Chapter 14


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Chapter 14

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Social Psychology This multimedia product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network. Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images. Any rental, lease or lending of the program. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  2. 2. Chapter 14 Overview  Social perception  Attraction  Conformity, obedience, and compliance  Group influence  Attitudes and attitude change  Prosocial behavior  Aggression  Prejudice and discrimination Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  3. 3. Social Perception  Social psychology is the subfield that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of individuals – Confederate is a person who poses as a participant in an experiment but is actually assisting the experimenter – Naïve subject is a person who has agreed to participate in an experiment but is not aware that deception is being used to conceal its real purpose Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  4. 4. Why are first impressions so important?  The primacy effect – An overall impression of another person is influenced more by the first information received about that person than by information that comes later  Once formed, an impression acts as a framework through which later information is interpreted Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  5. 5. What is the difference between a situational attribution and a dispositional attribution?  An assignment of a cause to explain one’s own or another’s behavior  When we explain our own failures, we tend to make situational attributions – Attributing behavior to an external cause or factor related to a situation  When we explain other people’s failures, we are more likely to make dispositional attributions – Attributing behavior to an internal cause, such as a personality trait Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  6. 6. What is the difference between a situational attribution and a dispositional attribution?  The tendency to attribute other people’s behavior to dispositional causes and our own to situational causes is referred to as the actor-observer bias  People generally attribute their successes to dispositional causes and their failures to situational causes – This is referred to as the self-serving bias Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  7. 7. Attraction  Think about your friends. What makes you like, or even fall in love with, one person and ignore or react negatively to someone else? Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  8. 8. What factors contribute to attraction?  Proximity – We tend to like and feel attracted to people who are frequently in our local environment  The mere-exposure effect – The tendency to feel more positively toward a stimulus as a result of repeated exposure to it  Reciprocity – We tend to like people who like us Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  9. 9. What factors contribute to attraction?  People of all ages have a strong tendency to prefer physically attractive people  People who are physically attractive are also perceived as having other favorable qualities – This is known as the halo effect Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  10. 10. How do psychologists explain romantic attraction and mating?  The matching hypothesis proposes that people choose mates who are similar to themselves in physical attractiveness and other attributes – Similarity attracts and is associated with marital success  Evolutionary psychologists argue that men and women prefer mates on the basis of what they can contribute to reproductive success – Men prefer young, attractive women – Women prefer men with resources and high status Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  11. 11. How does Sternberg’s triangular theory of love account for the different kinds of romantic love?  Three components singly, and in various combinations, produce seven different kinds of love – Intimacy – Passion – Commitment Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  12. 12. Conformity, Obedience, and Compliance  Conformity is changing or adopting a behavior or an attitude in an effort to be consistent with the social norms of a group or the expectations of other people – Social norms are the attitudes and standards of behavior expected of members of a particular group Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  13. 13. What did Asch find in his famous experiment on conformity?  In Asch’s study (1955), 75% of participants conformed at least some of the time with the incorrect answer given by the majority  The same results were attained when varying the size of the group Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  14. 14. What did researchers find when they varied the circumstances of Milgram’s classic study of obedience?  Research participants (the “teachers”) believed that they were giving electric shocks to another participant (the “learner”)  Shock intensity increased each time the learner answered incorrectly  If the teacher hesitated, experimenter told him that he must continue  26 out of 40 participants (65%) continued to highest possible shock intensity: 450 volts  All 40 went up to at least 300 volts Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  15. 15. What did researchers find when they varied the circumstances of Milgram’s classic study of obedience?  Nearly as many participants went all the way to 450 volts (48%) when the experiment was conducted at a run-down office building away from Yale University  But only 10% obeyed and gave maximum shock when they saw another person defy the experimenter and refuse to obey Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  16. 16. What are three techniques used to gain compliance?  Foot-in-the-door technique – Gaining agreement to a small request first to make a person more likely to agree to a larger request later  Door-in-the-face technique – Making a large request, with the expectation that the person will refuse, to make the person more likely to comply with a smaller request later  Low-ball technique – Making an attractive initial offer to get a person to commit to an action, but then making the terms less favorable Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  17. 17. Group Influence  Being part of a group often means giving up a bit of individuality, but the reward is the support and camaraderie of the group. Clearly we behave differently in a variety of ways when we are part of a group, small or large. Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  18. 18. How does social facilitation affect performance?  Social facilitation is any positive or negative effect on performance that can be attributed to the presence of others  When others are present – Performance is usually enhanced on easy tasks and tasks at which we are skilled – Performance usually suffers on difficult tasks at which we are not skilled Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  19. 19. What is social loafing, and what factors reduce it?  The tendency to put forth less effort when working with others than when working alone  Social loafing is common – When individual contributions to a group project cannot be identified – Among people who score low in achievement motivation – In individualistic societies Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  20. 20. How do group polarization and groupthink influence decision making?  Group polarization – Occurs when, after discussion, group members shift to more extreme positions in the directions they were already leaning  Groupthink – Occurs when a group’s desire to maintain solidarity outweighs other considerations, a process that often leads to poor decisions Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  21. 21. How do social roles influence individual behavior?  Social roles are socially defined behaviors considered appropriate for individuals occupying certain positions within a group  Social roles can shape behavior – In Philip Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment, participants’ behaviors were dramatically influenced by roles  “Guards” became heartless and sadistic  “Prisoners” became subservient  Identification with their roles led to deindividuation Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  22. 22. Attitudes and Attitude Change  A relatively stable evaluation of a person, object, situation, or issue, along a continuum ranging from positive to negative Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  23. 23. What are the three components of an attitude?  An attitude usually has three components – Cognitive – Emotional – Behavioral Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  24. 24. What is cognitive dissonance, and how can it be reduced?  An unpleasant state that can occur when people become aware of inconsistencies between their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behaviors  People usually try to reduce dissonance by changing their behavior, changing their attitudes, or explaining away the inconsistency or minimizing its importance Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  25. 25. Methods of reducing cognitive dissonance Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  26. 26. What are the elements of persuasion?  Persuasion is a deliberate attempt to influence the attitudes and/or behavior of another person  The four elements of persuasion are – The source of the communication – The audience – The message – The medium Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  27. 27. What are the elements of persuasion?  Factors that make a source more persuasive include – Credibility – Attractiveness – Likeability  Audiences with low IQs tend to be more easily persuaded than those with low IQs Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  28. 28. What are the elements of persuasion?  A one-sided message is usually most persuasive when the audience is not well- informed on an issue  A two-sided message is usually most persuasive when the audience is well- informed  Experimental studies suggest that television is the most effective medium through which to communicate a persuasive message Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  29. 29. Prosocial Behavior  Behavior that benefits others, such as helping, cooperation, and sympathy Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  30. 30. What motivates one person to help another?  Some helping behavior is motivated by altruism – Behavior that is aimed at helping another that requires self-sacrifice and is not performed for personal gain  We are more likely to help those in need – If we are in a committed relationship with them – Or if we perceive them to be similar to us  Cultural norms also influence helping behavior Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  31. 31. What is the bystander effect, and why does it occur?  As the number of bystanders at an emergency increases, the probability that a victim will receive help decreases  Darley and Latané (1968): This results from diffusion of responsibility Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  32. 32. Aggression  The intentional infliction of physical or psychological harm on others Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  33. 33. What biological factors are thought to be related to aggression?  Twin studies and adoption studies indicate a genetic link for criminal behavior  Low arousal level of the autonomic nervous system is related to antisocial and violent behavior  A high level of testosterone is correlated with aggressive behavior in males  Low levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin is associated with violent behavior  Brain damage, alcohol abuse, and high levels of childhood lead exposure are also associated with aggressive behavior Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  34. 34. What other factors contribute to aggression?  Frustration produces aggression – This is referred to as the frustration- aggression hypothesis  Aggression is often triggered by aversive conditions, such as pain, loud noise, and crowding  Belief in the superiority of one’s own group over other groups may lead to aggression toward others Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  35. 35. According to social learning theory, what causes aggressive behavior?  Proposes that people acquire aggressive responses by observing aggressive models  The theory is supported by findings that people who were abused as children are more likely to be abusers as parents  Also, research provides overwhelming evidence of an association between TV violence and aggressive behavior by viewers Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  36. 36. Prejudice and Discrimination  Prejudice consists of attitudes (usually negative) toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group  Discrimination consists of behavior (usually negative) directed toward others based on their gender, religion, race, or membership in a particular group Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  37. 37. What factors contribute to the development of prejudice and discrimination?  Realistic conflict theory – Proposes that prejudice can arise out of competition between groups for scarce resources  Prejudice can also be caused by people’s tendency to divide the world into distinct social categories – In-groups and out-groups  Social-cognitive theory – Proposes that prejudice is learned in the same way that other attitudes are– through modeling and reinforcement Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon
  38. 38. What evidence suggests that prejudice and discrimination are decreasing?  Survey research suggests that White Americans have become less prejudiced during the past few decades  But, research also indicates that racial stereotyping and prejudice still exist  Members of different ethnic groups tend to have varying views of the degree to which prejudice and discrimination continue to be a problem in the United States Copyright © 2008 Allyn & Bacon