2. “gerunds and infinitives”Changes in meaning:I stopped to Smoke VSI Stopped Smoking
3. “gerunds and infinitives”Changes in meaning:I stopped to Smoke VSI Stopped Smoking
4. Verb "See"
5. Verb "See"
6. Verb "See"
7. Verb "See"Seeing. to see
8. Verb "See" Seeing. to seeGERUND
9. Verb "See" Seeing. to seeGERUND INFINITIV
10. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS• Admit • Continue • Involve • Recollect• Advise • Defend • Keep • Recommend• Allow • Delay • Like • Report• Anticipate • Deny • Love • Require• Appreciate • Despise • Mention • Resent• Avoid • Discuss • Mind • Resist• Begin • Dislike • Need • Risk• Cant bear • Dont mind • Neglect • Start• Cant • Dread • Permit • Stop• Cant help • Encourage • Postpone • Suggest• Cant see • Enjoy • Practice • Tolerate• Cant stand • Finish • Prefer • Try• Cease • Forget • Propose • Understand• Complete • Hate • Quit • Urge• Consider • Imagine • Recall
11. Examples verbs followed by gerunds Admit The student admitted cheating on the test 😔 Cant stand Octavio cant stand listening to "Banda" music 😖 Deny Peña Nieto denies buying votes to be a president 😡 Enjoy People always enjoy traveling around the world ✈ Hate I hate cleaning the bathroom 🚽 Imagine "Imagine all the people living for today" ❤ Mention The teacher mentioned failing the lazy people 👎 VERB GERUND
12. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES (similar meaning) • Cant bear • Love • Cant stand • Neglect • Cease • Prefer • Continue • Propose • Hate • Begin • Like • Start
13. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (similar meaning) I propose eating some lunch I propose to eat some lunchPropose 🍔 🍔 Cant Octavio cant stand listening Octavio cant stand to listen stand to "Banda" music 😖 to "Banda" music 😖 Like Samantha likes reading 📖 Samantha likes to read 📖 Homer Simpson loves Homer Simpson loves to Love drinking beer🍺 drink beer🍺 She continued talking about She continued to talk aboutContinue politics 😞 politics 😞 VERB GERUND INFINITIVE
14. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR NOUNS + Inﬁnitives • Advise • Allow • Encourage • Permit • Require • Urge • Remind
15. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or nouns + inﬁnitives I advise them to see a doctorAdvise I advise seeing a doctor 😷 😷 Ireland doesnt allow smoking Ireland doesnt allow people Allow in bars 🚬c. to smoke in bars 🚬 Governments urge recycling Governments urge people to Urge immediately 🍃 recycle immediately 🍃 Getting a B.A. Degree Getting a B.A. DegreeRequire requires completing 4 years requires students to complete 🎓 4 years 🎓VERB GERUND NOUN + INFINITIVE
16. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS OR INFINITIVES (Different meaning) • Begin • Dread • Forget • Keep • Need • Regret • Remember • Start • Stop • Try
17. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (Different meaning) She began singing. She began to sing. She is beginning to sing.Begin When "begin" is used in non- When "begin" is used in continuous tenses, you can continuous tenses, an either use a gerund or an inﬁnitive is used. inﬁnitive. He dreaded to think of the consequences of his She dreaded taking the test. actions. Usually "dread" is followed byDread "Dread" is sometimes used a gerund. with inﬁnitives such as "think" or "consider." In the sentence above, "dreaded to think" means "did not want to think."
18. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (Different meaning) She forgot reading the book She forgot to pay the rent this when she was a kid. month. When "forget" is used with a When forget is used with anForget gerund, it means "to forget that you inﬁnitive, it means "to forget that have done something." The you need to do something." The sentence above means that she sentence above means that she read the book when she was a kid, and that she has forgotten that forgot that she needed to pay fact. the rent. The attackers kept She kept talking. hostages to prevent the police from entering. "Keep" is normally used withKeep a gerund to mean that you "Keep" can also be used with an object continue doing an action. followed by an inﬁnitive, but then the inﬁnitive takes on the meaning of "in order to... ." In the sentence above, the attackers kept hostages in order to prevent the police from entering.
19. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (Different meaning) The house needs cleaning. He needs to call his boss. He needs him to call his boss. When "need" is used with aNeed gerund, it takes on a passive "Need" is usually used with an meaning. The sentence inﬁnitive or an object + an above means "the house inﬁnitive. needs to be cleaned." We regret to inform you I regretted being late to the that your position at the interview. company is being eliminated.Regret "Regret" is normally used with a gerund. "Regret" is sometimes used with inﬁnitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above, "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you (bad news).
20. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (Different meaning) I remember mentioning the He remembered to turn off the meeting yesterday. lights before he left. When "remember" is used with a When "remember" is used with anRemember gerund, it means "to remember that inﬁnitive, it means "to remember you have done something." The that you need to do something." sentence above means that I The sentence above means that he mentioned the meeting, and that I remembered that he needed to remember the fact that I did that. turn the lights off. Marge started talking really Marge is starting to talk really fast. fast. Marge started to talk really When "start" is used in continuous tenses, an inﬁnitive is used. fast. Start I started to learn Russian, but it was so much work that I ﬁnally quit the class. When "start" is used in non- continuous tenses, you can In other situations, an inﬁnitive means that either use a gerund or an you did not complete or continue an action. inﬁnitive.
21. Examples verbs followed by gerunds or inﬁnitives (Different meaning) He stopped to rest for a few He stopped smoking for minutes. health reasons. When "stop" is used with an Stop "Stop" is normally used with a inﬁnitive, the inﬁnitive takes on gerund. the meaning of "in order to." In the sentence above, he stopped in order to rest for a few minutes. She cant ﬁnd a job. She tried looking in the She tried to climb the tree, but she couldnt even paper, but there was nothing. She tried get off the ground. asking friends and family, but nobody knew of anything. She also tried going shop to When you "try to do" something, you want to do it, shop, but nobody was hiring. but you do not succeed in actually doing it. In the sentence above, an inﬁnitive is used because she "Try + gerund" means to try or to experiment with different cannot successfully climb the tree. Try methods to see if something works. Try not to wake the baby when you get up She tried eating the snake soup, but tomorrow at 5 AM. she didnt like it. An inﬁnitive is also used if you are asking someone "Try + gerund" is often used when you experiment with to try something they may or may not be able to something, but you do not really like it or want to do it accomplish. again.v