Berger Ls 7e Ch 9


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Berger Ls 7e Ch 9

  1. 1. Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A. 1 Kathleen Stassen Berger Part III The Play Years: Cognitive Development Chapter Nine Piaget and Vygotsky Children’s Theories Language Early-Childhood Education
  2. 2. 2 The Play Years: Cognitive Development …thinking and learning from age 2 to 6… …remarkable advances in language and thought… …the simple sentence of the typical 2-year- old that are nonstop, complex outpourings of a talkative 6-year-old, who can explain almost anything…
  3. 3. 3 Piaget and Vygotsk …famous for their description of cognition… the eager learning of children… are compatible in many ways…
  4. 4. 4 Piaget • Piaget: Preoperational Thinking – preoperational intelligence • cognitive development between the ages of about 2 and 6; it includes languages and imagination (in addition to the senses and motor skills of infancy), but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible
  5. 5. 5 Piaget • Obstacles to Logical Operation – centration • a characteristic of preoperational thought in which a young child focuses (centers) on one idea, excluding all others – egocentrism • Piaget’s term for children’s tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective – focus on appearance • a characteristic of preoperational though in which a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent
  6. 6. 6 Piaget • Obstacles to Logical Operation – static reasoning • thinking that nothing changes: Whatever is now has always been and always will be – irreversibility • the idea that nothing can be undone; the inability to recognize that something can sometimes be restored to the way it was before a change occurred
  7. 7. 7 Piaget • Conservation and Logic – conservation • the idea that the amount of a substance remains the same (i.e., is conserved) when its appearance changes
  8. 8. 8 Piaget
  9. 9. 9 Piaget • Limitations of Piaget’s Research – Piaget underestimated the conceptual ability of young children and infants… • designing his experiments to reveal what children seemed not to understand, rather than to identify what they could understand • relied on the child’s words rather than the child’s nonverbal signs in play context
  10. 10. 10 Vygotsk • Vygotsky: Social Learning – young children can be very sensitive to the wishes and emotions of others – young children have social thoughts
  11. 11. 11 Vygotsk • Children as Apprentices – cognitive development is embedded in a social context – curious and observant – ask questions
  12. 12. 12 Vygotsk • Children as Apprentices – apprentice in thinking • a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older more skilled members of society – guided participation • the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations
  13. 13. 13 Vygotsk • Children as Apprentices – guided participation
  14. 14. 14 Vygotsk • Scaffolding – zone of proximal development (ZPD) • the skills that a person can exercise only with assistance, not yet independently • ZPD applies to the ideas or cognitive skills a person is close to mastering as well as to more apparent skills – scaffolding • temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process
  15. 15. 15 Vygotsk • Language as a Toll – private speech • internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud) – social mediation • a function of speech by which a person’s cognitive skills are refined and extended through both formal instruction and casual conversation
  16. 16. 16 Children’s Theories • Theory-Theory – the idea that children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories
  17. 17. 17 Children’s Theories • Theory of Mind – a person’s theory of what other people might be thinking – children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they themselves are thinking – the realization is seldom possible before age 4
  18. 18. 18 Children’s Theories • Belief and Reality: Understanding the Difference – a sudden leap of understanding occurs at about age 4 • between age 3 – 6 children come to realize that thoughts may not reflect reality
  19. 19. 19 Children’s Theories • Contextual Influences – maturation of the brain’s prefrontal cortex appears to be the reason for the age-related advance in children
  20. 20. 20 Language • is pivotal to cognition in early childhood • is the leading cognitive accomplishment in early childhood • 24-month-olds begin this period with short sentences and limited vocabulary • 6-year-olds end it with the ability to understand and discuss almost anything
  21. 21. 21 Language • critical period – a time when a certain development must happen if it is ever to happen • sensitive period – a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen and happens most easily
  22. 22. 22 Language • Vocabulary – new words are added rapidly • at age 2 knows about 500 words • at age 6 about 10,000 words
  23. 23. 23 Language • Fast-Mapping – the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by mentally charting them into categories according to their meaning
  24. 24. 24 Language • Words and the Limits of Logic – logical extension • used to describe other objects in the same category • use of available vocabulary to cover all the territory they want to talk about
  25. 25. 25 Language • Grammar – grammar of language includes the structure, techniques, and rules that are used to communicate meaning – parts of grammar: word order and word repetition, prefixes and suffixes, intonation and emphasis – overregularization • the application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, so that the language is made to seem more “regular” than it actually is
  26. 26. 26 Language • Learning Two Languages – bilingualism is an asset—a necessity – language-minority children are at a disadvantage (not the dominant language of the nation) – more likely to: • do poorly in school • feel ashamed • become unemployed as adults – learning the majority language is crucial
  27. 27. 27 Language – What is the goal of having a second language? • research supports that children should learn at least two languages…the language-sensitive years of early childhood are the best time • soon after the vocabulary explosion, young are able to master two languages—distinct sets of words and grammar • Young children have difficulty with pronunciation in every language, but this does not slow down their learning of a second language
  28. 28. 28 Language – Bilingualism, Cognition, and Culture • “Since language is integral to culture, bilingualism is embedded in emotions of ethnic pride and fear. This reality hampers developmental research.”
  29. 29. 29 Language Constant Change – The basics of language learning… – explosion – fast-mapping – overregularization – extensive practice …apply to bilingual learning – Languages continually change… – Negro to Black to African American – hip-hop; e-mail; DVD; spam; blog; cell (phone); rap (music); buff (in shape) – other languages are basic English vocabulary – salsa, loco, amour
  30. 30. 30 Early-Childhood Education – a hundred years ago children had no formal education until first grade – today 3 – 5-year-olds in developed nations are in school – early educational institutions differ, but names do not indicate the nature of the program
  31. 31. 31 Early-Childhood Education
  32. 32. 32 Early-Childhood Education • Child-Centered Programs • Montessori Schools • The Reggio Emilia Approach • Teacher-Directed Programs • Intervention Programs • Head Start • Experimental Programs
  33. 33. 33 Early-Childhood Education • Costs and Benefits – quality early-childhood education matters – financial aspects are especially significant – parents pay the bulk of the cost or preschool in the United States – quality child care: • safety • adequate space and equipment • low adult-child ratio • positive social interaction among children and adults • trained staff and educated parents • continuity helps – “How long has each staff member worked at the center?”