Plant genetic resources and climate change

1,920 views
1,780 views

Published on

Presentation made on the 15th November 2010 in New Delhi, India in the office of NBPGR by Andy Jarvis.

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,920
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
13
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
82
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Plant genetic resources and climate change

  1. 1. © Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />Plant genetic resource: Threats and opportunities arising from climate change<br />Andy Jarvis, Julián Ramírez, Nora Castañeda, Nigel Maxted, Robert Hijmans and Jacob Van Etten <br />
  2. 2. Content<br />Some background on climate change and what it means for agriculture<br />Focus on crop wild relatives: threats and opportunities<br />The CGIAR-ESSP lead Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security global program of research<br />Concluding remarks<br />
  3. 3. Climate change is not new…but is accelerating<br />
  4. 4. Global Climate Models (GCMs)<br />21 global climate models in the world, based on atmospheric sciences, chemistry, biology, and a touch of astrology<br />Run from the past to present to calibrate, then into the future<br />Run using different emissions scenarios<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Temperatures rise….<br />
  8. 8. Changes in rainfall…<br />
  9. 9. The Impacts on Crop Suitability<br />
  10. 10. Empirical evidence of serious problems in the US<br /><ul><li>In many cases, roughly 6-10% yield loss per degree
  11. 11. For example, US maize, soy, cotton yields fall rapidly when exposed to temperatures >30˚C</li></ul>Schlenker and Roberts 2009 PNAS<br />
  12. 12. Average change in suitability for all crops in 2050s<br />
  13. 13. Impacts of climate change to food security<br />Lobell et al. looked at impacts of climate change on food security<br />Cassava clearly highlighted as suffering least among many staples<br />Particular opportunities as an alternative crop for southern Africa<br />
  14. 14. Crop wild relatives - Thefoundation of agriculture<br />
  15. 15. Wild relatives of crops<br />Includeboth progenitor species and closelyrelatedspecies of cultivatedcrops<br />Faba beans – 0 wild relatives<br />Potato – 172 wild relativespecies<br />Increasinglyuseful in breeding, especiallyforbioticresistance<br />
  16. 16. Photos from Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  17. 17. Why conserve CWR diversity?<br />Use!!<br />234 papers cited<br />Maxted and Kell, 2009<br />Use: 39% pest resistance; 17% abiotic stress; 13% yield increase <br />Citations: 2% <1970; 13% 1970s; 15% 1980s; 32% 1990s; 38% >1999<br />
  18. 18. Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions<br />Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance<br />COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner<br />
  19. 19. Grassy stunt virus in rice<br />Resistance from Oryzanivaragenes<br />(Barclay 2004)<br />Potato late blight<br />Resistance from Solanumdemissun<br />and S. stoloniferum<br />National potato council (2003)<br />
  20. 20. Nevo and Chen 2010<br />Adaptation to abiotic stress<br />
  21. 21. Quality traits<br />
  22. 22. Post harvest deterioration - Cassava<br />Courtesy of Emmanuel Okogbenin<br />
  23. 23. Why conserve CWR Diversity?<br />Value as wild plant species in natural ecosystems<br />Value of CWR as actual or potential gene donors:<br />US$340 million a year in US (Prescott-Allen and Prescott Allen, 1986)<br />$20 billion toward increased crop yields per year in the United States and $115 billion worldwide (Pimentel et al., 1997)<br />US$10 billion annually in global wholesale farm values (Phillips and Meilleur, 1998)<br /><ul><li>Individual examples of use:
  24. 24. Lycopersicon chmielewskii sweetening tomato US $ 5-8million per year (Iltis, 1988)
  25. 25. Various CWR of wheat provide disease resistance to wheat and US benefits by US $ 50m per year (Witt, 1985)</li></ul>Courtesy of Nigel Maxted<br />
  26. 26. Threats<br />
  27. 27. Impact of climate change on CWR<br />Assessment of shifts in distribution range under climate change<br />Wild potatoes<br />Wild African Vigna<br />Wild peanuts<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Peanuts<br />Shift south and upwards<br />
  30. 30. Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts<br />Potatoes<br />Shift upwards<br />
  31. 31. Summary Impacts<br />16-22% (depending on migration scenario) of these species predicted to go extinct <br />Most species losing over 50% of their range size<br />Wild peanuts were the most affected group, with 24 to 31 of 51 species projected to go extinct <br />For wild potato, 7 to 13 of 108 species were predicted to go extinct<br />
  32. 32. Wild relative species<br />A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions<br />A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions <br />A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions<br />Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance<br />COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner<br />
  33. 33. Impact of Climate Change – Wild Peanuts<br />
  34. 34. More immediate threats….<br />
  35. 35. Concentration of the natural distributiononthearea of mostintensivecattle-raising and cropproductionactivity in Brazil has notbeen a seriousproblem, in thepast, forpreservation of local wild species of Arachis, buttheadvance of themodern, mechanizedagriculture, in thelastfewdecades, and speciallythe use of herbicideshaveimposedseverepressureon wild populations. Thisisalso true for Eastern Bolivia, wheremanyspecies of sectionArachisoccur. <br />Adapted from Nature, v.466, p.554-556, 2010<br />Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  36. 36. Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN<br />
  37. 37. © Neil Palmer (CIAT)<br />Howwellconserved are crop wild relatives?Gap Analysis<br />
  38. 38. Why Gap Analysis?<br />Tool to assess crop and crop wild relative genetic and geographical diversity<br />Allows detecting incomplete species collections as well as defining which species should be collected and where these collections should be focused<br />Assesses the current extent at which the ex situ conservation system is correctly holding the genetic diversity of a particular genepool<br />
  39. 39. To know what you don’t have, you first need to know what you do have<br />
  40. 40. The visible global system<br />
  41. 41. The Gap Analysis process<br /><ul><li>Identifyinggaps</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Diversity
  42. 42. Possibly biotic traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Range of traits</li></ul>Proxy for:<br /><ul><li> Abiotic traits</li></li></ul><li>An example in Phaseolus <br />
  43. 43. Herbarium versus germplasm: Geographic<br />
  44. 44. Herbarium versus germplasm: Taxon<br />
  45. 45. Conserved ex situ richness versus potential<br />
  46. 46. Priorities: Geographic and taxonomic<br />
  47. 47. Gap Analysis<br /><ul><li>http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/</li></li></ul><li>Taxon-level and genepool level priorities<br />
  48. 48. Wild Vigna collecting priorities<br />Spatial analysis on current conserved materials<br />*Gaps* in current collections<br />Definition and prioritisation of collecting areas<br />8 100x100km cells to complete collections of 23 wild Vigna priority species<br />
  49. 49. Exploration and ex-situ conservation of Capsicum flexuosum<br /><ul><li>Uncommon species of wild chilli, found in Paraguay and Argentina
  50. 50. 18 known registers of the plant
  51. 51. 2 germplasm accessions conserved in the USDA
  52. 52. Genetically unknown
  53. 53. Found in an area undergoing high levels of habitat loss</li></li></ul><li>Capsicum flexuosum - FloraMap<br />
  54. 54. Habitat: Forest Margins<br />
  55. 55. Road Access<br />
  56. 56. Priority Areas for Collection<br />
  57. 57. Results<br /><ul><li> One plant found with few seeds, where previous herbarium record
  58. 58. First accession conserved ex situ </li></ul>1998<br /><ul><li> 1 plant found, with few seeds</li></ul>2001<br />Using GIS model<br /><ul><li> 6 new collections of C. flexuosum
  59. 59. 160 seeds conserved ex situ</li></ul>2002<br />
  60. 60. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security: A major new global program to rise to the challenge<br />
  61. 61. Improved<br />Environmental<br />Benefits<br />Improved<br />Livelihoods<br />Improved<br />Food Security<br />Trade-offs and synergies<br /> Climate Variability and Change<br />Current agricultural,<br />NRM & food systems<br />1. Adaptation for confronting climate risk<br />2. Adaptation for progressive climate change<br />3. Mitigation for reducing GHG emissions, enhancing carbon-storage and reducing poverty<br />4. Diagnosis and vulnerability assessment for making strategic choices<br />Adapted agricultural,<br />NRM & food systems<br />
  62. 62. Major research questions to be addressed:<br />What priority genepools for climate change adaptation are threatened, and how can they be conserved to ensure their continuing availability?<br />How do cultural practices exploit this diversity and how can farmers’ knowledge be used to help identify landraces and crop varieties suited for specific climatic conditions?<br />How can access to crop diversity local farmers be facilitated through enhanced seed systems or other mechanisms?<br />How does on farm crop diversity in production systems contribute to maintaining productivity in the face of progressive climate change and increased variability in climate?<br />
  63. 63. Conclusions<br />Major challenges from climate change: can agriculture stand up to a 2 degree warmer world?<br />Plant genetic resources threatened by climate change, but also a key element of the solution<br />Crop wild relative use on the increase, but poorly conserved ex situ and under threat in situ<br />Need for a major collecting effort to fill gaps, and explore novel genetic approaches to further stimulate their use<br />
  64. 64. a.jarvis@cgiar.org<br />

×