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Psychology pretest 6,7



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  • 1. Psychology 1 - General Psychology Pretest - Chapters 6,7 Summer 2009 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following are components of memory EXCEPT 1) _______ A) consolidation. B) metacognition. C) encoding. D) retrieval. E) storage. 2) When a person has a better memory for items at the beginning of a list, 2) _______ the ________ is demonstrated. A) primacy effect B) recency effect C) flashbulb memory effect D) serial cognition effect E) metamemory effect 3) After he was sexually assaulted, Gordon went to the police and filed a 3) _______ report. He was able to tell the police sketch artist what the perpetrator looked like. The police then asked Gordon if he'd be willing to look at potential suspects one by one to determine whether or not that suspect was the perpetrator. Gordon agreed to do so. All of the following are true EXCEPT A) Gordon will be LESS likely to make a positive identification in this scenario. B) Because Gordon was not given the opportunity to look at photos of potential suspects, he will be more likely to make a misidentification. C) The method Gordon experienced in viewing one suspect at a time is preferred by some police officers over showing all members at once. D) Gordon was participating in what some police officers refer to as a "showup." E) Gordon will be LESS likely to misidentify one of the potential suspects as the perpetrator. 4) ________ occurs when information never made it into the long-term 4) _______ memory in the first place. A) Retrieval failure B) Long-term potentiation C) Encoding failure D) Decay E) Consolidation failure Sharon and Peggy were talking about what they did over the weekend. 5) _______ Peggy told Sharon all about the concert she attended. As she was giving Peggy the details, she realized she could not remember the name of the group who performed. She could easily tell Sharon other songs they sang and even described what they looked like. However, Peggy could not seem to remember the name of the group at the moment. What did Peggy just experience? 5) A) The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon B) Anterograde amnesia
  • 2. C) Prospective forgetting D) Consolidation failure E) Encoding failure 6) Guisseppe cannot remember exactly what happened at the wedding he 6) _______ attended a while ago, but he knows that the reception followed the ceremony. He also knows that at the reception, there was a large guest list, great food, and lots of dancing. Guisseppe is using ________ to help him reconstruct his memory for the event. A) relearning B) recognition C) a schema D) metamemory E) metacognition 7) In terms of the memory process, keeping the information in memory 7) _______ refers to ______. A) storage B) retrieval C) encoding D) metacognition E) consolidation 8) As three-year-old Luca is learning to count to ten, his parents notice he 8) _______ always remembers one, two, three correctly and then nine, ten correctly. However, he often skips or mixes up the numbers in the middle. This demonstrates A) severe problems in metacognition. B) infantile amnesia. C) only the primacy effect. D) only the recency effect. E) the serial position effect. 9) Sixty-eight-year-old Claretta is often confused about where she is and 9) _______ what time of the day it is. Her adult children have noticed that other mental abilities have also been deteriorating lately. They report that Claretta does not seem to remember important information and her personality has changed. Which of the following BEST describes Claretta's condition? A) Dementia B) Encoding failure C) Retrograde anmesia D) The disinhibitory effect E) Repression 10) Declarative memory is to explicit memory as ________ is to implicit 10) ______ memory. A) nondeclarative memory B) semantic memory C) echoic memory D) episodic memory E) an event 11) Julie is a participant in a research project. She is instructed to memorize 11) ______ a list of items. Julie reads the list, in order, over and over again. When it comes time for her to be tested on what items she remembers, what will the finding likely be? A) Julie will remember various items scattered throughout the list. B) Julie will have a better memory for items at the beginning of the list. C) Julie will have a better memory for items at the end of the list. D) Julie will have a better memory for items in the middle of the list. E) Research suggests that both B and C are correct.
  • 3. 12) ________ is a memory strategy that involves an individual repeating 12) ______ something over and over whereas ________ is a memory strategy that involves connecting new information to something already stored in memory. A) Elaborative rehearsal; rote rehearsal B) Chunking; rote rehearsal C) Maintenance rehearsal; rote rehearsal D) Elaborative rehearsal; displacement E) Maintenance rehearsal; elaborative rehearsal 13) According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, the components 13) ______ of memory are A) declarative and nondeclarative memory. B) sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. C) implicit memory and explicit memory. D) encoding, storage, and retrieval. E) metacognition and meta-analysis. 14) Which of the following is FALSE regarding eyewitness testimony? 14) ______ A) When the crime involves a weapon, research suggests that misidentification is somewhat higher. B) Although mistakes can happen, there are strategies that can be taken to minimize the errors. C) Greater accuracy can be achieved if the victim is shown one potential suspect at a time. D) Even when measures are put into place to reduce error, eyewitness testimony is not generally relied upon in the U.S. legal system. E) When a victim is looking at a lineup of potential suspects, the race, build, and age of all the suspects should be similar. Bernice can remember her first day of kindergarten, but cannot seem to 15) ______ remember anything in her life that occurred before that. Bernice is likely experiencing ________. 15) A) childhood repression B) retrograde amnesia C) infantile amnesia D) an inability to reconstruct repressed memories E) anterograde amnesia 16) When memories are not revisited, they simply fade away as time passes. 16) ______ This exemplifies the ________. A) idea behind retrograde amnesia B) interference theory of forgetting C) retrieval theory of forgetting D) decay theory of forgetting E) encoding theory of forgetting 17) Declarative memory includes 17) ______ A) episodic memory, semantic memory, and implicit memory. B) implicit memory and explicit memory. C) implicit memory and episodic memory. D) semantic memory and episodic memory. E) episodic memory, explicit memory, and implicit memory. 18) ________ occurs when information already stored in memory gets in the 18) ______ way of recalling newer information. A) Retroactive amnesia B) Anterograde interference C) Proactive interference D) Anterograde amnesia E) Proactive amnesia
  • 4. 19) ________ refers to finding that memory is better for things at the 19) ______ beginning and the end of a list as compared for memory for things in the middle of the list. A) The memory reconstruction theory B) Metacognition C) The serial position effect D) The flashbulb memory effect E) Metamemory 20) All of the following are true of recovered memories from the first few 20) ______ years of life EXCEPT A) research suggests that areas of the cortex involved in memory are not yet fully developed thus interfering with the memory process. B) research suggests that an underdeveloped hippocampus may prevent memories from being properly stored/retrieved. C) due to limited language abilities, the storage and future retrieval of memories is not very efficient or reliable. D) infantile amnesia would suggest that individuals cannot remember events that happened during the first few years. E) All of the above are true regarding recovered memories from the early years of like. 21) Multiple choice exams are to ________ as essay exams are to ________. 21) ______ A) recall; recognition B) relearning; recall C) recognition; recall D) recall; relearning E) recognition; relearning 22) ________ holds information brought in through our senses but only for a 22) ______ very brief amount of time. A) Declarative memory B) Metamemory C) Short-term memory D) Sensory memory E) Working memory 23) All of the following can be stated from Godden's and Baddeley's 1975 23) ______ research with the divers EXCEPT A) The divers' recall was not as good if they were in a different environment from where they learned the material. B) The context in which the divers learned the information probably assisted in their recall of the information when in that same context. C) The divers who learned the list of words on land remembered the list better on land. D) The divers who learned the list of words under water had a better memory for those words while under water. E) Because the context was unusual, the divers seemed to have a better memory for the words they learned while under water. 24) Raymond is required to learn long lists of numbers for his job. Because 24) ______ he wants to remember as many numbers as possible, he breaks the numbers up into groups. What technique is Raymond utilizing? A) Metacognition B) Chunking C) Rehearsal D) Displacement E) Elaboration 25) When new information pushes current information out of memory 25) ______ because the short-term memory is full, ________ has occurred. A) rehearsal B) retrograde amnesia
  • 5. C) displacement D) chunking E) elaboration Which of the following correctly states the average range of intelligence, 26) ______ which can also be determined by calculating one standard deviation above and below the mean? 26) A) 85-100 B) 85-115 C) 70-130 D) 100-115 E) 95-105 27) Jack is sitting at his desk at work and is excited about the new car he just 27) ______ purchased. Because his new car is in the company's parking garage, he cannot see it. Jack can use ________ to create in his mind the visual image of his new car. A) a heuristic B) metamemory C) metacognition D) imagery E) proactive visualization 28) Hannah took a reading test to see what her level of reading ability was. 28) ______ Although the tests accurately measured an individual's general reading ability, the first test showed that she had very poor reading skills whereas the second test showed she had average reading skills. Which of the following is TRUE regarding this scenario? A) The reading tests are likely valid but not reliable. B) The reading tests did not measure what they were intended to measure. C) The tests had low validity and low reliability. D) The reading tests did not demonstrate validity. E) The reading tests showed consistency based on her overall results. 29) Cedric is sitting in his math class and is trying to solve a problem. He 29) ______ knows there is a correct formula to solve this problem and he knows what steps are involved to come to the correct answer. Cedric is about to use the ________ as a problem solving strategy. A) algorithm B) means-end analysis C) mental set D) formulaic heuristic E) representativeness heuristic 30) ________ occurs when a person sees only the original use of an object, 30) ______ which can ultimately interfere with problem solving. A) The formulaic heuristic B) Functional fixedness C) Cross-modal perception
  • 6. D) Divergent thinking E) A customary viewpoint The g factor measures ________ whereas the s factor measures ________. 31) ______ 31) A) primary mental abilities; secondary mental abilities B) nonverbal intellectual capacity; verbal intellectual capacity C) specific intellectual abilities; general intelligence D) overall intelligence; particular intellectual abilities E) verbal abilities; nonverbal abilities 32) A ________ is a mental category that represents a group of people, 32) ______ objects, or events. A) prototype B) visual image C) schematic grouping D) cognitive grouping E) concept 33) Athletes such as Tiger Woods and Tayshaun Prince likely have a high 33) ______ degree of A) naturalistic intelligence. B) linguistic intelligence. C) interpersonal intelligence. D) logical-mathematical intelligence. E) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. 34) Suppose that eight-year-old Kevin was given the Wechsler Intelligence 34) ______ Scale for Children. How would the psychologist determine his IQ score? A) Assessing his mental age B) Comparing his performance with all of the other eight-year-old children in the normative group who have taken the test C) Dividing his age by the average number or responses he answered D) Using the formula MA/CA X 100 E) Using the formula CA/MA X 100 35) Joy had never been to the new restaurant her family was suggesting 35) ______ they try. She was a bit leary about going until she heard they had hamburgers on the menu. Which of the following helped Joy to decide trying the new restaurant was worth a shot? A) The surface heuristic B) The recognition heuristic C) The planning heuristic D) The availability heuristic E) The rule-of-thumb heuristic 36) Which of the following addresses the question, "Does the test measure 36) ______ what it is intended to measure?" A) Reliability B) Aptitude C) Standardization D) Consistency E) Validity
  • 7. When a very large group of people are given a test and then those scores 37) ______ are used as comparison for anyone else who may take that test, the test is said to be 37) A) valid. B) culturally fair. C) reliable. D) an aptitude test. E) standardized. 38) One day Oliver was sitting with his friend as they were discussing how 38) ______ long they have been friends. As they counted back, Oliver said, "Oh, I remember. We met in the third grade at recess time." As he and his friend reminisced, Oliver came to the conclusion that because he hadn't thought about the third grade in so many years, he could not remember who their teacher was. In fact, he could not remember anything about his teacher. What is Oliver likely experiencing? A) Interference failure B) Decay theory C) Anterograde amnesia D) Consolidation failure E) Encoding failure 39) Nicole feels she will not soon forget the emotions she felt upon hearing 39) ______ of the attacks on America on September 11th. She remembers very vividly what she was doing, who she was with, what was said, and what emotions she experienced. Nicole has a ________ for that tragic event. A) metamemory B) hippocampal memory C) flashbulb memory D) reconstructed memory E) repressed memory 40) Luisine took his statistics exam and was glad he studied as hard as he 40) ______ did. He remembers that it took him about an hour to relearn how to solve the problems after spending four hours on them the first time. Based on the relearning method, what was Luisine's savings score? A) 25% B) 75% C) 0% D) 100% E) 50% 41) Explicit memory is to declarative memory as short-term memory is to 41) ______ ________. A) working memory B) metamemory C) episodic memory D) nondeclarative memory E) semantic memory 42) According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, ________ can hold 42) ______ information for a very brief time period of a few moments whereas ________ can hold information for 30 seconds or so. A) iconic memory; sensory memory B) sensory memory; short-term memory C) declarative memory; working memory D) declarative memory; short-term memory E) implicit memory; metamemory 43) Which of the following is TRUE regarding suppression and repression? 43) ______
  • 8. A) Suppression involves a partial or complete memory loss of an event. B) Repression involves a conscious attempt to try to forget painful experiences yet still knowing the event occurred. C) Both are forms of motivated forgetting. D) Both fall under the category of encoding failure. E) All of the above are true. 44) Though gender differences for cognitive abilities are quite small, which of the 44) ______ following statements is TRUE regarding the gender differences that do exist? A) Boys as young as 18 months of age have been found to have larger vocabularies than girls. B) The cognitive differences between boys and girls are much larger than cognitive differences found within each gender. C) Females consistently outperform males in both math and science. D) Boys tend to be more self-disciplined than girls as it relates to studying. E) On average, girls get higher grades than boys do in all subjects. 45) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the nature-nurture 45) ______ controversy of intelligence? A) The controversy was solved when recently published research strongly supported the idea that intelligence was primarily genetic. B) Twin studies support the idea that intelligence is largely inherited; similarly, adoption studies support the idea that intelligence is strongly influenced by one's environment. C) Sir Francis Galton purported over 100 years ago that intelligence was mostly influenced by one's environment. D) Because it was determined that the heritability index for intelligence is around .50, the controversy was recently put to rest. E) All of the above are true. 46) When an individual makes a decision based on what is easiest to call to 46) ______ mind, the ________ is used. A) recognition heuristic B) surface heuristic C) representativeness heuristic D) availability heuristic E) planning heuristic 47) All of the following are true regarding flashbulb memories EXCEPT 47) ______ A) these memories tend to be highly emotional. B) flashbulb memories tend to be rehearsed over and over thereby adding to the strong memory of the event. C) memories of this type are more accurate than other memories and seem exempt from fading away over time. D) the importance and repercussions of these memories add to the strength of the memory. E) memories such as these high in consequentiality. 48) Conditioned responses you have learned by association are located in 48) ______ your ________ memory; knowing how to ride a bike is located within your ________ memory. A) semantic; implicit B) implicit; nondeclarative C) nondeclarative; echoic D) declarative; explicit E) explicit; implicit 49) Sternberg's ________ intelligence refers to the mental abilities most 49) ______ closely correlated with high scores in today's standardized intelligence tests. A) experiential B) creative C) practical
  • 9. D) componential E) contextual 50) When a traumatic event seems to be removed or hidden from one's 50) ______ conscious awareness, ________ is said to have occurred. A) retrograde amnesia B) proactive amnesia C) anterograde amnesia D) prospective forgetting E) repression
  • 10.