Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise
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Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise

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Presentation made by Andy Jarvis in the Latin American Congress of Chemistry on 30th September 2010, in the symposium on Biodiversity and Ecosystems: the role of the chemical sciences.

Presentation made by Andy Jarvis in the Latin American Congress of Chemistry on 30th September 2010, in the symposium on Biodiversity and Ecosystems: the role of the chemical sciences.

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Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise Crop Wild Relatives On the Rise Presentation Transcript

  • © Neil Palmer (CIAT)
    The critical role of crop wild relatives in ensuring long-term food security and their need for conservation
    Andy Jarvis, Julián Ramírez, Nora Castañeda, Nigel Maxted, Robert Hijmans and Jacob Van Etten
  • The foundation of agriculture
  • Wild relatives of crops
    Includeboth progenitor species and closelyrelatedspecies of cultivatedcrops
    Faba beans – 0 wild relatives
    Potato – 172 wild relativespecies
    Increasinglyuseful in breeding, especiallyforbioticresistance
  • Photos from Jose Valls, CENARGEN
  • Conserved ex situ in genebanks
    Credit: Caperton27/FLICKR
    Credit: IRRI
    Credit: CIAT
    Credit: Global Crop Diversity Trust
  • The Svalbard Global Seed Vault
    Credit: Kitsune Noir/FLICKR
  • Why conserve CWR diversity?
    Use!!
    234 papers cited
    Maxted and Kell, 2009
    Use: 39% pest resistance; 17% abiotic stress; 13% yield increase
    Citations: 2% <1970; 13% 1970s; 15% 1980s; 32% 1990s; 38% >1999
  • Wild relative species
    A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions
    A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions
    A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions
    Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance
    COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner
  • Uses in cropbreeding
    Credit: .Bambo./FLICKR
    X
    Solanum bulbocastanum
    Papa
    Solanum tuberosum
    Resistencia a Gota (Phythophtora infestans)
  • Grassy stunt virus in rice
    Resistance from Oryzanivaragenes
    (Barclay 2004)
    Potato late blight
    Resistance from Solanumdemissun
    and S. stoloniferum
    National potato council (2003)
  • Nevo and Chen 2010
    Adaptation to abiotic stress
  • Quality traits
  • Post harvest deterioration - Cassava
    Courtesy of Emmanuel Okogbenin
  • Why conserve CWR Diversity?
    Value as wild plant species in natural ecosystems
    Value of CWR as actual or potential gene donors:
    US$340 million a year in US (Prescott-Allen and Prescott Allen, 1986)
    $20 billion toward increased crop yields per year in the United States and $115 billion worldwide (Pimentel et al., 1997)
    US$10 billion annually in global wholesale farm values (Phillips and Meilleur, 1998)
    • Individual examples of use:
    • Lycopersicon chmielewskii sweetening tomato US $ 5-8million per year (Iltis, 1988)
    • Various CWR of wheat provide disease resistance to wheat and US benefits by US $ 50m per year (Witt, 1985)
    Courtesy of Nigel Maxted
  • Threats
  • Impact of climate change on CWR
    Assessment of shifts in distribution range under climate change
    Wild potatoes
    Wild African Vigna
    Wild peanuts
  • Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts
    Peanuts
    Shift south and upwards
  • Latitudinal and Elevational Shifts
    Potatoes
    Shift upwards
  • Summary Impacts
    16-22% (depending on migration scenario) of these species predicted to go extinct
    Most species losing over 50% of their range size
    Wild peanuts were the most affected group, with 24 to 31 of 51 species projected to go extinct
    For wild potato, 7 to 13 of 108 species were predicted to go extinct
    Vignawas the least affected of the three groups, losing 0 to 2 of the 48 species in the genus
  • Wild relative species
    A. batizocoi - 12 germplasm accessions
    A. cardenasii - 17 germplasm accessions
    A. diogoi - 5 germplasm accessions
    Florunner, with no root-knot nematode resistance
    COAN, with population density of root-knot nematodes >90% less than in Florunner
  • Impact of Climate Change – Wild Peanuts
  • More immediate threats….
  • Concentration of the natural distributiononthearea of mostintensivecattle-raising and cropproductionactivity in Brazil has notbeen a seriousproblem, in thepast, forpreservation of local wild species of Arachis, buttheadvance of themodern, mechanizedagriculture, in thelastfewdecades, and speciallythe use of herbicideshaveimposedseverepressureon wild populations. Thisisalso true for Eastern Bolivia, wheremanyspecies of sectionArachisoccur.
    Adapted from Nature, v.466, p.554-556, 2010
    Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN
  • Slide provided by Jose Valls, CENARGEN
  • © Neil Palmer (CIAT)
    Howwellconserved are crop wild relatives?Gap Analysis
  • Why Gap Analysis?
    Tool to assess crop and crop wild relative genetic and geographical diversity
    Allows detecting incomplete species collections as well as defining which species should be collected and where these collections should be focused
    Assesses the current extent at which the ex situ conservation system is correctly holding the genetic diversity of a particular genepool
  • To know what you don’t have, you first need to know what you do have
  • The visible global system
  • The Gap Analysis process
    • Identifyinggaps
    Proxy for:
    • Diversity
    • Possibly biotic traits
    Proxy for:
    • Range of traits
    Proxy for:
    • Abiotic traits
  • The Gap Analysis pathway
    Taxonomy review
    Data gathering
    Georeferentiaton
    Environmental
    data gathering
    Gap Analysis
    process
    Final
    recommendations
  • An example in Phaseolus
  • Herbarium versus germplasm: Geographic
  • Herbarium versus germplasm: Taxon
  • Conserved ex situ richness versus potential
  • Priorities: Geographic and taxonomic
  • “Validation”: The man versus the machine
  • Model priorities versus expert priorities
  • Gap Analysis
    • http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/
  • Taxon-level and genepool level priorities
  • Wild Vigna collecting priorities
    Spatial analysis on current conserved materials
    *Gaps* in current collections
    Definition and prioritisation of collecting areas
    8 100x100km cells to complete collections of 23 wild Vigna priority species
  • Exploration and ex-situ conservation of Capsicum flexuosum
    • Uncommon species of wild chilli, found in Paraguay and Argentina
    • 18 known registers of the plant
    • 2 germplasm accessions conserved in the USDA
    • Genetically unknown
    • Found in an area undergoing high levels of habitat loss
  • Capsicum flexuosum - FloraMap
  • Habitat: Forest Margins
  • Road Access
  • Priority Areas for Collection
  • Results
    • One plant found with few seeds, where previous herbarium record
    • First accession conserved ex situ
    1998
    • 1 plant found, with few seeds
    2001
    Using GIS model
    • 6 new collections of C. flexuosum
    • 160 seeds conserved ex situ
    2002
  • Conclusions
    Massive importance of CWR
    Use of these genetic resources on the increase
    But not conserved ex situ and under threat in situ
    Need for a major collecting effort to fill gaps, and explore novel genetic approaches to further stimulate their use
  • a.jarvis@cgiar.org