THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: EGYPT
María Jesús Campos
learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
THE FIRST URBAN CIVILIZATIONS: THE RIVER
CIVILIZATIONS
 Some 6 000 years ago,
some Neolithic villages
became cities as a ...
 The first great civilizations developed along large
rivers surrounded by fertile land:
 Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrat...
EGYPT AND THE NILE
 The Egyptian civilization
developed 5.000 years ago,
along the River Nile.
 The area is basically a ...
 FERTILITY TO THE
LAND:
 Each year River Nile rises
and floods the surrounding
area. When the water level
decreases, it ...
 Flowing south to north,
the Nile also provided an
excellent way of
transportation and
communication
 The Nile, also div...
 The Nile was in the centre of the
development of the Egyptian
civilization.
 It was so important for Egypt
that they ev...
EGYPT’S POLITICAL EVOLUTION
 Around the year 5000 BC,
some neolithic villages
along river Nile learnt how
to control and ...
 Around the year 3100 BC, King Menes unified the
Lower and the Upper Egypt creating an Empire
 Kingdoms/Empires:
 Old K...
EGYPT’S POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
 The Pharaoh was the most
important position.
 He had absolute power:
 Religious power: ...
 The pharaoh was advised by
governors and civil
servants that helped him in
governing the territory and
implementing his ...
EGYPTIAN SOCIETY
Pharaoh
High official in
the civil service /
Priests /Scribes
Soldiers, Peasants, Farmers,
Merchants, Tra...
 Divided into privileged groups and non-privileged
groups.
 The Pharaoh was at the top of society. He owned
all the land...
 Non-privileged groups: protected the
population or produced the products needed by
society
 Soldiers
 Farmers, peasant...
 Egyptian women had some
rights and more freedom than
other women in the Ancient
Age:
 Could own property
 Could inheri...
EGIPTIAN RELIGION: GODS
 Polytheistic
 Religion preserved the order of the
universe.
 Gods:
 Ra: the sun (also Amun or...
 Each god lived in a
temple or sanctuary
in the form of a
statue.
 Priests worshipped
them and made them
offerings.
EGIPTIAN RELIGION: THE AFTERLIFE
 Egiptians believed there was an
afterlife, as long as the body
was preserved.
 Mummifi...
 Egyptians believed that the dead person would
present himself in front of Osiris. The
Judgement of Osiris would weigh hi...
 The type of tomb
evolved during Egyptian
history:
 Mastaba
 Pyramid
 Hypogeum
 The tombs tried to
preserve the body ...
EGIPTIAN ART
 Art was very important in
Egypt.
 Artists were the pharaoh’s
civil servants but they were
considered craft...
 Representations:
 Architecture: temples,
palaces and tombs
 Paintings: in the walls
 Sculpture: religious
meaning (go...
EGYPTIAN ART: ARCHITECTURE
 Strict rules
 Materials: Stone
 Supporting structures:
 Columns
 Pillars
 Lintels
 Supp...
 Other characteristics:
 Monumentalism:
power of the gods
and the pharaohs
 Decoration:
paintings,
engravings, and
scul...
Temples:
 The house of the god
 Structure: An avenue of sphinxes led to the entrance.
The entrance had enormous pillars ...
 Only the priests and the
pharaoh could enter the
sanctuary. Nobles and civil
servants could go as far as the
hypostyle h...
Tombs:
 Built to preserve the dead
body for the afterlife.
 Pharaohs and nobles had
large tombs. Poor people
were buried...
 Mastabas: simple low
rectangular buildings with
underground funeral
chambers.
 Pyramids: Huge pyramid-
shaped buildings...
 Pyramids: Keops, Kefren and Mikerinos
 Hypogeums: Tutankamon and Nefertari in the
Valley of the Kings.
 Temples: Karna...
EGYPTIAN ART: PAINTING
 Strict rules
 Figures painted without
perspective.
 Figures and objects seen
from the front, al...
EGYPTIAN ART: SCULPTURE
 Strict rules
 Idealised figures
 Static to show stability and
continuity.
 Simple colours
 P...
EGYPTIAN CULTURE
 Hieroglyphs (writting):
created 5000 years ago.
Signs that represent ideas
and/or sounds. Written
horiz...
Developed by María Jesús Campos
Chusteacher
wikiteacher
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt
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The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt

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Created by María Jesús Campos, teacher of Social Studies, History and Geography in a bilingual section in Madrid (Spain).
learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
learningfromgeography.wikispaces.com

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The First Civilizations: Ancient Egypt

  1. 1. THE FIRST CIVILIZATIONS: EGYPT María Jesús Campos learningfromhistory.wikispaces.com
  2. 2. THE FIRST URBAN CIVILIZATIONS: THE RIVER CIVILIZATIONS  Some 6 000 years ago, some Neolithic villages became cities as a result of the agricultural and commercial prosperity.  These civilisations invented writing.
  3. 3.  The first great civilizations developed along large rivers surrounded by fertile land:  Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates River  Egypt: Nile River  India: Indus River  China: Huang He (Yellow) and Yangtze (Blue) Rivers
  4. 4. EGYPT AND THE NILE  The Egyptian civilization developed 5.000 years ago, along the River Nile.  The area is basically a desert irrigated by the Nile River, which runs from south to north.  The Nile provided:  Fertility to the land (agriculture)  A way of transportation and communication  A geographical and administrative organization.
  5. 5.  FERTILITY TO THE LAND:  Each year River Nile rises and floods the surrounding area. When the water level decreases, it leaves mud that make the fields fertile.  As this flood happened every year, the Egyptians built dams and canals to carry the water and irrigate crops.  Thanks to the Nile, the Egyptians became an important agrarian civilization.
  6. 6.  Flowing south to north, the Nile also provided an excellent way of transportation and communication  The Nile, also divided the area in two regions:  Upper Egypt, in the south: arid area fertilised by the Nile.  Lower Egypt, in the north: large valley formed by the Nile Delta.
  7. 7.  The Nile was in the centre of the development of the Egyptian civilization.  It was so important for Egypt that they even had a god which represented the river.
  8. 8. EGYPT’S POLITICAL EVOLUTION  Around the year 5000 BC, some neolithic villages along river Nile learnt how to control and direct the river’s water, especially during the floods. Thus, developing an important agrarian civilization.  Agricultural and commercial development led to an urban civilization with independent city-states.
  9. 9.  Around the year 3100 BC, King Menes unified the Lower and the Upper Egypt creating an Empire  Kingdoms/Empires:  Old Kingdom: 3100 BC to 2200 BC. Capital city: Memphis  1st Intermediate Period: division and struggles. 2200 BC to 2050 BC.  Middle Kingdom: 2050 BC to 1800 BC. Capital city: Tebas. Expansion to the south.  2nd Intermediate Kingdom: 1800 to 1580 BC. Started with a foreign invasion.  New Kingdom: 1600 BC to 1100 BC. Conquest of Libya and Syria.  Foreign Rule: 1100 BC to 31 BC. Foreign people invaded Egypt: Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans…
  10. 10. EGYPT’S POLITICAL ORGANIZATION  The Pharaoh was the most important position.  He had absolute power:  Religious power: he represented god on Earth so he was worshipped.  Executive power: ruled the country, owned the land, controlled trade, decided everything.  Legislative and judicial power: passed laws and imparted justice.  Military power: led the army and decided between peace and war.
  11. 11.  The pharaoh was advised by governors and civil servants that helped him in governing the territory and implementing his decisions.  Scribes were very important as they were in charge of collecting and controlling taxes, organising the army, transcribing the pharaoh’s orders, noting the commercial transactions and alliances, etc.
  12. 12. EGYPTIAN SOCIETY Pharaoh High official in the civil service / Priests /Scribes Soldiers, Peasants, Farmers, Merchants, Traders… Slaves
  13. 13.  Divided into privileged groups and non-privileged groups.  The Pharaoh was at the top of society. He owned all the land and had absolute power.  Privileged-groups:  Noblemen: usually members from the upper civil service. They received land and wealth from the pharaoh. They ruled the provinces and the army.  Priests: conducted religious rites. They received land from the pharaoh and supported him.  Scribes: they were in charge of official documents and taxation.
  14. 14.  Non-privileged groups: protected the population or produced the products needed by society  Soldiers  Farmers, peasants, stockbreeders…  Merchants, traders, craftsman...  Slaves: group without rights. They were their master’s property. They became slaves through conquest (war prisoners) or debts.
  15. 15.  Egyptian women had some rights and more freedom than other women in the Ancient Age:  Could own property  Could inherit  Could get divorced  They worked in the house or as peasants. Some also worked in the administration and like Hatshepsut , Nefertari or Cleopatra, became pharaohs.
  16. 16. EGIPTIAN RELIGION: GODS  Polytheistic  Religion preserved the order of the universe.  Gods:  Ra: the sun (also Amun or Atum)  Osiris: god of the dead  Seth: god of darkness  Horus: god of war  Isis: goddess of fertility  Anubis: god of the underworld  Thot: god of wisdom
  17. 17.  Each god lived in a temple or sanctuary in the form of a statue.  Priests worshipped them and made them offerings.
  18. 18. EGIPTIAN RELIGION: THE AFTERLIFE  Egiptians believed there was an afterlife, as long as the body was preserved.  Mummification: the dead body was dried and embalmed to make a mummy. The mummy was placed in a sarcophagus in a tomb.  The tomb contained all the things the dead person would need in the afterlife (food, jewels, furniture, clothes, servants…)
  19. 19.  Egyptians believed that the dead person would present himself in front of Osiris. The Judgement of Osiris would weigh his/her soul. The trial would decide if the person would enter in the afterlife.
  20. 20.  The type of tomb evolved during Egyptian history:  Mastaba  Pyramid  Hypogeum  The tombs tried to preserve the body and the things from grave- robbers
  21. 21. EGIPTIAN ART  Art was very important in Egypt.  Artists were the pharaoh’s civil servants but they were considered craftsmen rather than artists so they rarely signed their works.  Purposes:  Religious  Political  Decorative
  22. 22.  Representations:  Architecture: temples, palaces and tombs  Paintings: in the walls  Sculpture: religious meaning (gods, idols, afterlife…)
  23. 23. EGYPTIAN ART: ARCHITECTURE  Strict rules  Materials: Stone  Supporting structures:  Columns  Pillars  Lintels  Supported structures:  Flat roof  Lintels
  24. 24.  Other characteristics:  Monumentalism: power of the gods and the pharaohs  Decoration: paintings, engravings, and sculptures  Types of buildings:  Temples  Tombs  Palaces
  25. 25. Temples:  The house of the god  Structure: An avenue of sphinxes led to the entrance. The entrance had enormous pillars and obelisks. Inside the building there was a patio, followed by a columned hall with a high ceiling (a hypostile hall). At the end there was a dark sanctuary with the statue of the god.
  26. 26.  Only the priests and the pharaoh could enter the sanctuary. Nobles and civil servants could go as far as the hypostyle hall. Common people would only enter the patio.  Ears were carved on the walls of some temples so that ordinary people could ask the gods for help.
  27. 27. Tombs:  Built to preserve the dead body for the afterlife.  Pharaohs and nobles had large tombs. Poor people were buried in pits or beneath the desert sands.  Richly decorated with engravings and paintings.  Types:  Mastabas  Pyramids  Hypogeums
  28. 28.  Mastabas: simple low rectangular buildings with underground funeral chambers.  Pyramids: Huge pyramid- shaped buildings. Secret entrance. Pathways to false funeral chambers. False walls to hide the real funeral chambers and its “treasures”.  Hypogeums: to prevent robberies. Excavated into the rock with large funeral chambers.
  29. 29.  Pyramids: Keops, Kefren and Mikerinos  Hypogeums: Tutankamon and Nefertari in the Valley of the Kings.  Temples: Karnak, Luxor and Abu Simbel.
  30. 30. EGYPTIAN ART: PAINTING  Strict rules  Figures painted without perspective.  Figures and objects seen from the front, although the head, arms and legs are seen in profile.  Idealised figures  Static to show stability and continuity.  Simple colours  Purpose: decoration, religious purpose.
  31. 31. EGYPTIAN ART: SCULPTURE  Strict rules  Idealised figures  Static to show stability and continuity.  Simple colours  Purpose: decoration, religious purpose.
  32. 32. EGYPTIAN CULTURE  Hieroglyphs (writting): created 5000 years ago. Signs that represent ideas and/or sounds. Written horizontally, vertically, from left to right or from right to left.  Scribes  The Roseta Stone: discovered in the 19th century. Its a stone with the same text written in hieroglyphs, “demótica” and greek language.
  33. 33. Developed by María Jesús Campos Chusteacher wikiteacher

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