Psychology Take Home Exam Chapter 5 And 6
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Psychology Take Home Exam Chapter 5 And 6

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    Psychology Take Home Exam Chapter 5 And 6 Psychology Take Home Exam Chapter 5 And 6 Document Transcript

    • Psychology 1 - Introduction to Psychology Exam - Chapters 5, 6 Summer 2009 (Dr. S. Lee) Attention All : Please come to class tomorrow to turn in your scantron. If you want to know how you did, bring a printed copy of the test so you can check your answers with the key. If you do not complete the test at home you can take the exam in class. If you will be completing the test in class you must be here at 10:40 AM to take the test. You have until 12:00PM to complete the test and can use your notes and book. Also, you MUST PRINT OUT your own exam. None will be given to you tomorrow. Best of luck! Name: __________________________ Date: _____________ 1. When she was a child, Sherrill ate a whole box of marshmallow candy bunnies at Easter and got very sick. Today, just the sight of a package of these candies makes Sherrill nauseous. Sherrill's learning to be sick at the sight of the package is an example of learning through ______. A) reinforcement B) punishment C) reward D) association 2. ______ is a form of learning in which a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus in order to produce a conditioned response. A) Operant conditioning B) Observation and modeling C) Classical conditioning D) Intelligence 3. Maria notices that her cat comes running to the kitchen every time Maria uses the can opener. Maria's cat has been classically conditioned, and the sound of the can opener is the ______. A) UCS B) CS C) CR D) UCR 4. All but which of the following are elements of classical conditioning? A) The individual learning can determine whether the stimulus is presented or not. B) A behavior is changed rather than learned. C) The conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are associated closely in time. D) The conditioned stimulus serves as a reliable signal for the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. Page 1
    • 5. Classical conditioning : Respondent conditioning : : A) Involuntary : reflexive B) Nature : Nurture C) Operant conditioning : Instrumental conditioning D) Voluntary : reflexive 6. ______ is a type of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of the behavior occurring again. A) Classical conditioning B) Creativity C) Modeling D) Operant conditioning 7. In operant conditioning, the term ______ is used to describe any behavioral consequence that leads to an increase in the probability of the behavior occurring again. A) negative reinforcement B) punishment C) delay of reinforcement D) positive reinforcement 8. Children in Mrs. Lott's pre-K classroom earn a gold star every day that they hang their backpacks and coats on the rack. Over the first three months of the school year, Mrs. Lott notices that all of the children have become more consistent in hanging up their items. In this example, the increase in children's tidiness is called the A) conditioned response. B) operant response. C) positive reinforcer. D) schedule of reinforcement. 9. Which of the following should increase learning? A) stretching out the timing of reinforcement B) regular delivery of reinforcement C) both a and b D) neither a nor b 10. All but which of the following are primary reinforcers? A) water B) sexual gratification C) novel stimulation D) praise Page 2
    • 11. Regarding primary and secondary reinforcement, which of the following statements is false? A) Secondary reinforcers are learned through classical conditioning. B) Primary and secondary reinforcement are two types of negative reinforcement. C) Primary reinforcers do not have to be acquired through learning. D) Praise and applause are examples of secondary reinforcers. 12. Learned positive reinforcers are described as ______ reinforcers. A) secondary B) primary C) tertiary D) shaped 13. Germaine works in a factory in which she is paid a set amount every time she produces 100 widgets. Germaine works quickly to produce her 100 widgets. After she is paid, her rate of productivity pauses slightly and then she works quickly again to produce her next 100 widgets. What type of reinforcement schedule is Germaine's employer using? A) fixed ratio B) fixed interval C) variable ratio D) variable interval 14. Miguel is a real estate agent. Although he lists and shows many houses, Miguel only gets paid when he “makes the sale.” Miguel maintains a high rate of productivity for every listing and showing, even though he cannot determine if each instance will result in a sale. Miguel's high rate of productivity results from which schedule of reinforcement? A) fixed ratio B) fixed interval C) variable ratio D) variable interval 15. Slot machines are so “addictive” because they operate on the ______ schedule of reinforcement. A) variable ratio B) variable interval C) fixed ratio D) fixed interval 16. People who like to fish tend to be so persistent because their reinforcements (i.e. catching a fish) are delivered on a ______ schedule. A) fixed interval B) variable interval C) fixed ratio D) variable ratio Page 3
    • 17. Christian is bothered by how messy her daughter Amelia's room is. Christian wants to use principles of operant conditioning to change Amelia's behavior, but Amelia is such a slob that Christian cannot find any positive behavior to reward. Before she begins her reinforcement strategy, Christian will first have to ______ Amelia's behavior. A) shape B) punish C) model D) extinguish 18. In her undergraduate Psychology of Learning course, Mildred works with her rat, Pierre, to teach him to press a lever in his Skinner box. To begin, Mildred gives Pierre a food pellet every time he faces the bar. Then she gives him a food pellet every time he moves toward the bar. Next Mildred gives Pierre a pellet every time he sniffs the bar. Finally, Pierre brushes against the bar, and he gets a food pellet. Mildred has used the technique called ______ to mold Pierre's behavior in the desired direction. A) negative reinforcement B) shaping C) extinction D) avoidance conditioning 19. When a behavior increases in occurrence because some negative event is removed or avoided, then ______ has occurred. A) positive reinforcement B) negative reinforcement C) punishment D) classical conditioning 20. After letting their new puppy, Hugo, sleep in their bed, Fred and Ginger are trying to get Hugo to sleep on his own. On the first night Hugo is left in his doggie house, he whines and moans. Fred and Ginger can't stand the disruption, so they put Hugo in bed with them “just for the night.” The next night this scenario is repeated, except Hugo's moans are even louder. Which type of operant conditioning explains Hugo's behavior? A) escape conditioning B) avoidance conditioning C) punishment D) positive reinforcement 21. Four-year-old Jacob has disobeyed his mother's direction to not take a cookie from the cookie jar. Generalizing from the guidelines for punishment, what is the best action for Jacob's mother to take? A) spank him B) give him a “time out” C) take away his dinner D) verbally reprimand him Page 4
    • 22. All but which of the following are guidelines for punishment suggested in your text? A) Do not use physical punishment. B) Once you have begun to punish, do not back down. C) Positively reinforce appropriate behavior to take the place of inappropriate behavior. D) Immediately after punishment, show affection by giving hugs and kisses. 23. Three-year-old William had a bad experience with a Pit Bull, and now he is afraid of all dogs. Which phenomenon explains William's experience? A) stimulus discrimination B) stimulus generalization C) extinction D) punishment 24. ______ reinforcement schedules are the most difficult to extinguish. A) Interval B) Ratio C) Fixed D) Variable 25. Sheila has been attempting to solve a problem for several days now. On the fifth day, Sheila has a sudden alteration of cognition, allowing her to see the problem's elements from a different perspective. She quickly comes up with a solution. Sheila's learning is best described as which of the following? A) insight learning B) social learning C) operant conditioning D) classical conditioning 26. Hank has anterograde amnesia as the result of surgery for his seizures. Hank is expected to have difficulty with which aspect of his memory? A) retaining information in his short-term memory B) recalling memories of events before his surgery C) storing memories for events after his surgery D) all of the above 27. Vera has a type of amnesia in which she is unable to store or retrieve new information in her long-term memory. What type of amnesia does Vera have? A) dissociative amnesia. B) anterograde amnesia C) retrograde amnesia D) LTM amnesia Page 5
    • 28. Vivid memories of emotional events are called _____ memories.. A) reconstructed B) flashbulb C) false D) schema 29. In the interference theory of forgetting, interference created by prior learning is called ______ interference, and interference caused by later learning is called ______ interference. A) retroactive / proactive B) proactive / retroactive C) reconstructed / deconstructed D) deconstructed / reconstructed 30. Decay theory appears to be supported during which stage of memory? A) sensory register B) STM C) sensory register and STM D) LTM 31. Which theory of forgetting suggests that forgetting occurs as the memory trace fades over time? A) interference theory B) schema theory C) theory of motivated forgetting D) decay theory 32. Memory researchers know that immediate recall of items listed in a fixed order is typically better for items at the beginning and end of the list than for those in the middle of the list. This phenomenon is called the A) tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. B) serial position effect. C) retrieval dilemma. D) elaboration phenomenon. 33. In a study of memory, research subjects are given one second to learn the following list of words: ball, top, carrot, fig, car, plane, rose, tulip. When asked to recall the words in the order presented, which words will most subjects recall? A) ball and top B) rose and tulip C) fig and car D) ball, top, rose, and tulip Page 6
    • 34. Using organization strategies for long-term memory helps improve the ______ information. A) capacity to store B) ability to retrieve C) both a and b D) neither a nor b 35. Which statement best reflects the use of semantic memory? A) “I remember how to play a guitar.” B) “I don't like guitar music.” C) “I remember buying my first guitar.” D) “I know what a guitar is.” 36. A psychology professor lectures about declarative memory. To which types of memory is he referring? A) semantic and episodic B) semantic and procedural C) episodic and procedural D) episodic, procedural, and semantic 37. LTM is least effective in handling which type of memory? A) procedural B) semantic C) episodic D) none of the above; all types of memory are processed easily by LTM 38. On their tenth anniversary, Nicole and Christopher look over the photos in their wedding album and fondly recall their wedding day. Which type of memory are they using? A) episodic B) semantic C) procedural D) working 39. Your professor asks you to tell the class the meaning of “repression.” You have studied this concept from your psychology textbook, and you are able to explain it to the class. Which aspect of your LTM was responsible for “remembering” this term? A) semantic memory B) procedural memory C) anterograde memory D) episodic memory Page 7
    • 40. Short-term memory is to ______ as long-term memory is to ______. A) chunking / rehearsal B) rehearsal / chunking C) permanent / temporary D) temporary / permanent 41. Rehearsal improves the _____ short-term memory, and chunking improves the _____ short-term memory. A) retention of information in / retention of information in B) retention of information in / capacity of C) capacity of / retention of information in D) capacity of / capacity of 42. Mike is cramming for his psychology exam. How many bits of information can Mike reasonably expect his short-term memory to hold for this exam? A) 1 to 3 B) 5 to 9 C) 10 to 20 D) 50 to 150 43. Clara is using rehearsal and chunking to improve her memory. Which stage of memory is Clara attempting to influence? A) short-term memory B) long-term memory C) procedural memory D) sensory register 44. When a piece of information is selected for further processing, it proceeds from the sensory register to the A) long-term memory. B) rehearsal space. C) semantic memory. D) short-term memory. 45. Jaina uses this part of her LTM when she is able to remember the movements involved in crocheting. A) episodic memory B) working memory C) semantic memory D) procedural memory/motor skills Page 8
    • 46. In Psych 1 you usually take exams every Thursday. Now, even though the class is over, you continue to find yourself getting a little anxious on Thursday mornings. Anxiety in response to Thursday mornings is the ______? A) UCS B) UCR C) CR D) CS 47. In Psych 1 you usually take exams every Thursday. Now, even though the class is over, you continue to find yourself getting a little anxious on Thursday mornings. What is the UCR? A) anxiety B) exams C) Thursday mornings D) preparation for the exam 48. In Psych 1 you usually take exams every Thursday. Now, even though the class is over, you continue to find yourself getting a little anxious on Thursday mornings. What is the CS? A) exam B) Psych 1 C) Thursday mornings D) anxiety 49. You shop at Target, but move to a new neighborhood and have a hard time finding things at the new Target store. When you return to your old neighborhood Target store, you also have difficulty locating items. This is an example of __________ interference. A) proactive B) retroactive C) your obsession with moving D) object 50. In Psych 1 you usually take exams every Thursday. Now, even though the class is over, you continue to find yourself getting a little anxious on Thursday mornings. What is the UCS? A) Thursday mornings B) exams C) anxiety D) Psych 1 51. Bill was taking a shower in preparation for work slipped and bumped his head in the shower. After arriving at work, he was unable to remember dressing, driving to and arriving at work. Bill is experiencing A) anterograde amnesia B) retrograde amnesia C) proactive inhibition D) clumsiness Page 9
    • 52. You learned how to drive a 5-speed stick-shift years ago, but for the past 10 years, have been driving an automatic. You have now decided to purchased a sporty 5- speed, and are ready for a test drive but cannot remember how to drive it. You are experiencing A) retroactive interference B) proactive interference C) buyers remorse D) stress syndrome 53. Consider the following list of items: desk, ranger, glass, farmer and pencil. According to the recency effect, you are more likely to remember which word(s)? A) desk B) ranger C) pencil D) glass 54. What is the primary difference between declarative memories and procedural (motor skills) memories? A) Declarative memories are in STM, while procedural memories are in LTM. B) Declarative memories are easy to describe in words, while procedural memories are not. C) Declarative memories are longer lasting than procedural memories. D) Declarative memories are more easily processed by LTM than procedural memories. 55. What do positive punishment and negative punishment have in common? A) They both increase the liklihood of behavior. B) They both decrease the liklihood of behavior. C) They both strengthen behavior. D) They have nothing in common. Page 10