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  • 1. What is it for?The Hydrolab is the name of the sonde we will be using.It is a scientific instrument used to measure biological and physical properties in water.It can be used “in the field”
  • 2. AdvantagesIt can store data in memory and communicate with computers.Some sondes can be programmed and left in water to gather data over a period of time.
  • 3. Questions Think of a place a scientist might want to place a sonde and leave it for a week? What about a year? What is an advantage to having an electronic monitor like the Hydrolab instead of pH paper and a hand held thermometer?
  • 4. Sonde DataThe Sonde here has measured several parametersover time
  • 5. This sonde measured DO over timein several rivers
  • 6. Hand heldSurveyor Hydrolab
  • 7. pHDissolved OxygenTemperatureChlorophyll a
  • 8. pH pH is a measure of the acidic or basic (alkaline) nature of a solution
  • 9. pH – A scale from 0-14 A pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 provides protection for the life of freshwater fish. Min Max Effects 3.8 10.0 Fish eggs could be hatched, but deformed young 5.0 9.0 Tolerable range for most fish 4.1 9.5 Range tolerated by trout 6.0 7.2 Optimum (best) range for fish eggs 4.0 10.1 Limits for the most resistant fish species 4.6 9.5 Limits for perch 5.4 11.4 Fish avoid waters beyond these limits 3.3 4.7 Mosquito larvae live within this range 7.5 8.4 Best range for the growth of algae
  • 10. Dissolved Oxygen Dissolved oxygen – the amount of oxygen dissolved in water. This is dependent on the water temperature. Cold water can hold more of any gas, in this case oxygen, than warmer water. Oxygen gets into water by diffusion from the surrounding air, by aeration (rapid movement), and as a waste product of photosynthesis.
  • 11. Dissolved Oxygen - DO We will measure the saturation level of the oxygen, the DO - % saturation. Rivers that have a dissolved oxygen value of 90 percent or higher are considered healthy Rivers below 90 percent saturation may have large amounts of oxygen-demanding materials, like organic waste from sewage systems, urban or agricultural run-off, and some industrial waste.
  • 12. Questions What does it mean to have a higher number on the pH scale? Turn to your neighbor and explain dissolved oxygen to them in one sentence.
  • 13. Temperature Aquatic life needs specific temperatures Temperature also is important because it influences water chemistry (remember how DO is effected by temperature?)
  • 14. Fish and Temperature Species Lower Optimum Upper Avoidance Avoidance Bluegill 58° F 69° F 75° F Trout, Brook 44° F 58° F 70° F Trout, Brown 44° F 56-65° F 75° F Carp 75° F 84° F 88° F Bass, 60° F 80° F 60° F Largemouth Muskellunge 55° F 63° F 72° F Pike, Northern 56 63° F 74° F
  • 15. Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll is the green part of plants that helps them change light to food. Measuring the concentration of chlorophyll a provides an estimate of algal biomass This is important to know because it tells us about the health of a stream or lake.
  • 16. Chlorophyll a Too much algal growth, or too much of a certain type of algae (such as blue-green algae), can cause problems in the lake ecosystem. When there is a rapid growth of a certain type of algae it is called an algal bloom As the algae die off they sink to the bottom of the lake and decompose. Decomposition uses up oxygen that organisms need to live.
  • 17. Algal bloom in Lake Erie 2011
  • 18. Questions How can stream temperature effect a fish? How do you think they Hydrolab can measure the chlorophyll a of a stream or Lake? Chlorophyll a levels change because of land use. Why?
  • 19. Land Use that Increases Chlorophyll a Agricultural run-off Water from sewage treatment plants Storm water runoff from developed land Nitrogen from burning fossil fuels Lawn and garden fertilizers Faulty septic systems Dumping or burning leaves in or near a lake
  • 20. Proper Use Hold the Hydrolab by the metal bale. Deploy with the colored cord. Bale
  • 21. Keep the Surveyor and Computerdry
  • 22. Other Terms Calibration: To standardize or correct sensors after determining, by measurement or comparison with a standard, the correct value. Conductivity: A measure of the ability of water to pass an electrical current. This parameter indicates the amount of dissolved substances (salts) present in the water. Turbidity: a measure of the extent to which the intensity of light passing through water is reduced by the suspended matter.