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  • 1. Part III The Play Years: Biosocial Development Chapter Eight Body Changes Brain Development Injuries and Abuse
  • 2. The Play Years: Biosocial Development
    • Children grow bigger and stronger… become more skilled at tasks… by age 6, they can skip, write, and much more, as long as they have had enough practice.
  • 3. Body Changes
      • 1-year-olds are cute and chubby, while 6 year olds are “grown up”
      • …the body and brain develop according to powerful epigenetic forces, biologically driven as well as socially guided, experience-expectant and experience-dependent…
  • 4. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • during the play years:
        • children become slimmer
        • the lower body lengthens
        • baby fat turns to muscle
          • at age 5 the body mass index is lower than at any other age in the entire life span
  • 5. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • during the play years:
        • gone is the protruding belly
        • round face
        • short limbs
        • large head (that characterize the toddler)
  • 6. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • children increase in height and weight
        • Each year from age 2–6, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches and gain about 4 ½ pounds
        • 6-year-olds weigh about 46 pounds
  • 7. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • A typical 6-year-old:
        • is at least 3 ½ feet tall
        • weighs between 40 and 50 pounds
        • looks lean, not chubby
        • has adult-like body proportions
  • 8. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • ethnic groups living together in the same developed nation, children of:
        • African descent tend to be the tallest, then
        • European descent
        • Asian descent
        • Latino descent
  • 9. Body Changes
    • Growth Patterns
      • “ Over the centuries, low-income families encourage their children to eat, so that they would have a reserve of fat to protect themselves in times of famine.”
      • by 2020 it is predicted that more than 228 million adults worldwide will have diabetes as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood
  • 10. Body Changes
    • Eating Habits
      • Infants and young children today play outside less than their parents or grandparents did
  • 11. Body Changes
    • Eating Habits
      • Nutritional deficiencies
        • children in developed nations consume enough calories but lack iron, zinc, and calcium
        • most cultures encourage their children to eat sweets
  • 12. Body Changes
    • Eating Habits
      • Just right
        • “just right” or “just so” phenomenon is normal and widespread among children
        • most young children’s food preferences and rituals are far from ideal
  • 13. Body Changes
    • Eating Habits
      • Just right
        • 75% of 1500 parents reported that their children’s just-right phase peaked at about age 3...
          • have things done in a particular order or in a certain way
          • strong preference to wear or not wear cerain clothes
          • prepare for bedtime by engaging in a special activity, routine, or ritual
          • strong preference for certain foods
  • 14. Body Changes
    • Eating Habits
      • Just right
        • by age 6 the “just right” fades
        • parents should be patient until the “just right” obsession fades
  • 15. Brain Development
    • “Brains grow rapidly even before birth.”
    • by age 2 the brains increase in size
      • a great deal of pruning of dendrites has already occurred
      • brain growth after infancy is a crucial difference between humans and other animals
  • 16. Brain Development
    • Speed of Thought
      • after infancy, continued proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons) results in some brain growth
      • the effects of myelination are most noticeable in early childhood
        • Myelination is the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron
      • parent must be patient when listening to young children talk or when helping them get dressed
  • 17. Brain Development
    • Connecting the Brain’s Hemispheres
      • corpus callosum
        • a long band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain
      • lateralization
        • literally, sidedness; the specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity
          • the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa
  • 18. Brain Development
    • The Left-Handed Child
      • infants and toddlers usually prefer one hand over the other
      • For centuries, parents who saw a preference for the left-hand forced their children to be right-handed
        • since most people are right-handed the assumption was that right-handedness was best
  • 19. Brain Development
    • The Left-Handed Child
      • developmentalist advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness… not only because of parent-child conflict but because it might interfere with the natural and necessary process of lateralization
  • 20. Brain Development
    • The Whole Brain
      • The left half controls the right side of the body and contains the areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language.
      • The right half controls the left side of the body and contains the area dedicated to generalized emotion and creative impules, including appreciation of most music, art, and poetry.
  • 21. Brain Development
    • The Whole Brain
      • The left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture
  • 22. Brain Development
    • The Whole Brain
      • severely brain-damaged people are exclusively left-brained or right-brained
      • every cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain
      • Because older children have more myelinared fibers in the corpus callosum, they have better thinking and less clumsy actions are possible for them
  • 23. Brain Development
    • Planning and Analyzing
      • the prefrontal cortex or frontal cortex is an area in the front part of the brain’s outer layer under the forehead.
        • this area underlies higher-order cognition
          • planning and complex forms of goal-directed behavior
        • the prefrontal cortex is the executive part of the brain… ruling all the other areas
  • 24. Brain Development
    • Planning and Analyzing
  • 25. Brain Development
    • Planning and Analyzing
      • Maturation of the Prefrontal Cortex
        • Notable benefits of maturation of the prefrontal cortex occur from age 2 – 6
          • sleep becomes more regular
          • emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli
          • temper tantrums subside
          • uncontrollable laughter or tears become less common
  • 26. Brain Development
    • Planning and Analyzing
      • Attention
        • a major function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness
          • perseveration is the tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time
  • 27. Brain Development
    • Emotions and the Brain
      • amygdala
        • a tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
      • hippocampus
        • a brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of location
      • hypothalamus
        • a brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
  • 28. Brain Development
    • Emotions and the Brain
  • 29. Brain Development
    • Emotions and the Brain
      • stressful experiences… can foster growth if the child has someone or something to moderate the stress
      • prolonged physiological responses to stress and challenge put children at risk for a variety of problems in childhood including:
        • physical and mental disorders
        • poor emotional regulation
        • cognitive impairments
  • 30. Brain Development
    • Motor Skills
      • maturation of the prefrontal cortex improves impulse control
      • myelinaton of the corpus callosum and lateralization of the brain permits better coordination
  • 31. Brain Development
    • Motor Skills
      • Gross Motor Skills
        • involves large body movement
      • Fine Motor Skills
        • involve small body movement (are harder to master)
          • hands and fingers
        • many fine motor skills involve two hands… both sides of the brain
  • 32. Brain Development
    • Artistic Expression
      • during the play years children are imaginative, creative, and not yet very self-critical
      • all forms of artistic expression blossom during early childhood
      • in every artistic domain, maturation of brain and body is gradual and comes with practice
  • 33. Brain Development
  • 34. Brain Development
    • Artistic Expression
  • 35. Injuries and Abuse
    • more children die of violence, either accidental or deliberate than from any other cause
    • in the U.S. out of every 100,000:
      • 1 to 4-year-olds, 10.9 died accidentally
      • 2.5 died of cancer (the leading fatal disease at this age)
      • 2.4 were murdered
  • 36. Injuries and Abuse
    • young children are more vulnerable to injuries and abuse than older children
      • they are impulsive, yet depend on others
  • 37. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
      • worldwide injuries cause millions of premature deaths among young adults as well as children
  • 38. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
      • injury control/harm reduction
        • practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities;
          • these practices reflect the beliefs that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place
  • 39. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
      • three levels of prevention
        • primary prevention
          • actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstances, such as injury, disease, or abuse
  • 40. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
      • three levels of prevention
        • secondary prevention
          • actions that avert harm in a high-risk situation, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian
  • 41. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
      • three levels of prevention
        • tertiary prevention
          • actions, such as immediate and effective medical treatment, that are taken after an adverse event such as illness or injury occurs, and are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability
  • 42. Injuries and Abuse
    • Avoidable injury
  • 43. Child Maltreatment
    • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined
      • child maltreatment
        • intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age
      • child abuse
        • deliberate action that is harmful to a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being
      • child neglect
        • failure to meet a child’s basic physical, educational, or emotional needs
  • 44. Child Maltreatment
    • Maltreatment Noticed and Defined
      • reported maltreatment
        • harm or endangerment about which someone has notified the authorities
      • substantiated maltreatment
        • harm or endangerment that been reported, investigated, and verified
  • 45. Child Maltreatment
    • Warning Signs of Maltreatment
      • The first signs of maltreatment are:
          • delayed development
          • slow grow
          • immature communication
          • lack of curiosity
          • unusual social interaction
  • 46. Child Maltreatment
    • Warning Signs of Maltreatment
        • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
          • is a delayed reaction to a trauma or shock, which may include hyperactivity and hyper-vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, sudden terror or anxiety, and confusion between fantasy and reality
  • 47. Child Maltreatment
    • Consequences of Maltreatment
      • is effected by cultural context
        • customs
      • maltreatment compromises basic health
        • abused and neglected children are often injured, sick, hospitalized
      • maltreated children and adolescents are often bullies or victims or both
      • these perspectives can last for a life span