CIAT's Special Relationship with CRS

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Presentation made in CRS headquarters in Baltimore, on a special relationship that CIAT has with CRS.

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  • Managing the risk associated with climate variability is integral to a comprehensive strategy for adapting agriculture and food systems to a changing climate. Since many of the projected impacts of climate change are amplifications of the substantial challenges that climate variability already imposes on agriculture, better managing the risk associated with climate variability provides an immediate opportunity to build resilience to future climate change
  • how to achieve climate change mitigation in ways that benefit poor farmers and examines the trade-offs that mitigation may involve, especially with the intensification of agriculture.Two windows of opportunity exist for pro-poor mitigation. The first is the design of low net emissions agricultural development pathways. 3.1: Evaluate lowest carbon footprints for: food production, adaptation, energy production, sustainable intensification, poverty alleviation + Assess impacts of current policies + Develop coherent vision to guide agric dvlptThe second is increasing the capacity of the poor (including men and women) to benefit from carbon financing, including carbon markets. Working on developing on farm technological options for mitigation and landscape implications 3.3 : Test technological feasibility of smallholder mitigation on farms developing incentives and institutional arrangements 3.2: Test feasibility of carbon market for smallholders + Assess potential non-market options + Assess impacts on marginalized groups and women
  • 4.1: Linking Knowledge to ACTIONRegional scenarios + Vulnerability assessments + Approaches to decision making informed by good science + Approaches to benefit vulnerable, disadvantaged groups 4.2 : Data and Tools for analysis and planning: Integrated assessment framework, toolkits, and databases to assess CC impacts + Baselines, data generation & collation, scoping studies, and tool development 4.3: Refining Frameworks for Policy ANALYSIS Assess CC impacts at global & regional levels on: producers, consumers, natural resources, and international transactions + Analyze likely effects of scientific adap. and mitig. options, national policies
  • Analogue tourParticipatory videos
  • We wanted to include a gender dimension in this study in order to ensure that any recommendations would be inclusive (in terms of gender and other social divisions). Specifically, we include women farmers (both as household heads and within male headed households) so that their needs and perspectives are taken into account; otherwise there may be an unintentional bias towards male farmers.The gender analysis focuses on three components…The findings of the gender, the socio-economic and the bio-physical analysis are often context specificExamples: Borana, Ethiopia is different than other E. Africa—traditionally pastoralNyando, Kenya—two distinct agro-ecological zones within the CCAFS siteNot only gender differences but other socio-economic and bio-physical differences
  • nwcrpIntroduced a new cropnwvarIntroduced a new variety of cropshcyIntroduced a short cycle varietylgcyIntroduced a long cycle varietydrtlIntroduced a drought tolerant varietyfdtlIntroduced a flood tolerant varietydstlIntroduced a disease tolerant varietypsrsIntroduced a pest resistant varietyexarExpanded cropping areardarReduced cropping areastirStarted irrigationspbrStopped burningincrIntroduced intercroppingcrcvIntroduced cover cropsmcctIntroduced micro-catchmentsbundIntroduced bunds / ridgesmulcIntroduced mulchingterrIntroduced terracesstlnIntroduced stone lininghedgIntroduced hedgesctplIntroduced contour ploughingrotaIntroduced crop rotationelppIntroduced early land preparationelptIntroduced early plantingltptIntroduced late plantingmnftStarted using or increased use of mineral fertilizermncpStarted using or increased use of mineral fertilizerumphStarted using pesticides / herbicidesumipIntroduced integrated pest managementumcmIntroduced integrated crop management
  • “Tortillas ontheRoaster” trata de predecir cambios específicos a nivel local a los que se encuentran expuestos los sistemas de producción de maíz y frijol, cambios a los que las productores pueden responder y actuar con medidas concretas de adaptación.Para alcanzar los objetivos principales se siguen un camino metodológico que comienza con la "reducción de escala" de los modelos climáticos globales a nivel local seguido de la predicción del crecimiento de las plantas de maíz y frijol y la producción bajo condiciones climáticas futuras. Se hace esto para los cuatro países en los que puede asignar todos los cambios en la producción de maíz y frijol e identificar la ubicación con diferentes grados de impacto. Con base en estos lugares podemos cuantificar las consecuencias socio-económicas para el sustento de la población respectiva y la cadena de valor. En base a estos análisis, podemos desarrollar una adaptación adecuada y también algunas estrategias de mitigación para la región.El mapa constituye el producto más importante del proyecto TOR de términos de referencia hasta el momento. La información condensada en este mapa es muy útil para un número de diferentes actores y tomadores de decisiones, las agencias de desarrollo y de la comunidad de donantes. Enrojo se encuentran los hot-spots con un mayor impacto a la producción con escenarios del clima futuro: mas que 50% disminuye el rendinimiento de rijol en estas zonas. Las naranjas son zonas que tienen una perdida del rendimiento pero un potencial para adaptación. Los puntos de presión (verde) se merecen la atención a través de las autoridades respectivas por que son zonas donde aumenta la productividad al futuro y son zonas de bosque en el presente.
  • 1. Conceptual approach: ES-based BSM do not only seek for improving the delivery of ESS but also seek for a transfer of resources as a form of rewarding for water-related ecosystem services that are already being provided satisfactorily. (classic PES definition only accepts schemes where there is additionality in the provision of the service)
  • Currently working with:BiNGOs (Big international NGOS) in 5 countries in development (outcome, outcome, outcome) projects worth over US$ 20m USDIn discussions with World Bank and MADR to use the approach to assess 370+ Productive Alliances in Colombia with a specific focus on the effectiveness of business linkage approaches to poverty reduction for families graduating from conditional cash transfer programs and living in post conflict situations.In discussions with Unilever for use in 3 pilots to help reach their goal of incorporating 500,000 small producers into their supply chains by 2020.In discussions with SABMiller for use in Zambia to assess local sourcing models for barley, maize, cassava with possible extension to 7 additional countries
  • CIAT's Special Relationship with CRS

    1. 1. Research into Development: CIAT and CRS’s special relationship Andy Jarvis and Andre Zandstra 9th April 2013 Since 1967 / Science to cultivate change www.ciat.cgiar.org
    2. 2. The greatest food securitychallenge ever in human history: How to feed a growing population with scarce land and water, a fast-changing climate, and inadequate investment in agricultural research!
    3. 3. CIAT: A partner in global research for a food secure future• One of the 4 Centers that started the CGIAR, (founded in 1967) and currently operates from Kenya, Vietnam, and Colombia (HQ)• Our mission is to reduce hunger and poverty, and improve human health in the tropics through research aimed at increasing the eco-efficiency of agriculture• 400 professional staff, 200 scientists working across Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Annual budget close to $100USM
    4. 4. CIAT is aligned with the CGIAR research portfolio• CIAT is Lead Center of CCAFS and contributes to 11 other CGIAR Research Programs, including Genebanks• About 90% of CIAT’s research agenda is fully integrated into the CGIAR Research Portfolio• CIAT contributes to all four System Level Outcomes• The focused diversity of CIAT’s research agenda enables the Center to position itself strongly within the CGIAR research portfolio
    5. 5. Improving agriculture and changing lives across the tropics Cali, Since the 1960s, with a Since the 1980s, withcurrent focus on Central Since the 1980s, with activities now in China,America, Colombia, and activities now in 11 Vietnam, Laos, the Amazon African countries Cambodia, and Thailand
    6. 6. Focus of CIAT’s research for development NaturalProductivity Policy Resources Bean Soil Health & Climate Change Productivity Tropical Forages Gender Restoring Degraded Cassava Landscapes Linking Farmers to Markets Rice Carbon Genetic Resources Sequestration Impact Assessment
    7. 7. Examples of Impacts• Over 5.3 million rural households in sub- Saharan Africa have adopted modern bean varieties over the last 17 years, generating benefits worth nearly US$200 million• Adoption of improved cassava varieties in Thailand and Vietnam has nearly reached 90%, creating benefits worth almost $12 billion over the last 20 years• Improved forages now cover an area estimated at 25.4 million hectares in tropical America, generating huge benefits through improved livestock production – estimated at $1 billion in Colombia, for example• Nearly 60% of Latin America’s rice area is planted to improved rice, with benefits valued at $860 million from 1967 to 1995 alone
    8. 8. CIAT and CRS: A Special Relationship• Staff rotation : CIAT -> CRS!• Joint projects: • Tortillas on the Roaster • Learning Alliances • Borderlands • Green Water Initiative 2 • Coffee Under Pressure • Carbon insetting • Seed systems, soils etc.• Mutual leveraging of expertise, partners and approaches
    9. 9. Leb byClimate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) CGIAR Research Program 1 January 2013
    10. 10. Leb byGlobal alliance15 CG centers and ~70 regional offices Lead center - CIAT 1 January 2013
    11. 11. Liderado por ObjectivesIdentify and develop pro-poor adaptationand mitigation practices, technologies andpolicies for agriculture and food systems.Support the inclusion of agricultural issuesin climate change policies, and of climateissues in agricultural policies, at all levels.Commit to data availability, cross-centercooperation, and making an impact onboth the global and regional level. 1 January 2013
    12. 12. CCAFS Framework Adapting Agriculture to Climate Variability and Change Technologies, practices, partnerships and policies for: Improved 1. Adaptation to Progressive Climate Environmental Improved Change Health Rural 2. Adaptation through Managing Livelihoods Climate Risk Improved 3. Pro-poor Climate Change Mitigation Food Security 4. Integration for Decision Making • Linking Knowledge with Action • Assembling Data and Tools for Analysis and Planning • Refining Frameworks for Policy Analysis Enhanced adaptive capacity in agricultural, natural resource management, and food systems 1 January 2013
    13. 13. Place-based field work Sur de Asia: Lider Regional Pramod Aggarwal Africa del Oeste Lider Regional Robert Zougmoré Africa del Este Lider Regional James Kinyangi Latinoamerica: Lider Regional Ana Maria Loboguerrero 1 January 2013
    14. 14. THE VISIONTo adapt farmingsystems, we needto:• Close theproduction gap byeffectively using Progressivecurrenttechnologies,practices and Adaptationpolicies• Increase the bar:develop new waysto increase foodproductionpotential• Enable policiesand institutions,from the farm tonational level
    15. 15. THE VISION• Climate-relatedrisk impedesdevelopment,leading to chronicpoverty anddependency• Actions takennow can reduce Riskvulnerability in theshort term andenhance resilience Managementin the long term•Improving currentclimate riskmanagement willreduce obstaclesto making futurestructuraladaptations.
    16. 16. VISION Pro-poorShort-term:Identifyingoptions feasible Mitigationfor smallholdermitigation andtrade-offs withother outcomesLong-term:Addressingconflict betweenachieving foodsecurity andagriculturalmitigation
    17. 17. VISION•Provide ananalytical anddiagnostic Integrationframework,grounded in thepolicy context• Synthesizelessons learned•Effectivelyengage with ruralstakeholders anddecision makers•Communicatelikely effects ofspecific policiesand interventions•Build partners’capacity
    18. 18. Agriculture and Rural Development Day: Engaging world policy leaders in the climate change dialogue•Agriculture and RuralDevelopment Day 2011 + The analysis What Next for2012 brought together Agriculture After Durban? was co-several hundred policy- authored by a group that includes members of the Commission onmakers, farmers, scientists Sustainable Agriculture and Climateand development experts Change. It was covered by media outlets worldwide.from around the world•Recommendations to theUNFCC COP-17 conference inDurban, South Africa, Rio+20and Qatar COP-18•Organized by CCAFS andpartners
    19. 19. Analogue Tool: Finding Tomorrow’s agriculture todayMethodology development Regional trainings Katmandu Dakar Nairobi http://gismap.ciat.cgiar.org/Analogues/ • 15 countries • 70 local researchers • WP:Climate Analogues: Finding tomorrows agriculture today
    20. 20. Farms of in Tanzania FOTF the future Journey to Yamba’s plausible futuresAnalogue study TourVillages visited Starting point Lushoto Mbuzii Yamba Kinole Morogoro Mwitikilwa-Market value chain social -Weather station visitenterprise visit - Bean trial visit- Input supply Stockists Njombe - Tree nursery visit Nyombo Sepukila Village: -Matengo pits: Traditional soil and water conservation technique -Coffee nursery -Stoves Masasi Village: -Water source Mbinga -Fish pond -Biogas Mtama Village: - Bee keeping
    21. 21. Leb byClimate smart villages:Key agricultural activities for managing risks 1 January 2013
    22. 22. Where do we work?CCAFS sites Main crops Main livestock (forages) Maize Beans Wheat Beef cattle GoatsBorana(ET) (96.6%) (86.4%) (33.1%) (93.2%) (77.8%) Maize Sorghum Beans Goats Chicken/hensNyando (KE) (99.2%) (73.3%) (34.4%) (66.9%) (61.2%) Maize Beans Tomatoes Chicken/hens Dairy cowsUsambara (TZ) (87.1%) (75%) (29%) (82.1%) (56.4%) SweetAlbertine Cassava Beans Chicken/hens potatoes Pigs (63.1%)Rift (UG) (78.6%) (68.4%) (82.5%) (59.8%)
    23. 23. Leb by Lushoto (Tanzania)100908070605040302010 0 1 January 2013
    24. 24. Lushoto (Tanzania)Weather reasons for adapting Changes in land use and crop management a) More erratic rainfall - introduction of new, higher yielding crop varieties of maize, beans b) ↘ overall rainfall (88%) and tomatoes c) ↗ amount of rainfall (39%) d) more frequent droughts (71%) - switching to disease resistant varieties of cassava, bananas and e) earlier start of the rains 77%) maize f) Later start of rains (65%)Drivers• Availability of high yielding varietiesmore resistant to pest and diseases• More profitable market prices.• Less productive land
    25. 25. Gender Dimensions• Why consider gender? o To develop appropriate adaptation strategies for both male and female farmers (to ensure inclusion of female farmers)• Findings (Context Specific) o Gender division of labor o Decision-making o Control and Access of Resources
    26. 26. Gender Division of LaborOverall, men and women tend to report thatthey themselves do most of the tasks Women’s Reporting Men’s Reporting Men Women Boys Girls• Examples: – Spraying was reported as a men’s task, and – Weeding mainly as a women’s task
    27. 27. Decision-Making• Across all 4 sites: – Women report that men make most decisions – Men report more decisions are taken jointly – Example: Nyando, Kenya Women’s Reporting Men’s Reporting Men Women Together
    28. 28. Playing out transformative climate smartadaptation in CCAFS benchmark sites inEast Africa: When, where, how and withwhom?
    29. 29. Persons and items distributionRash model (Campell, 1963): Attitude towards change = number + difficulty of change made
    30. 30. Determinants of the degree of adaptation – Poisson regression modelVariable Coefficient P-valueLnage -0.259 0.034**Help 0.281 0.019**Years of schooling 0.025 0.014**Ln total asset value 0.060 0.096*Government influence 0.364 0.002***Less land productivity 0.164 0.060*Ability to hire farm labour 0.231 0.031**Constant 2.135 0.002*** Wald chi2(20)=104.63; p=0.000 Alpha = 0.12 N=131Dependent variable = number of adaptation strategies undertaken
    31. 31. Getting to grips with climate adaptation: The right choices
    32. 32. Var. CariocaVar. Jamapa Var. Calima Evaluating varietal adaptation
    33. 33. Likely yield with different planting dates
    34. 34. Modelling potential losses from extreme events with different planting dates
    35. 35. Benefits of potential adaptation options: conservation agriculture % yield loss % water deficit
    36. 36. Tortillas on the Roaster (TOR): Cambio Climáticoy sistema de producción de maíz-frijol en Centroamérica. Un proyecto en colaboración con: Financiado por: The Howard G. Buffett Foundation
    37. 37. Cuales son las zonas que necesitan alta atención? Áreas donde los sistemas de producción de los cultivos de fríjol pueden ser adaptados Adaptation-Spots (mas del 25% perdida de producción) Enfocarse en la adaptación de los sistemas de producción. Áreas donde estos cultivos de fríjol ya no son una opción Hot-Spots (mas del 50% perdida de producción) Enfocarse en la diversificación de medios de subsistencia. Nuevas áreas donde aumenta la producción de los cultivos. Pressure-Spots Migración de agricultura– Riesgo de deforestación!
    38. 38. Results: Hot-spots for beans production areas in Central America
    39. 39. Tortillas on the Roaster (TOR): Cambio Climáticoy sistema de producción de maíz-frijol en Centroamérica.Se dedujeron cinco estrategias de adaptación a nivel de finca! Intensificación Sostenible: Dirigido a aumentar la productividad física, preservando los recursos naturales (tierra y agua) en sistemas productivos (Eco-eficiencia) Diversificación: Aumentar la cantidad de fuentes de consumo y los ingresos procedentes de la agricultura. Expansión: Expandir las dotaciones de los diferentes tipos de capitales. Incremento de ingresos no agrícolas: incrementar las fuentes de ingresos diferentes a los que están ligados a la agricultura. Abandonar la agricultura como estrategia de vida: La familia abandona la agricultura como fuente de consumo he ingresos. Un proyecto en colaboración con: Financiado por: The Howard G. Buffett Foundation
    40. 40. Rewarding for Ecosystem Services in watersheds
    41. 41. Different groups want different things• Downstream o Urban dwellers want clean, reliable water supplies o Lowland farmers want cheap, reliable irrigation water o Tourists want clean, attractive water• Midstream o Hydropower companies want reliable low-silt water without having to invest in large storage reservoirs• Upstream o Highland communities want to live better o Citizens want to preserve highland ecosystem services
    42. 42. Peruvian case study, Canete River watershed – Current situation Ecosystemanduse (m3/s) River flow land uses Water service provision(4000-5800Upper basin(4000-5800(4000-5800Upper (Water yield (mm)) Extensive degrading0 grazing, subsistence agriculture 1111-1507 (mostly from springs) Hydropower company 51-256Middle basin(350 – 4000(350 – 4000(350 – 4000 Shrimp growers 250, 64 Urban dwellers 0-50(0-350)(0-350)Lower basin(0-350) Water inefficient commercial agriculture Tourists (rafting)
    43. 43. Desired situation Investment in (4000-5800 Upper basin productive alternatives Middle basin (350 – 4000 Watershed’s Transfer part socioeconomic of their asymmetries might benefits be balanced by this benefit-sharing mechanism (0-350) Lower basin
    44. 44. Research outputs and intermediate project outcomes• Conceptual approach: Adopted by MINAM … Is not only about paying for improving the delivery of the ESS but also about rewarding for ESS already being delivered (positive externalities) Recently presented by Vice-Ministry of Environment (Nov, 2012)
    45. 45. Linking Farmers to MarketsUnder what conditions can market linkages be an effective tool for rural poverty reduction for gender and socially differentiated actors?Iterative process of design, testing and documentation of approaches for inclusive business models, R4D platforms and public policies in Latin America, E. Africa and S.E. Asia
    46. 46. AMBITIOUS DESTINATIONS, FEW ROADSDonors, business and civil society are in broad consensus onbenefits of linking smallholders to markets.• Many islands of success but few cases of sustained, transformational change that benefit women, minorities and the rural poor.• The concept is clear but HOW to achieve beneficial and sustained market access is not.• Need to understand appropriate roles for public, private and civil society actors
    47. 47. Supply chain policies in Colombia CUADRO 4 10 ORGANIZACIONES DE LAS CADENAS PRODUCTIVAS: ANALISIS DE FOCALIZACIÓN FOCALIZACIÓN Aguacate Arroz Cacao Caucho Cítricos GEOGRÁFICA Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI % Población con NBI           % Población Rural con               NBI  Índice Desarrollo              Humano Índice Gini de Tierras          2009   Índice Gini de      Propietarios 2009     Núm. Intervenciones USAID (Programas             MIDAS y ADAM) Núm. Intervenciones MADR (Oportunidades              Rurales y Alianzas Productivas) FOCALIZACIÓN Fique Fruticola Guayaba Mango Platano GEOGRÁFICA Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI Y Yha NBI % Población con NBI         % Población Rural con                NBI  Índice Desarrollo              Humano     Índice Gini de Tierras                 2009    Índice Gini de                  Propietarios 2009    Núm. Intervenciones USAID (Programas                      MIDAS y ADAM) Núm. Intervenciones MADR (Oportunidades                      Rurales y Alianzas Productivas) Policy density (# chains) by Department Social performance by supply chain Quantitative macro analysis I R (policies & development outcomes) n e c s Qualitative meso analysis i e (why does the policy work /fail?) d a e r n c Household level surveys c h (what does it mean for the poor?) ePolicy performance by Department
    48. 48. Sustainable trading relationships Common methods Training & testing the approach (10 pilots in 5 countries) Build data (Common metrics, tools, data) Engage leverage points for outcomes (BiNGOs, MNCs, Donors, etc.)
    49. 49. Site-Specific Agriculture (SSA)Environmental characterization of the production Observations made by farmers according to theirsystem particular circumstances Farmers’ production experiences SSA Modern Principles of information operational technology research Kg/Arbol Temperatura Edad Analysis of the Observations to optimize the system
    50. 50. Site-specific Agriculture Based on Farmers Experiences (SSAFE)•More than 3000 experiments characterized • Bridging the yield gap • Optimizing the production system•Providing insights on How, What and Where to grow through the SSAFEInformatic platform (optimal zones /crops, management practices)• More than 3500 farmers enrolled in the program•By implementing where and how to grow, estimated return on researchinvestment : US 315 million /year www.ciat.cgiar.org Agricultura Eco-Eficiente para Reducir la Pobreza
    51. 51. Opportunities for institutionalising the special relationship • Use of our research products – You need solutions, and we need adoption of our “solutions” – Tell us what you need to know to better direct your efforts • Continued and enhanced collaboration on a project basis: – Research backstopping – Joint learning approaches on development impact • Joint project development – Second round of CGIAR Research programs: big projects co-designed CIAT/CRS, co-funded, co-implemented – 20-21 June Montpellier major CGIAR partnership meeting to co-design US$10-20m big projects – From the CRS side? • To start with, a joint MOU CIAT-CRS – Focal points on both sides – Monitoring of progress, annual reflection on new opportunities
    52. 52. CIAT: Science to Cultivate ChangeWebsite: www.ciat.cgiar.org Follow us: http://twitter.com/ciat_Blog: www.ciatnews.cgiar.org/en/ http://www.facebook.com/ciat.ecoefficient

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