PlantationsTo replace the disloyal native Irish with loyal British subjects
Background to plantation 1500 English only rule a small close to the north and south Dublin called the pale. Celts still followed the Brehon law. Anglo Normans had become independent of the crown were more Irish than the Irish themselves use both the common and Brehon law. Fitzgeralds of Kildare, Butlers of Ormond (Kilkenny), Fitzgeralds of Desmond (Munster). Natives O’Neills of Tyrone, O’Donnells of Donegal, MacCarthys of Cork
Crown to control the Fitzgeralds put the Earl of Kildare in jail led to rebellion of his son silken Thomas Henry VIII defeats the Fitzgeralds. Cost allot of money
Plantation why and how Take the land off rebellious lords or native and give it to English settlers they could trust. Replace the native Irish with British would the best way to spread the use of English language and customs in Ireland. Wouldnt have to send so many soldiers because the planters would defend their land
Plantation in order1. Lois Offaly or Queen and kings county. Mary Tudor and Philip of Spain.2. Bring in English law and protect the Pale control the native Irish.3. Sheriff control each county4. Marlborough and Philiptown towns.5. Two thirds of land for planters remaining one third near Shannon for Native Irish.6. Estates of 300 acres in size
Not enough planters, no planters came from Englandso the land had to be given to Gaelic planters andthis land was attacked by the O’Mores & OConnors
Plan of plantation Surveyed & Mapped the land Get the younger sons of nobles from southern England to settle. Plantations to become centres of English civilisation. Planters to resist Spanish invasion (England at war with Spain
Munster plantation failed Not enough English people came, These planters called undertakers could not attract English tenants and had to rent to Anglo Irish and Gaelic Irish. Old owners attacked the new settlers and eventually drove them from the land into towns or back to England during the Nine years war.
Changes After end of war settlers sold their land to new planters like Richard Boyle who stayed and became rich. New towns were built like Bandon & Mallow became centres of English law & Culture. New breeds of cattle and new farming methods used. English plough used and Tillage became important. Trade build up.
Ulster Plantation Ulster chiefs lead by Hugh ONeill rebel against Elizabeth had help from Spain but defeated at the battle of Kinsale Two years later in 1607 he flees to Europe. This is called the flight of the earls. Their land is confiscated Derry, Donegal, Cavan, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Armagh. Plantation to create loyal protestant population and to pay soldiers. Planters made up of Undertakers = English and Scottish Planters, servitors (English soldiers and loyal Irish. London merchants financed the plantation of Derry renamed it Londonderry. Had to build defences
Success? English influence in Ulster increased i.e. farming. Town building. Loyal population created. Protestant religion spread. Eventually leads to a struggle between the native population and the planters that continues from generation to generation and leads to the troubles in the 1960’s