ExpectancyValue Theory By Ian Culibao Adv. Comm Theory
Overview: Everyone’s got a goal.
Attitude affects our behaviour, intent and goals.
Expectancy Value theory focuses on the complex and interactive nature of attitudes
In communications, it highlights social influence; in particular, attitude and attitude change .
Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT)
Attributed to Martin Fishbein (1970s)
An investigation of relationships between beliefs about an object and the attitude toward that object. (Human Relations Journal )
The theory has evolved as a refined tool used in various fields (advertising, psychology, education, etc.)
predisposes a person to behave in a positive or negative way toward the attitude object (ao).
accumulation of data about the ao, each piece of information having been evaluated. Attitude change can occur with new information or a change in the judgement of truthfulness or value.
The ao can be any concept, organization, person, thing, etc.
Can be classified to 2 types:
Belief IN something. Points to a high probability of existence for the believer. (ex. Belief in the existence of God.)
Belief ABOUT something. Points to a high probability of existence of a particular relationship. (ex. Belief in God’s goodness. )
Expectation Value Formula:
A o = B i a i n=1
A = the attitude toward object o
B = the strength of belief i about o; that is, the probability or improbability that o is associated with some other concept x
a = the evaluative aspect of B; that is, the evaluation of x
N = the number of beliefs about o
Notes on EVT:
With new information, attitude change can occur in 3 ways:
1) it can alter the believability (weight) of particular beliefs
2) it can change the value of a belief
3) it can add new beliefs to the attitude structure.
In the News
CBCP: Poor’s bitterness rising
By Kristine L. Alave of the Philippine Daily Inquirer 07/09/2008
Attitude Hierarchy According to the Fishbein Model
Attitude Object (o) = the poor N = 4 (# Beliefs in System)
Associated Concepts (x) Probability of Associations (B) Evaluation (a) Authorities The poor are ignored by the authorities The authorities are inefficient. Subsidies Subsidies cannot sustain the poor. Subsidies do not solve the problem. Inflation Inflation makes access of goods harder for the poor. Inflation is bad. Jobs The poor find it hard to get jobs. Jobs are important. Wage increase The poor need regular wage increase to cope. Wage increase is good.