Silvopastoral systems to promote forest protection in Colombia

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Julián Chará, Coordinator of Center for Research on Sustainable Systems of Agriculture Production (CIPAV) presented the urgency to promote silvopastoral systems in Latin America, in particular in Colombia. “CIPAV advocates the Intensive Silvopastoral Systems (ISS) because it increases efficiency of biological processes by combining fodder shrubs, pastures and timber trees” said Chará.

Silvopastoral systems to promote forest protection in Colombia

  1. 1. Silvopastoral systems to promote forest protection in Colombia Julián Chará Enrique Murgueitio Zoraida CalleCentre for Research on Sustainable Systems of Agricultural Production Cali – Colombia www.cipav.org.co
  2. 2. Pastures in South America– 550 million hectares in Latin America (2007) 27% of area– 38 million hectares in Colombia http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/aglands-pastures-2000/maps
  3. 3. Deforestation in South America Source: NASA/USGS/UMD/SDSU: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/landsat/news/40th-top10- amazon.html
  4. 4. Growth of cattle herd in Colombia24,000,00021,000,000 0.3% annual18,000,000 • 1.4% annual growth • 3,3% annual growth15,000,00012,000,000 1983 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Source: FAO - FEDEGAN
  5. 5. Hot Spots de Deforestación1990-2010 Land Use Land Use Conflicts Crops Pastures
  6. 6. Land use efficiency• Average annual per hectare stocking rate: 0.59 animals• Average annual per hectare productivity: – 19.9 kg of beef – 89.7 L of milk Los Santos province, Arco Seco region, Panama Photo: Fernando Uribe • Minimum animal loads • Low per animal and per hectare production indexes FAO, 2006 • Meager contributions to rural employment
  7. 7. Livestock in a changing world• Ensure the provision of good quality food for a growing population• Reduce the impact on the environment – Improve biodiversity – Reduce deforestation and promote restoration – Reduce water pollution and improve watershed regulation – Reduce GHG emissions – Provide environmental services• Revert soil degradation• Be resilient to Climate Change• Be respectful with local culture• Produce timber and other forest products• Increase animal welfare
  8. 8. Cattle ranching can be:• Conventionally managed: Efficient tool for ecosystem degradation.• Sustainably managed with silvopastoral systems: Tool for rehabilitating degraded lands.• Silvopastoral systems integrated with connectivity corridors and protected areas: Part of a strategy for the ecological restoration of agricultural landscapes.
  9. 9. Silvopastoral Systems - SPS• Agroforestry arrangements that combine fodder plants, such as grasses and leguminous herbs, with shrubs and trees for animal nutrition and complementary uses. Pezo & Ibrahim, 1998; Harvey 2004
  10. 10. Four silvopastoral systemsScattered trees in pastureland Live fences Intensive silvopastoral system Mixed fodder bank (cut-and-carry system)
  11. 11. Intensive silvopastoral system ISS• A system that can be directly grazed by livestock. It combines: – Fodder shrubs planted at high densities (>10,000 plants ha-1), intercropped with – highly-productive pastures, and – 500 timber trees planted in east-west lines to minimize shading.
  12. 12. What is intensive about ISS? Efficiency of biological processes: The “inputs” of the Photosynthesis & system are thebiomass production natural processes themselvesOrganic matter Nitrogen fixation and soil biological Solubilization of soil activity phosphorus and other nutrients
  13. 13. January, 2006 August, 2006 First grazing Biomass production April 2006 January 2007 Animal body condition 1.2 large 5.1 large animals animals 1.7 L milk 4.1 L milkcow-1 day-1 cow-1 day- 1 Carrying capacity and productivity
  14. 14. 1990 2011 Pasture with star grass iSS 10,000 Leucaena ha-1)Fertilization 450-500 kg urea ha-1 Without fertilization year-1Stocking density 3.5 4.5(450kg ha-1)Milk production 9000 l ha-1 yr-1 15,000 l ha-1 yr-1
  15. 15. Productive parameters and GHG Balance under different scenarios in Colombia Scenarios iSPS + Degraded Improved iSPS Timber Pasture Pasture trees*Plant Biomass; tons DM/ha/yr 7.0 19.2 28.0 28.0Stocking rate (GA/Ha) 0.85 2.34 3.00 3.00Kg de meat produced per ha-year (LW) 77.6 341.6 711.8 711.8 Source: Naranjo et al. 2012
  16. 16. Surface required to produce 10,000 ton of meat (lw) per year in the dry region of ColombiaThousands of ha Extensive Improved Intensive pastures pastures Silvopastures
  17. 17. Land Use changes after project end
  18. 18. Without projectRiparian corridors (ha)
  19. 19. Connectivity corridors – MBSCR Project Buffer strips (25 m wide) - Natural ecosystem fragments Core strip - Scattered trees (10 m wide) - Intensive silvopastoral systems - Live fences - Wind breaks Payment for land uses sufficiently compatible with conservation- Natural ecosystem fragments- Forest restorationOnly farmers that commit to strictconservation receive payment
  20. 20. Silvopastoral systems as a landscape matrix at El Chaco Farm, Piedras, TolimaRiparian buffer andsecondary forest Rice monoculture matrix Silvopastoral matrix Silvopastoral matrix Rice monoculture matrix
  21. 21. Rehabilitation of cattle ranching lands must:3. Facilitate therelease offragile, marginaland strategicareas forecologicalrestoration.1. Increase productivity and profitability of 2. Enhance the generation ofthe production system environmental goods and services.
  22. 22. Land Use change in the “coffee region” of Colombia 2003 - 2007 FINCA PINZACUÁ, 2003 FINCA PINZACUÁ, 2007
  23. 23. Thanks!!!

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