Media Languages How do Media texts communicate meaning to the reader? Semiotics: the study of signs
Semiotics Each image has a meaning, it can be literal or potential, or both. This code is k Connotation Denotation A cross can literally refer to a number of things; a crossroads or an addition sign in maths. This is denotation. However, it can also denote Christianity. In this instance the connotations change, it can refer to suffering, sacrifice or oppression.
Wrestling is not a sport, it is a spectacle The function of the wrestler is not to win; it is to go exactly through the motions which are expected of him What matters is not the audience thinks but what it sees In wrestling, a man who is down is exaggeratedly so, and completely fills the eyes of the spectators with the intolerable spectacle of his powerlessness Wrestling presents man's suffering; the wrestler who suffers in a hold which is reputedly cruel (an arm- lock, a twisted leg) offers an excessive portrayal of Suffering foul play exists only in its excessive signs: administering a big kick to one's beaten opponent But what wrestling is above all meant to portray is a purely moral concept: that of justice. The idea of 'paying' is essential to wrestling, and the crowd's 'Give it to him' means above all else 'Make him pay'. A mythological fight between Good and Evil
Verbal The use of spoken language to convey specific meaning. Relies on: Choice, Delivery and Content. Common in TV and Radio . BBC News Lead story requires appropriate language to create sense of importance. Can be linked to images.
Written Use of written language, often called copy , to reach target audience , convey ideological stance and put across value system. Found in print-based Media. The Front cover of a men’s magazine often uses specific language to convey a set of ideas and reach their target audience
Non-Verbal Body language; stance, gesture, mannerism . Actors and TV presenters. Most obviously used by actors in films. Also used by presenters like Jonathan Ross when interviewing to connect with the audience, express feelings and sometimes undermine guests. Also used in adverts.
Aural Understanding and interpreting what you hear. There are two forms of aural language used to convey meaning. Diagetic : the noises within a programme or film. Eastenders is almost exclusively diagetic. It relies on spoken dialogue and natural background noise. Non-diagetic : extra noises added in post-production. Includes the use of music and sometimes natural-seeming sound-effects. “Elephant” uses a pattern of non-diagetic sounds to create a sense of claustrophobia an dislocation. elephant
Visual: Image based Camera Angles : Used to construct meaning. high angle shot can emphasise powerlessness, low angle shot the opposite. Mise-en-scene : everything in the shot, costume, lighting, background, set. Used to identify time, place and setting. In film noir particularly the mise-en-scene becomes crucial to the meaning of the film.