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Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 7: Cognition, Language, and Intelligence This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. Any rental, lease or lending of the program. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Chapter 7 Overview  Cognition  Language  Intelligence  Explaining differences in intelligence  What arguments have been advanced to explain racial differences in IQ scores?  Beyond intelligence Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Cognition  The mental processes involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using information, including sensation, perception, imagery, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do imagery and concepts help us think?  Imagery is the representation in the mind of a sensory experience  Images can be extremely helpful to memory  Images are also helpful in learning and maintaining motor skills  The same brain areas are activated when performing a task and mentally rehearsing the task using imagery Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do imagery and concepts help us think?  Concepts are mental categories used to represent a class or group of objects, people, events, etc.  Concepts help us organize our thinking, order our world, and to think and communicate with speed and efficiency  Two basic types of concepts – Formal concept  A concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal definition, or a classification system – Natural concept  A concept acquired not from a definition but through everyday perceptions and experiences Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the role of heuristics in decision making?  Decision making is the process of considering alternatives and choosing among them – Bounded Rationality  Boundaries or limitations around the decision making process prevent it from being entirely logical  So, we often base decisions on strategies and educated guesses – Elimination by aspects  Decision making strategy in which alternatives are evaluated against criteria that are ranked according to importance Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the role of heuristics in decision making?  Heuristic is a rule of thumb derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, despite no guarantee of accuracy – Availability heuristic  Rule stating that an event’s probability corresponds to the ease with which the event comes to mind – Example: Makes us overestimate the probability of some rare events, such as winning the lottery – Representativeness heuristic  Decision strategy based on how closely a new situation resembles a familiar one – Example: Helps us choose a fast-food restaurant – Recognition heuristic  Strategy in which the decision making process stops as soon as a factor that moves one toward a decision has been recognized – Example: Influences voting behavior, such as recognizing a candidate’s name as that of a woman Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the role of heuristics in decision making?  Framing is the way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss – Which program would you choose to combat a disease that is expected to kill 600 people?  If program A is adopted, 200 people will be saved  If program B is adopted, there is a 1/3 probability that all 600 will be saved and a 2/3 probability that no people will be saved? – Now which program would you choose?  If program C is adopted, 400 people will die  If program D is adopted, there is a 1/3 probability that nobody will die and a 2/3 probability that all 600 people will die – Most people choose A and D  But A and C are the same, and B and D are the same  How the information is framed influences decision making Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are some basic approaches to problem solving, and how do they differ?  Problem solving is the thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal – Analogy heuristic is comparing a problem to others encountered in the past  Working backward – Strategy of starting with the desired goal and working backwards to the current condition  Means-end analysis – Strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are some basic approaches to problem solving, and how do they differ?  Algorithm – A step-by-step procedure that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type  e.g., a mathematical formula  Functional fixedness – Failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions  Mental set – Tendency to apply a familiar strategy to a problem without considering the special requirements of that problem  Confirmation bias – Selective attention to information that confirms preexisting beliefs Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are some important applications of artificial intelligence technologies?  Artificial intelligence is the programming of computer systems to simulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgments and decisions – Artificial neural networks  Computer systems intended to mimic the human brain – Expert systems  Computer programs designed to carry out specific functions within a limited domain Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Language  A means of communicating thoughts and feelings, using a system of socially shared but arbitrary symbols (sounds, signs, or written symbols) arranged according to rules of grammar Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are the necessary components of any language?  Phonemes – The smallest units of sound in a spoken language  Morphemes – The smallest units of meaning in a spoken language  Syntax – The rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are the necessary components of any language?  Semantics – The meaning derived from morphemes, words, and sentences  Pragmatics – The patterns of intonation and social roles associated with language Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence concerning the capacity of animals for understanding and producing language?  Chimpanzees have been taught to communicate using sign language or symbols – Washoe mastered about 160 sign-language signs – Sara learned an artificial language that used plastic chips as symbols  Skeptics’ arguments – Chimps are simply imitating their trainers to receive reinforcers according to principles of operant conditioning – Also, studies of chimp language use are subject to experimenter bias Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence concerning the capacity of animals for understanding and producing language?  Kanzi, a pygmy chimpanzee – learned to communicate with 200 symbols in an artificial language and made over 13,000 utterances – Can understand spoken English – Studies of Kanzi control for experimenter bias  Alex, an African gray parrot – can answer questions about colors, objects, and shapes, and can count  These animals’ language use is not just imitation or behavior shaped by conditioning Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • In what ways does language influence thinking?  Linguistic relativity hypothesis – The language a person speaks determines the nature of that person’s thoughts  Benjamin Whorf’s classic example: – Language used by Eskimo people has multiple words for snow – This enables Eskimos to think differently about snow than do other people  But, Eleanor Rosch – Found no difference in color discrimination between people whose language has many names for colors and those who have few words for colors Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of learning a second language at various ages?  Advantage of learning two languages early in life – Better metalinguistic skills  Disadvantage – Decreased efficiency in memory tasks involving words – But, most bilinguals develop compensatory strategies for word memory tasks  They may respond more slowly, but are just as accurate as monolinguals Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of learning a second language at various ages?  People who start learning a second language at an earlier age generally reach a higher level of proficiency – And are more likely to speak it with an appropriate accent  But, it’s never too late to learn a second language – Study of immigrants to USA  Ability to learn English is associated with educational background  College-educated adults can attain a high level of proficiency Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • English Proficiency in Chinese- and Spanish-Speaking Immigrants to the United States Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Intelligence – An individual’s ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles through mental effort Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do the views of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ with regard to the definition of intelligence?  Charles Spearman believed that intelligence is composed of a general ability, g, that underlies all intellectual functions  He observed that people who are bright in one area tend to be bright in other areas as well Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do the views of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ with regard to the definition of intelligence?  Louis Thurstone rejected Spearman’s notion of g  He proposed seven primary mental abilities – Verbal comprehension – Numerical ability – Spatial relations – Perceptual speed – Word fluency – Memory – Reasoning  He argued that a profile of strengths and weaknesses on the seven primary abilities is more accurate than a single IQ score Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do the views of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ with regard to the definition of intelligence?  Howard Gardner proposed that there are eight independent forms of intelligence  He developed this theory from studies of different types of brain damage that affect some forms of intelligence but leave others intact  He also studied savant syndrome – A combination of mental retardation and unusual talent or ability Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Gardner’s Eight Frames of Mind Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do the views of Spearman, Thurstone, Gardner, and Sternberg differ with regard to the definition of intelligence?  Robert Sternberg proposed that there are three types of intelligence – Componential intelligence  Analytical intelligence; measured by most intelligence tests – Experiential intelligence  Creative thinking and problem solving – Contextual intelligence  Practical intelligence, common sense Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • In what ways do achievement, aptitude, and intelligence tests differ?  Achievement tests – Measure what a person has learned up to a certain point in his or her life  Aptitude tests – Predict future performance in a particular setting or on a specific task  Intelligence tests – Measure general intellectual ability Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Why are reliability, validity, standardization, and cultural bias important in intelligence testing?  Reliability – Ability of a test to yield consistent results  Validity – Ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure  Standardization – Establishing norms for comparing the scores of people who will take the test in the future – Administering tests using a prescribed procedure Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?  Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon – Developed the first intelligence test – Goal was to assess the intellectual potential of individual schoolchildren  Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale – Used a score called mental age  Based on number of items a child got right compared with average number right by children of various ages  If mental age was two years ahead of chronological age, child was termed “bright”  If mental age was two years behind chronological age, child was termed “retarded” Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?  William Stern – Devised the intelligence quotient (IQ)  Louis Terman – Revised the Binet-Simon test – Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale – Established norms, or age-based averages, based on the scores of a large number of children Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What did Binet, Terman, and Weschler contribute to the study of intelligence?  David Wechsler – Developed the first individual intelligence test for individuals over age 16  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – Also developed a widely-used test for children  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) – Consists of 5 verbal and 10 nonverbal subtests Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do individuals who are gifted and those with mental retardation differ from others?  The frequencies of intelligence scores conform to a normal curve – Approximately 50% of IQ scores fall between 90 and 110 – Approximately 68% fall between 85 and 115 – Approximately 95% fall between 70 and 130 – Approximately 2% fall above 130 and 2% below 70 Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • The normal curve Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do individuals who are gifted and those with mental retardation differ from others?  Terman (1925) studied 1528 people with IQs from 135 to 200  Compared to the general population, high IQ individuals – Have better mental health – Earn more academic degrees – Achieve higher occupational status and higher income – Are better adjusted personally and socially – Are healthier Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How do individuals who are gifted and those with mental retardation differ from others?  Mental retardation is subnormal intelligence reflected by an IQ below 70 and by severely deficient adaptive functioning  Causes include – Brain injuries – Chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome – Chemical deficiencies – Hazards present during prenatal development  Degrees of retardation – Mild: IQ 55-70 – Moderate: IQ 40-54 – Severe: IQ 25-39 – Profound: IQ < 25Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Explaining differences in intelligence  There is a wide range of differences in intellectual functioning in our everyday interactions with other people. What accounts for these differences? Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence supporting the nature and nurture sides of the IQ controversy?  Nature-nurture debate – The debate over whether intelligence and other traits are primarily the result of heredity or environment Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence supporting the nature and nurture sides of the IQ controversy?  Twin studies – Identical twins obtain very similar scores on IQ tests, even when raised apart – This provides evidence that individual differences in intelligence are strongly influenced by genes Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence supporting the nature and nurture sides of the IQ controversy?  Scarr and Weinberg adoption study – 140 African American and interracial children adopted into highly-educated White families – Average IQ was 106, above the national average – The earlier children were adopted, the higher their IQs on average – Results suggest that intelligence can be modified by environment Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What is the evidence supporting the nature and nurture sides of the IQ controversy?  Craig Ramey’s intervention study – Infants of low-IQ, low- income mothers – Randomly assigned to 40-hour-per-week special daycare and preschool programs or a control group – Children in the program scored significantly higher in IQ through age 12 Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What arguments have been advanced to explain racial differences in IQ scores?  Historically, Blacks score about 15 points lower than Whites on IQ tests in USA  Arthur Jensen (1969) attributed the IQ gap to genetic differences  Findings by Ramey and others suggest that differences result from poverty and lack of educational opportunities  Minority children are more likely to be identified as gifted when culture-fair intelligence tests are used  Racial differences in IQ scores may also be explained by stereotype threat Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Example item on a culture- fair test Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • In what ways do the cognitive abilities of males and females differ?  Girls generally have larger vocabularies and outperform boys in reading and writing  Boys generally do better in science and math – Some research indicates that hormonal differences contribute to the gap in math achievement – But others argue that social influences are more important  Boys generally outperform girls in some spatial tasks  Overall, gender differences for cognitive variables are small – And differences within each gender are greater than differences between genders Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • Beyond intelligence  There are many aspects of cognitive functioning that are not captured by standardized tests of intelligence. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • What are the components of emotional intelligence?  Emotional intelligence is the ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life – Includes awareness of one’s emotions, ability to manage emotions, self-motivation, empathy, and ability to handle relationships  Peter Salovey and David Pizarro – Argue that emotional intelligence is just as important as the kind of intelligence measured in IQ tests Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition, and how has it been measured?  Creativity is the ability to produce original, appropriate, and valuable ideas and/or solutions to problems  There is a weak to moderate correlation between creativity and IQ  J. P. Guilford suggests that creativity involves divergent thinking – The ability to produce multiple ideas or solutions to a problem for which there is no agreed-on solution Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  • How does creativity differ from other forms of cognition, and how has it been measured?  Creative people share several characteristics that distinguish them from less creative people, including – Expertise in a specific area built up over years of study and practice – Openness to new experiences and ideas – Inherent curiosity – Independent thinking Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon