instability and contain malicious code, Microsoft provided several ways to check the integrity of the drivers in XP. Before you start Objectives: learn how to check that drivers are compatible with XP, and how to useavailable tools to check that drivers are signed (sigverif, driverquery, sfc).Prerequisites: you have to know what drivers are.Key terms: driver, system, signed, check, tool, verification, signatureQuality of DriversThere is a lot of concern about the quality of the drivers because they can cause system instability or they cancontain viruses. Because of that Microsoft came up with a way to help us ensure the quality and compatibility ofthe device drivers on our system. This feature is known as Driver Signing. Driver signing is intended to ensurethat the device software is compatible with Windows XP and to ensure that nobody has tampered with the drivers(that nobody inserted malicious code).Since not all hardware manufacturers are on board with the Driver Signing, it becomes important for us to be ableto allow or deny the unsigned driver to be installed on the system. In XP, Microsoft provided us with three levels ofcontrol for installation of unsigned drivers. These levels are Block,Warn and Ignore. To manage this settings, goto the Start Menu, right-click My Computer, select Properties, go to the Hardware tab and then click on DriverSigning. Image 207.1 - Driver Signing OptionsBlock level will block the installation of any unsigned driver to the system. This will ensure that drivers are alwayscompatible with the system, and that our drivers dont have any viruses. The negative side of this is that manymanufacturers are not on board with driver signing, so if we want to use the latest drivers, they may not beavailable. The Warn level will give us a warning when we try to install an unsigned driver. The criteria here is do 48
  52. 52. Utilize Windows XP Hardwarewe trust the source where we got our driver from. The Ignore level will simply install all the drivers withoutprompting us for our approval. Of course, we would recommend that the Warn level is enabled at least.We can make any of this level the default setting through out our system. To do that simply check the Make thisaction the system default option. Another way to enforce driver signing is through GPOs. We can do this either atthe local level, or at the domain level, which makes it easy to manage driver signing through out our organization.Group membership can also have a little bit of control over driver signing as well. Remember, only members ofthe Power User group (and up) have the ability of installing software. As a result of that, only Power Users andAdministrators can install drivers.Driver Verification ToolsMicrosoft also provided useful tools to check if the drivers are signed. The first one of these tools isSigverif.exe,which is used to check if files are signed or not. Another utility that we can use isDriverquery.exe which enablesus to check existing drivers on the system (it is command line tool, so use /si switch to check driver signing).Another utility that we can use is Msinfo32.exe, which can show us information for all our drivers (like dates,manufacturers, and also if they are signed or not). Another command line utility that we can use is Sfc.exe.Normally, Sfc.exe allows us to check the system files and verify their integrity. The thing is, sometimes drivers canoverwrite key system files. We can use Sfc.exe /scannow command to see if our system files have beenoverwritten or become corrupted when we installed new drivers, especially when we installed unsigned drivers.File Signature Verification Tool (sigverif)The first tool is File Signature Verification tool. Lets go to the Run command, type in sigverif, and click the OKbutton to run the File Signature Verification tool. By default, this tool checks all system files in the Windowsdirectory. To limit this search a little bit, click on Advanced , and browse toSystem32, and select drivers folder.This will limit the search to the drivers folder and its sub-folders (if we check the Include sub-folders option). ClickStart to start the file signature verification process. Image 207.2 - File VerificationIn our case, all our files are verified as digitally signed. In other case, this tool would show us a list of unsignedfiles.Driver QueryAnother way we can verify digital signatures for driver files is through the Driver Query program. To run thisprogram, we need to go to the Run command and open the Command Prompt. To do that, type in cmd in Run 49
  53. 53. Utilize Windows XP Hardwaremenu and click OK button. Next, we need to type in driverquery, and then provide the /si switch. The /si switchreports back the signature status. Image 207.3 - Driverquery ResultAs you can see, we have a column named IsSigned. If we look down, in our case all our drivers are signed.Here we can see exactly which device does not have a signed driver.MSINFO32Another tool that we can use to find the same information is msinfo32. Again, we will go to the Run command,type in msinfo32, and click the OK button. Now, we need to browse to the Software Environment, andthen Signed Drivers section. Image 207.4 - Signed Drivers in System InformationIn this window we can sort drivers by the Signed column, so that we can see unsigned drivers first.RememberDriver signing is intended to ensure that the device software is compatible with Windows XP and to ensure thatnobody has tampered with the drivers. In XP, Microsoft provided us with three levels of control for installation of 50
  54. 54. Utilize Windows XP Hardwareunsigned drivers. These levels are Block, Warn and Ignore. To verify drivers we can use these tools: sigverif,driverquery (in CLI), msinfo32 and sfc (CLI). 51
  55. 55. Utilize Windows XP HardwarePower Options in XP Parent Category: XP Category: Hardware Windows XP supports two types of power management. Those are Advanced Power Management (APM) and Advanced Configuration Power Interface (ACPI). Before you start Objectives: learn how to configure power options on XP machine Prerequisites: no prerequisites.Key terms: power, scheme, option, acpi, conserve, advanced, batteryAPM vs ACPIAdvanced Power Management (APM) is Microsofts first attempt to do power management. All power optionswere set in the BIOS and the BIOS controlled the shutting down of devices. This was very simplistic and it reallydid not help a lot. As a result of that, Microsoft developed the Advanced Configuration Power Interface(ACPI). Some of the advantages that ACPI brought is that Windows is in charge of power management now. Thisgives us more flexibility when controlling power options. ACPI enables us to control power options for eachindividual device. We can use Device Manager to set power options for individual devices. Also, some devicescan send a signal that will wake up the rest of the system for us. ACPI enabled us functionalities like Hibernationand Standby. ACPI comes with a specialized Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL). We can install this HAL only ifthe BIOS supports the ACPI management.Power SchemesWindows XP introduced Power schemes which we can use to quickly set the appropriate power options. Forexample, one of the Power schemes can be for Home/Office Desk. In our Home/Office default settings is thatafter 20 minutes of inactivity system automatically powers off our monitor. This makes us Green Star compliantand it allows us to conserve power, which is very important. Presentation Power scheme is used when we dontwant our computer to power off at all. In Presentation scheme everything is always on. This allows the presenterto continue to talk without worrying that the computer will hibernate or go into the Standby mode. Anotherinteresting power scheme is Portable/Laptop scheme.This scheme will shut down various devices based oninactivity to preserve battery power. For example, system will shut down monitor after 15 minutes by default, harddrive after 30 minutes and after some determined idle time, other additional devices as well. Of course, we canedit these Power schemes to further conserve power.Example ConfigurationWe can change the way that our computer uses power. This is useful if we want to conserve energy, prolong thebattery life of the portable computer or configure a UPS. To customize Power Options lets go to the Start Menu >Control Panel > Power Options. We will start by looking at the Power Schemes tab. 52
  56. 56. Utilize Windows XP Hardware Image 212.1 - Power SchemesHere we can configure the computer to turn off the monitor or hard disks when the computer has been idle for awhile. Notice that for the Home/Office Desk scheme, monitor will be turned off after 20 minutes by default, buthard disks will not be turned off. Lets say that this computer is a laptop, so we will want to select the schemewhich will conserve the battery. If we change the scheme to the Portable/Laptop, our monitor will be turned offafter 15 minutes and hard disks after 30 minutes, by default. We can edit the scheme to further conserve power.To do that, just choose different option from Turn of monitor drop-down menu or from Turn of hard disks drop-down menu. If we are doing a presentation, we should change to the Presentation power scheme, so that ourcomputer can always be on. The Presentation scheme is different from Always On scheme. In Always Onscheme, by default, monitor will turn off after 20 minutes, while in Presentation scheme everything is alwayson. Lets go to the Advanced tab. 53
  57. 57. Utilize Windows XP Hardware Image 212.2 - Advanced TabIn Advanced tab we can set the Prompt for password when computer resumes from standby option which is veryuseful setting. Here, we can also set the power button options. We can configure what will happen when we pressthe power button on our computer. We can configure it to shut down, do nothing or to ask us what to do. Letstake a look at the Hibernate tab. 54
  58. 58. Utilize Windows XP Hardware Image 212.3 - Hibernation TabNotice that hibernation is not enabled on this machine. When our computer hibernates, it stores all the memorycontent to the hard disk and then shuts down the computer. Hibernation will use as much disk space as we haveRAM installed on our machine. Lets look at the UPS tab. 55

×