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Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems
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Tibet, Xinjiang & Hong Kong political & economic systems

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Project for AP Comparative Government (2012) …

Project for AP Comparative Government (2012)
Done by Joslyn D., Luckan M., Chu T.D.

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  • REDO THIS
  • Free Tibet: under Dalai Lama
  • 800,000 Tibetan freedom concert 2002, freaking hippies
  • Pretty much been a province for hundreds of years
  • BT from 700 AD, ruler, then chief minister, then bureaucracy, lord chamberlain and assemblies
  • Also: Sino-Tibetan agreement, or agreement on measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet
  • Hundreds of thousands to millions dead
  • Many funds set up for Tibetans to come to mainland to study (boarding schools and universities)
  • Rural: farmers and herders
  • From over 6000 to 8 (Cultural revolution)
  • Hundreds of thousands (figures disputed), at least 120,000
  • Dilluding of culture
  • Branch sec: never tibetan
  • Energy Hydro, Water, SolarResources: nr 1 in china for lit and copper (nr two in world copper)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Autonomy & other unfulfilled promises
    • 2. Introduction & Thesis statement II. Learning about Tibet 1. Social 2. Political 3. Economic III. How Xinjiang is different from Tibet… 1. Social 2. Political 3. Economic IV. Hong Kong, capitalism within communism: 1. “One Country, Two Systems” and what it means to Hong Kong V. Conclusion I.
    • 3. China grants each of its autonomous regions various degrees of social, economic, and political freedoms. When it sees fit to do so, Beijing often limits these freedoms through military involvement and political control. The growing demands for autonomy in various parts of China, including Tibet, Xinjiang, and Hong Kong, are a result of tensions between local paradigms and the inhibiting policies of Beijing, between ethnic groups and the Han, and between the rich histories of autonomy from China artificially imposed quasi-authoritarian rule. and the
    • 4. Freedom Reigned
    • 5. Chinese occupation of Tibet has brought with it some very ambivalent effects. Tibet is simultaneously liberated and oppressed; radical and reactionary; ready and unwilling to assimilate. These seemingly paradoxical elements lead to an extremely complex relationship with China, in which Tibet strives for political, economic, and social autonomy, while at the same time relying heavily on China.
    • 6.  Population: 2.62 million  Capital: Lhasa  Size: 1228400 km²  Religion (unofficial): Buddhism
    • 7.  Buddhist Bureaucratic Theocracy: An Underlying Paradox  Qing Dynasty  Buddhism since the Romans  Nasty, Brutish and Short
    • 8.  1951: 17 –point agreement  Gradual assimilation  Language and Culture  Religion  Own reforms  Military area
    • 9.  Deliberate Genocide?  Cultural Revolution  Urban Unrest  Forced “Hanization”
    • 10.  2000: illiteracy rate 45.65% for over 15 year-olds (UNDP)  93% Tibetan  Poor schools  HEELLLP! CHIINNA!  Dual Responsibility
    • 11.  80% Rural, $438/ year  20% Urban. $1590/ year  1 million under poverty line  Life expectancy: 67 years
    • 12.  Infant Mortality over 9000  35/1000  2x Mainland  Over 50% Kids: malnourished
    • 13.  Cultural Genocide?  Kinda sorta but not really  Religious Freedom?  1/6 to ?  Over 6000 to 8
    • 14.  1:35
    • 15.  Tibetans do not want to integrate  Huge Protests  11 monks and nuns
    • 16. Mass exodus since ‟51
    • 17. What are we gonna do with you, Han?
    • 18. Padma Choling Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the People‟s Congress
    • 19.  Branch Secretary: Zhang Qingli National Party (CCP)  Chairman of the Permanent Committee of the People‟s Branch Secretary Congress: Qiangba Puncog Chairman of the Permanent Committee People‟s Congress Head of the Standing Committee People‟s Assembly People‟s Congress People‟s Assembly
    • 20.  Occupational army & Military Police  Control Slipping?
    • 21. No Formal Polls
    • 22.  1/3 world  Tibet as a link  As a point of conflict
    • 23. Tibet has power until China wants it
    • 24.  No Taxation  I‟ve got your minerals  90%  Service?
    • 25.  Urban 5x rural  Growth, but how much  Rural: 5%/year  Urban: 16%/ year
    • 26.  Resources  Lithium  Copper  Renewable Energy
    • 27.  $1.2 Bil  Hydro power  All but 2  India and Asia  25%  2 billion  Uyghurs
    • 28.  Iron Fist  Here‟s your cake, let me eat it for you  One Sided  But is it?  Who Needs Whom?
    • 29. The growing demands for autonomy in various parts of China, specifically in Xinjiang, are a result of growing tensions between the Uyghur population and the Han population, in which the Uyghur population has been deprived socially, economically, and politically.
    • 30.  “New Frontier” – Qing Dynasty  Taken over by Turkic tribes in 10th and 11th Century.  Uyghurs- Turkic ethnic group.  Predominantly Muslim.  Capital: Urumqi- 95% Han.  Kashgar: 80-90% Uyghur.
    • 31.  Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1912.  1933: Islamic Republic of East Turkestan.  1944: Second East Turkestan Republic.  Under the auspices of the Soviet Union.  1955: Classified as Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
    • 32.  Demographic change?  Many argue that Beijing has attempted to change the Uyghur population.  Han tend to be wealthier than Uyghur‟s.  Han Chinese see Uyghur‟s as inferior.  Since 1949, harsh crackdowns on Islam have occurred.  Uyghur‟s were arrested and jailed even though China‟s constitution officially guarantees freedom of religion.
    • 33.  Earlier promises of freedom of religion have not been kept.  Many Mosques have been shut down.
    • 34.  Mass Han migration west.  Approximate rate of 250,000 per year.  CCP has used economic incentives.
    • 35.  Many Uyghur homes have been torn down to make room for Han migrants.  Han Chinese are offered jobs in Xinjiang.  Discriminatory employment has taken place.  Many state-linked companies have moved.  Not much foreign investment in Xinjiang.
    • 36.  Unfulfilled promises made by CCP in 1950s.  Autonomy  Self-determination  Xinjiang is overwhelmingly governed by Han Chinese.  Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law of 1984.  Guarantees rights to minorities.  Self-government.  Freedom to develop own language, religion and culture.  Greater control over economic development.
    • 37.  2001: China ratified International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.  Article 1: “All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue economic, social, and cultural development.”
    • 38.  Greater Uyghur presence in government.  The ability to control resources in the region (oil, agriculture)
    • 39.  In theory, these elements for autonomy are already in place.  In practice, Uyghur‟s have their own language, religion, and culture, but little else.  Don‟t have proportional representation in the regional government.  Don‟t have power over economic development.  Don‟t have self-government. > Chairman is a CCP party official
    • 40.  CCP has cracked down on religion.  CCP has silenced cries for autonomy.  Growing economy is mostly benefiting Han Chinese migrants.  Political autonomy has not been recognized by Beijing.  Some Chinese officials see “extremists” and “terrorists” in Xinjiang as greatest threat to internal stability.
    • 41.  Uyghur‟s as terrorists?  Beijing has attempted to link Uyghur nationalist movements to Al Qaeda.  Post 9-11 crackdown on Uyghur separatists.  9-11 made crackdown on separatists justifiable because it‟s part of the “war on terror.”  Uyghur hard-liners use brutal and violent means.  Frequent assassinations of Han officials.  Frequent bombings causing civilian casualties.
    • 42.  “A desire to resist oppression is implanted in the nature of man.” – Tacitus  “Stop the genocide.”
    • 43.  Two kinds of protestors: violent separatists and peaceful assimilationists.  Inspired by Tiananmen and Tibetan movements.  1993 & 1997: Advocating for the political and economic rights promised in the 1950s.
    • 44.  “Beijing made no distinctions between the idea of Uighur separatism– violent or even nonviolent– and the idea of terrorism.”  Many Uyghur‟s have been jailed for advocating “separatism” or “terrorism.”  Post 9-11 crackdown has fueled separatist bombings and assassinations.
    • 45.  “The more deprived people are, the worse they feel.” – Louis Kreisberg.  Uyghur‟s feel they are entitled to more than what they currently have.  The booming economy in Xinjiang is mostly benefiting the Han Chinese in the region, not the Uyghur's.  Also, Uyghur‟s want to reap the benefits of the rapidly growing Chinese economy.
    • 46.  Beijing needs to “relinquish the iron fist for a velvet glove.”  Uyghur moderates must overshadow the few separatists. Uyghur leaders have to persuade Beijing that self-determination is mutually beneficial.  Social, economic, and political deprivation can be reduced if Beijing relaxes its grip.
    • 47. Hong Kong History 1. 99-year Lease & Sino – British Joint Declaration I. Hong Kong under China„s rule 1. What is „One Country, Two Systems“? 2. Beijing„s power over Hong Kong 3. Basic Law, Hong Kong, & China 4. Political System 5. Political Participation 6. What Western powers think 7. Future for “One Country, Two Systems” I.
    • 48. After China became sovereign over Hong Kong in 1997, Beijing has granted a “One Country, Two Systems” policy to this region due to Hong Kong‟s special background as a former British colony with a capitalist economic system and a democratic political system. Although the Basic Law of Hong Kong grants them a "high degree of autonomy" and a political and legal system that is very different than that of mainland China, the Chinese government indirectly manipulates Hong Kong‟s politics through different means, specifically by using the rights granted to them in Hong Kong‟s constitution.
    • 49.  1842: 1st Opium War  Treaty of Nanking  Hong Kong ceded to Britain permanently  1898: 2nd Opium War  99-year lease on the New Territories (not democratic, governor answered to the Parliament)  1984: Margaret Thatcher & Zhao Ziyang  Sino –British Joint Declaration: transfer sovereignty of Hong Kong to China at midnight June 30, 1997
    • 50. How Beijing deals with …
    • 51.  Tung Chee-hwa: chief executive of new Hong Kong special autonomous region (SAR)  March 4, 2002: appointed by Central People‟s government to serve 2nd term as Chief executive o Demonstrations o Principal Officials Accountability System  transparency?
    • 52.  Proposed by Deng Xiaoping for China‟s reunification & adopted by NPC  Purposes: o Maintain social & economic system o Maintain identity & strengths as international business, financial, shipping & aviation center o Respect for rule of law & human rights, an efficient bureaucracy… o Beijing stations troops but not to interfere HK‟s internal affairs PEOPLE‟S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (Socialism) CAPITALISM Macau Hong Kong
    • 53. HONG KONG CAN… BEIJING CAN… -The Basic Law -Veto changes in political -Courts administer justice systems independently -Controls foreign affairs & - Police, immigration, customs, excise, defense policies anticorruption officers: law & order -July 2001: Chooses & dismiss - Economy: Own currency chief executive - Develop trade, economic, financial, - Standing Committee of NPC monetary, shipping, communications, delays universal suffrage tourism, cultural & sports relations w/ other countries
    • 54. Protects capitalist system, the way of life, the rights and freedoms of residents "The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has a high degree of autonomy and enjoys executive, legislative and independent judicial power….The socialist system and policies shall not be practiced …previous capitalist system and way of life shall remain unchanged for 50 years."
    • 55. "The Chief Executive of the HKSAR…selected by election or through consultations held locally and be appointed by the CPG. The ultimate aim is the selection of the Chief Executive by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee in accordance with democratic procedures.” (Basic Law, Article 45) The power of interpretation of the Basic Law shall be vested in the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress . Law, Article 158). (Basic The power of amendment of the Basic Law shall be vested in the NPC. No amendment to the Basic Law shall contravene the established basic policies of the People's Republic of China regarding Hong Kong. (Basic Law, Article 159).
    • 56. 3 branches Executive Election Committee (800 members, Beijing-backed) Chief Executive (Head of region & gov) Executive Council (unofficial members & gov secretaries) Legislative Council Judiciary  Under China: -Judicial review (administrative actions, legislatures…) -Separation of power  Separation of politically power = limited  Pro –Beijing politicians: “executive led” system
    • 57. “Overall, our view remains that the concept of 'One Country, Two Systems' is an everyday reality in Hong Kong. The rule of law and the independence of the judiciary, which are so vital to Hong Kong's success, are being upheld. Essential rights and freedoms are being protected, and challenges to them fully and freely debated.” - UK Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, July-December 2001 Report on Hong Kong to the British Parliament, March 2002 “Most Western analysts conclude today that the 'One Country, Two Systems' has permitted Hong Kong to maintain its unique character. Long-term success depends on preserving the quality and integrity of Hong Kong's outstanding cadre of civil servants, the rule of law and an independent judiciary...”— US Speaker's Task Force on the Hong Kong Transition, Ninth Report, January 30, 2002
    • 58.  Demand for an open, accountable & efficient government  Demonstrations  High sympathy with Tiananmen protesters (70 %)  Falun Gong  Media:  Reports news that is banned in the mainland  Political discussions  Hesitates in criticizing Beijing
    • 59.  CHINA: Fear that senior local bureaucrats will try to defy China‟s rule  HONG KONG:  CPPCC members participate as individuals  Government abuses police power  Signs of democracy and human rights violation  Laissez-faire in an authoritarian system  Chief executive election: Beijing/ CCP determines candidates  Deny of universal suffrage
    • 60. PRE 1997 POST 1997
    • 61. Tibet Social Religion Mostly parochials Demonstrations Ethnic group vs. Han Political Xinjiang Direct control Very little autonomy Economic Poor Mostly agriculture Water! Ethnic tension Mostly parochials Violent protests Hong Kong Democratic movements Mostly participants “One country, two systems” Oil Natural resources Capitalism
    • 62. Should Dalai Lama return to Tibet & lead the region?
    • 63. Would it be mutually beneficial for Beijing and Xinjiang if Beijing was to relinquish the “iron fist for a velvet glove”?
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