Domestic violence is any kind of physical, psychic, sexual aggression, infliction, or any other crime , which has been purposefully committed by one member of the family against another one, who lives or has lived in the same location as the victim
Intimidation, degradation and humiliation, critic ism, insults, disparagement of the victim, unfounded accusations , blaming, ignoring , ridiculing the victim’s needs, lying , extreme jealousy, physical and social isolation.
Sexual abuse means any kind of forced sex or sexual degradation.
A. The social and affective climate within the family(the relationship between the parents , their attitude towards the child and vice versa)
B. T he type of family(well-structured , split after divorce , separation or death , reorgani sed . )
C. The economical conditions of the family ( a higher crime and school violence rate is associated to neighbourhoods where there is a high level of unemployment, many under qualified workers or many foreign people with small chances of employment)
D. The size of the family ( the means by which discipline is imposed, the type of authority towards the children - e qu al or preferen t ial)
E. The level of the parents’ education (the social, professional and cultural status of the family plays an important part in the insertion or rejection of the children at school and in the occurrence or prevention of violent behaviour)
The causes of violence are closely related to the environment in which man grows up and develops: family, school, friends , the media .
The reduction of violence in society depends on the improvement of its causes, on the efficiency of institutional control , but also on the ability of each individual to understand that aggression is not a solution to our problems .
Specialists identify two types of school violence:
Objective violence , which can be classified as criminal ( more or less serious crimes) and which can be dealt with frontally.
Subjective violence , which is subtler, more attitude related and can affect school climate: contempt, humiliation, defiance, anti-school behaviour.
Verbal violence is one of the most frequent forms of violence. However, it is not perceived the same way by both students and teachers. Students tend to minimise its seriousness, whereas teachers seem to overrate it.
Context and school culture should be taken into account when establishing the level of school violence.
Violence can significantly affect the learning environment, it worsens the school climate, and it also affects the relationship between students and teachers. School violence can range from verbal violence (which occurs very often and can affect the learning environment) to physical violence, which can become rather serious.
In any institution there are fixed rules defining the rights and obligations of any student , as well as the sanctions which can be applied to those who disobey them . Therefore, if a student is exposed to any kind of violence, they must appeal to any member of staff able to intervene . If the incident happens inside the school itself, the student must alert the year manager, the teachers on duty, or the headmasters . If it happens in the street, the victim can enlist the help of a police officer if they see one, or call the emergency number 112. A child can ask for an adult’s help, or call their relatives