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Censorship and Regulation         Hope Martyn
The Hays Code The Hays code was enforced in 1934 and ended in1967.In 1950’s the rise of television took the focus off them...
Censored Movies and WhyHuman Centipede 2- Originally banned due to sexual violenceand potential obscenity. This film was g...
The dictator- The film has been officially banned inTajikistan, described as "unlikely" to be shown inTurkmenistan, shorte...
BBFC Regulations It is impossible to predict what might upset any particular child. But a ‘U’ film should be suitable fora...
No-one younger than 15 may see a ‘15’ film in a cinema. No-one younger than 15 may rent or buy a ‘15’ ratedvideo work. No-...
U RatingUniversal – Suitable for allIt is impossible to predict what might upset any particular child. But a ‘U’ film shou...
PG RatingGeneral viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young childrenUnaccompanied children of any age may watch....
12 RatingThe ‘12A’ category exists only for cinema films. No one younger than 12 may see a ‘12A’ film in a cinema unless a...
15 RatingSuitable only for 15 years and overNo one younger than 15 may see a ‘15’ film in a cinema. No one younger than 15...
18 RatingSuitable only for adultsNo-one younger than 18 may see an ‘18’ film in a cinema.No-one younger than 18 may rent o...
R 18 RatingTo be shown only in specially licensed cinemas, or supplied only in licensed sex shops, and to adults ofnot les...
Censorship in the Media todayACLU, media to argue against censorship in 9/11 mastermind trialThe military judge in the tri...
Continuation of Previous SlideThe five men were captured by US and Pakistani intelligence services in 2003, and were held ...
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Censorship and regulation

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Transcript of "Censorship and regulation"

  1. 1. Censorship and Regulation Hope Martyn
  2. 2. The Hays Code The Hays code was enforced in 1934 and ended in1967.In 1950’s the rise of television took the focus off themovies, foreign movies started coming in.In 1968 the code was replaced by the first movierating system.G- For General audience.MPG- All ages admitted but parental guidancesuggested.R- No one under 16 admitted.
  3. 3. Censored Movies and WhyHuman Centipede 2- Originally banned due to sexual violenceand potential obscenity. This film was given an official agecertificate of 18 by the BBFC on 6 October 2011 while thedistributors agreed to make 32 cuts before its release.Grotesque-Banned due to a high level of sexual torture.Mikey- Rejected by the BBFC for a certificate in 1996; a trailerhad been previously classified 18 four years before. In theaftermath of the widely-publicised murder of James Bulger, theBBFC (on the guidance of three child psychiatrists) banned thefilm because it features a child as a killer (which they believedmight cause children who watched it to act violently).Themurder also delayed the re-release of Hell of the Living Dead forseveral years.
  4. 4. The dictator- The film has been officially banned inTajikistan, described as "unlikely" to be shown inTurkmenistan, shortened to 71 minutes by the censorship inUzbekistan, and banned from screens two weeks after itspremiere in Kazakhstan. Rumours were circulating that the filmhas been also informally banned from showing in Belarus, butstate officials denied this referring to trivial deficiency ofproperly equipped movie theatres suitable for showing the filmdistributed exclusively in digital format.Casino Royale- Casino Royale was censored for its release inBritain, Germany and the United States. In Britain, the filmreceived BBFC-12 rating after omitting some of LeChiffressadism and James Bonds reactions in the torture scene. In theUnited States, 2 fight scenes were censored to achieve a PG-13rating: the fight between Bond and the traitorous MI-6 Agentscontact, and the fight between Bond and the two Africawarlords in the stairway at the Casino Royale. The German editof the film cuts a sequence where the bomb-planter at theairport breaks a mans neck, instead replacing it with analternate take. The mainland Chinese cut of the film also trimsthe torture scene and the stairway fight, as well as a shot ofBond cleaning his wound at the hotel and a boat scene. The fullyuncensored versions can be found on theAustralian, Dutch, French, Hong Kong, Japanese, andScandinavian Blu-rays and DVDs.
  5. 5. BBFC Regulations It is impossible to predict what might upset any particular child. But a ‘U’ film should be suitable foraudiences aged four years and over. ‘U’ films should be set within a positive moral framework and shouldoffer reassuring counterbalances to any violence, threat or horror. If a work is particularly suitable for a pre-school child to view alone, this will be indicated in the Consumer Advice.General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children. Unaccompanied children of anyage may watch. A ‘PG’ film should not disturb a child aged around eight or older. However, parents areadvised to consider whether the content may upset younger or more sensitive children.Exactly The same criteria are used to classify works at ‘12A’ and ‘12’. These categories areawarded where the material is suitable, in general, only for those aged 12 and over. Worksclassified at these categories may upset children under 12 or contain material whichmany parents will find unsuitable for them. The ‘12A’ category exists only for cinema films.No one younger than 12 may see a ‘12A’ film in a cinema unless accompanied by an adult, andfilms classified ‘12A’ are not recommended for a child below 12. An adult may take a youngerchild if, in their judgement, the film is suitable for that particular child. In suchcircumstances, responsibility for allowing a child under 12 to view lies with the accompanyingadult. The ‘12’ category exists only for video works. No one younger than 12 may rent or buya ‘12’ rated video work.
  6. 6. No-one younger than 15 may see a ‘15’ film in a cinema. No-one younger than 15 may rent or buy a ‘15’ ratedvideo work. No-one younger than 18 may see an ‘18’ film in a cinema. No-one younger than 18 may rent or buy an ‘18’rated video work.The ‘R18’ category is a special and legally restricted classification primarily for explicit worksof consenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults. Films may only be shown toadults in specially licensed cinemas, and video works may be supplied to adults only inlicensed sex shops. ‘R18’ videos may not be supplied by mail order.
  7. 7. U RatingUniversal – Suitable for allIt is impossible to predict what might upset any particular child. But a ‘U’ film should be suitable for audiences aged fouryears and over. ‘U’ films should be set within a positive moral framework and should offer reassuring counterbalances toany violence, threat or horror.If a work is particularly suitable for a pre-school child to view alone, this will be indicated in the Consumer Advice.DiscriminationNo discriminatory language or behaviour unless clearly disapproved of.DrugsNo references to illegal drugs or drug misuse unless they are infrequent and innocuous, or there is a clear educationalpurpose or anti-drug message suitable for young children.HorrorScary sequences should be mild, brief and unlikely to cause undue anxiety to young children. The outcome should bereassuring.Imitable behaviourNo potentially dangerous behaviour which young children are likely to copy. No emphasis on realistic or easily accessibleweapons.LanguageInfrequent use only of very mild bad language.NudityOccasional natural nudity, with no sexual context.SexMild sexual behaviour (for example, kissing) and references only (for example, to ‘making love’).ThemeWhile problematic themes may be present, their treatment must be sensitive and appropriate for young children.ViolenceMild violence only. Occasional mild threat or menace only
  8. 8. PG RatingGeneral viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young childrenUnaccompanied children of any age may watch. A ‘PG’ film should not disturb a child aged around eight or older.However, parents are advised to consider whether the content may upset younger or more sensitive children.DiscriminationDiscriminatory language or behaviour is unlikely to be acceptable unless clearly disapproved of or in an educational orhistorical context. Discrimination by a character with which children can readily identify is unlikely to be acceptable.DrugsReferences to illegal drugs or drug misuse must be innocuous or carry a suitable anti-drug message.HorrorFrightening sequences should not be prolonged or intense. Fantasy settings may be a mitigating factor.Imitable behaviourNo detail of potentially dangerous behaviour which young children are likely to copy. No glamorisation of realistic or easilyaccessible weapons.LanguageMild bad language only.NudityNatural nudity, with no sexual context.SexSexual activity may be implied, but should be discreet and infrequent. Mild sex references and innuendo only.ThemeWhere more serious issues are featured (for example, domestic violence) nothing in their treatment should condoneunacceptable behaviour.ViolenceModerate violence, without detail, may be allowed, if justified by its context (for example, history, comedy or fantasy).
  9. 9. 12 RatingThe ‘12A’ category exists only for cinema films. No one younger than 12 may see a ‘12A’ film in a cinema unless accompaniedby an adult, and films classified ‘12A’ are not recommended for a child below 12. An adult may take a younger child if, intheir judgement, the film is suitable for that particular child. In such circumstances, responsibility for allowing a child under12 to view lies with the accompanying adult.The ‘12’ category exists only for video works. No one younger than 12 may rent or buy a ‘12’ rated video work.DiscriminationDiscriminatory language or behaviour must not be endorsed by the work as a whole. Aggressive discriminatory language orbehaviour is unlikely to be acceptable unless clearly condemned.DrugsAny misuse of drugs must be infrequent and should not be glamorised or give instructional detail.HorrorModerate physical and psychological threat may be permitted, provided disturbing sequences are not frequent orsustained.Imitable behaviourDangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied, orappear pain or harm free. Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised.LanguageModerate language is allowed. The use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’) must be infrequent.NudityNudity is allowed, but in a sexual context must be brief and discreet.SexSexual activity may be briefly and discreetly portrayed. Sex references should not go beyond what is suitable for youngteenagers. Frequent crude references are unlikely to be acceptable.ThemeMature themes are acceptable, but their treatment must be suitable for young teenagers.ViolenceModerate violence is allowed but should not dwell on detail. There should be no emphasis on injuries or blood, butoccasional gory moments may be permitted if justified by the context. Sexual violence may only be implied or brieflyand discreetly indicated, and must have a strong contextual justification.
  10. 10. 15 RatingSuitable only for 15 years and overNo one younger than 15 may see a ‘15’ film in a cinema. No one younger than 15 may rent or buy a ‘15’ rated video work.DiscriminationThe work as a whole must not endorse discriminatory language or behaviour.DrugsDrug taking may be shown but the film as a whole must not promote or encourage drug misuse. The misuse of easilyaccessible and highly dangerous substances (for example, aerosols or solvents) is unlikely to be acceptable.HorrorStrong threat and menace are permitted unless sadistic or sexualised.Imitable behaviourDangerous behaviour (for example, hanging, suicide and self-harming) should not dwell on detail which could be copied.Easily accessible weapons should not be glamorised.LanguageThere may be frequent use of strong language (for example, ‘fuck’). The strongest terms (for example, ‘cunt’) may beacceptable if justified by the context. Aggressive or repeated use of the strongest language is unlikely to be acceptable.NudityNudity may be allowed in a sexual context but without strong detail. There are no constraints on nudity in a non-sexual oreducational context.SexSexual activity may be portrayed without strong detail. There may be strong verbal references to sexual behaviour, but thestrongest references are unlikely to be acceptable unless justified by context. Works whose primary purpose is sexualarousal or stimulation are unlikely to be acceptable.ThemeNo theme is prohibited, provided the treatment is appropriate for 15 year olds.ViolenceViolence may be strong but should not dwell on the infliction of pain or injury. The strongest gory images are unlikely to beacceptable. Strong sadistic or sexualised violence is also unlikely to be acceptable. There may be detailed verbal referencesto sexual violence but any portrayal of sexual violence must be discreet and have a strong contextual justification.
  11. 11. 18 RatingSuitable only for adultsNo-one younger than 18 may see an ‘18’ film in a cinema.No-one younger than 18 may rent or buy an ‘18’ rated video.In line with the consistent findings of the BBFC’s public consultations and The Human Rights Act 1998, at ‘18’ the BBFC’sguideline concerns will not normally override the principle that adults should be free to choose their own entertainment.Exceptions are most likely in the following areas:Where the material is in breach of the criminal law, or has been created through the commission of a criminal offenceWhere material or treatment appears to the BBFC to risk harm to individuals or, through their behaviour, to society – forexample, any detailed portrayal of violent or dangerous acts, or of illegal drug use, which may cause harm to public healthor morals. This may include portrayals of sexual or sexualised violence which might, for example, eroticise or endorsesexual assaultWhere there are more explicit images of sexual activity which cannot be justified by context. Such images may beappropriate in ‘R18’ works, and in ‘sex works’ (see below) would normally be confined to that category.In the case of video works (including video games), which may be more accessible to younger viewers, intervention may bemore frequent than for cinema films.Sex education at ‘18’Where sex material genuinely seeks to inform and educate in matters such as human sexuality, safer sex andhealth, explicit images of sexual activity may be permitted.Sex works at ‘18’Sex works are works whose primary purpose is sexual arousal or stimulation. Sex works containing only material whichmay be simulated are generally passed ‘18’. Sex works containing clear images of real sex, strong fetish material, sexuallyexplicit animated images, or other very strong sexual images will be confined to the ‘R18’ category. Material which isunacceptable in a sex work at ‘R18’ is also unacceptable in a sex work at ‘18’
  12. 12. R 18 RatingTo be shown only in specially licensed cinemas, or supplied only in licensed sex shops, and to adults ofnot less than 18 yearsThe ‘R18’ category is a special and legally restricted classification primarily for explicit works ofconsenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults. Films may only be shown to adults in speciallylicensed cinemas, and video works may be supplied to adults only in licensed sex shops. ‘R18’ videoworks may not be supplied by mail order. The following content is not acceptable:Any material which is in breach of the criminal law, including material judged to be obscene under thecurrent interpretation of the Obscene Publications Act 1959Material (including dialogue) likely to encourage an interest in sexually abusive activity (forexample, paedophilia, incest or rape) which may include adults role-playing as non-adultsThe portrayal of any sexual activity which involves lack of consent (whether real or simulated). Anyform of physical restraint which prevents participants from indicating a withdrawal of consentThe infliction of pain or acts which may cause lasting physical harm, whether real or (in a sexualcontext) simulated. Some allowance may be made for moderate, non-abusive, consensual activitypenetration by any object associated with violence or likely to cause physical harmAny sexual threats, humiliation or abuse which does not form part of a clearly consenting role-playinggame. Strong physical or verbal abuse, even if consensual, is unlikely to be acceptable.These Guidelines will be applied to the same standard regardless of sexual orientation.
  13. 13. Censorship in the Media todayACLU, media to argue against censorship in 9/11 mastermind trialThe military judge in the trial of alleged 9/11 masterminds has agreed to hold a hearing in which the ACLU and a consortiumof media groups would be allowed to argue their case against government censorship in the high-profile case.-Judge James L. Pohl, President of the Guantanamo military commission, issued an order Wednesday allowing theAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and 14 media groups, which call themselves “the Press Objectors,” to present theirarguments on August 22.“As neither side objects to counsel for the ACLU and Press Objectors to present oral arguments on the motion, the request fororal argument is GRANTED,” the order, posted on the military commission’s website, reads.In May, a consortium of 14 media groups, including the Associated Press, Reuters, The New York Times and The MiamiHerald, and the ACLU separately filed motions protesting regulations under which there is a 40-second delay of thebroadcast of the trial. The time is sufficient for military officials to muffle the defendants’ speech if they start to describethe torture they are alleged to have been subjected to by CIA operatives.The ACLU called said the practice was based on a “chillingly Orwellian claim” that the accused “must be gagged lest hereveal his knowledge of what the government did to him.”The media group said the government was trying to shield CIA activities from the public eye.“The First Amendment allows commission proceedings to be closed only upon a specific finding of a substantial probability ofharm to national security or some equally compelling governmental interest,” Lawyer David Schulz wrote in the media’smotion.Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and his four co-defendants stand accused of masterminding the September 11, 2001 attacksagainst the United States. They face eight charges in total, including terrorism and murder in violation of the law ofwar, meaning that a guilty verdict could put them on death row.
  14. 14. Continuation of Previous SlideThe five men were captured by US and Pakistani intelligence services in 2003, and were held captive at CIA black sitesoutside America until 2006, when they were transferred to Guantanamo. Mohammed confessed to plotting the 9/11attacks “from A to Z,” but even US officials later admitted the prisoners were subject to “enhanced forms of torture.”Mohammed was subject to waterboarding at least 183 times, the officials say.Originally, they were to be tried by a Guantanamo military commission, but the Supreme Court ruled against holdingproceedings there. In 2009, newly-inaugurated President Barack Obama asked for the trial to be held in a New York federalcourt. However, under the National Defence Authorization Act (NDAA), signed by Obama in January 2011, the US DefenseDepartment was barred from using its funds to house Gitmo prisoners in the United States. The provision meant that thevenue of the trial had to be moved back to Guantanamo.Defendants refused to enter pleas during their May arraignment. The trials actual proceedings are scheduled to begin nextyear.
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