POPULA R NOTIONS OF MORA LITYA. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS or ETHICS OF DUTY the theory of duty or moral obligation“What one is compelled to do by reason of duty”
The most famous deontological theory was advanced by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant. Kant claimed that various actions are morally wrong if they are inconsistent with the status of a person as a free and rational being,and that, conversely, acts that further the status of people as free and rational beings are morally right.
One of the most important implications of deontology is that: a persons BEHAVIOR can be wrong even if it results in the best possible outcome. And an ACT can be righteous even if it results in a negative outcome.
deontology insists that HOW people accomplish their goalsis usually more important than WHAT people accomplish. In contrast to CONSEQUENTIALISM, a philosophy famous for its claim that THE ENDS JUSTIFY THE MEANS.
CHARACTERISTICS: 1. UNIVERSALWHAT IS RIGHT OR WRONG FOR ONE PERSON IS THE SAME FOR ANY OTHER PERSON ANYTIME, ANYWHERE
2. RATIONALTHE TEST FOR THE RIGHTNESS OF AN ACTION IS REASON
CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE IMPERATIVEany proposition that declares a certain action or inaction to be necessary. HYPOTHETICAL IMPERATIVE Compels action in a given circumstance “If I wish to satisfy my thirst, then I must drink something” CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE Denotes an absolute, unconditional requirement that exerts its authority in all circumstances “It is wrong to commit murder”
PRINCIPLES OF THE CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVEAct only according to that maxim by which you can also will that it would become a universal law.Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether inyour own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end.Act as though you were through your maxims a law-making member of a kingdom of ends.
UTILITARIANISM the ethical doctrine which believes that the moral worth of anaction is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. Utility, the good to be maximized, whatever brings the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people has been defined by various thinkers as happiness or pleasure versus suffering or pain.
PRAGMATISMthe meaning of concepts is to be sought in their practical bearings the function of thought is to guide actiontruth is preeminently to be tested by the practical consequences of belief
ALTRUISM is a code of ethics which holds the welfare of others as the standard of "good“ and self-sacrifice as the only moral action. The unstated premise of the doctrine of altruism is that all relationships among men involve sacrifice This leaves one with the choice betweenmaliciously exploiting the other person or being "moral“ and offering oneself up as the sacrificial victim.
The unstated premise of the doctrine of altruism is that all relationships among men involve sacrifice This leaves one with the choice betweenmaliciously exploiting the other person or being "moral“ and offering oneself up as the sacrificial victim.
INTRINSICISM is the belief that VALUE is a non-relational characteristic of an object.This means that an object can be valuable or not, goodor bad, without reference to who it is good or bad for,and without reference to the reason it is good or bad.
SUBJECTIVISM The belief that values are subjective. This means that values are whatever we choose to pursue and whatever we desire.It also means there is no such thing as good or evil, except what you think is good or evil. If you believe something is evil, thats just your own personal preference.It is not, and cannot be, a statement about reality.
COLLECTIVISMThe concept of value requires a purpose and a beneficiary. It requires answers to the questions "Value to whom?" and "Value for what?"
Collectivism says value to the collective, whether that is society, tribe, family, nation, race, sex, or any other group or category one "belongs" to.The standard of good is that which benefits the group
PACIFISMthe moral principle which advocates that the use of force is wrong for any reason.This applies to both the initiation of force, as well as defensive or retaliatory force.
If your life is being threatened, pacifism holds that you should not defend yourself. If someone has stolen from you,pacifism holds that you should not retrieve your property. If someone has murdered other people, pacifism holds that nothing should be done about it.
HUMANISMExpresses renewed confidence in the power of man to respond positively to his own problems and so discover new things for himself
Humanism entails a commitment to the search for truth and morality through human means in support of human interests.In focusing on the capacity for self-determination, humanism rejects dependence on faith, the supernatural or divinely revealed texts.
ANARCHISM Expresses man’s freedom to express himself without repression of any kind.Freedom is the highest attainment of a humanity
Anarchism is centered on rejection of any formof compulsory government and supporting its elimination The term "anarchism" is derived from the Geek word αναρχια "without archons" or "without rulers“
EXISTENTIALISM Emphasizing action, freedom, and decision as fundamental existentialism is opposed to rationalismand positivism. i.e., argues against definitions of human beings as primarily rational.
Existentialists look at where people find meaning. Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them rather than what is rational.“The highest attainment of man is to find his own unique vocation” Soren Kierkegaard
EUDAIMONISM Comes from the Greek word eudaimonia which means happiness Refers to any conception of ethics that puts human happiness andthe complete life of the individual at the center of ethical concern.