A comparative study of the 1 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan
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A comparative study of the 1 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan

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A comparative study of the 1: 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan

A comparative study of the 1: 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan

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A comparative study of the 1 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan A comparative study of the 1 50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan Presentation Transcript

  • IGU 2013 Kyoto Regional conference JS102-3 Modern mapping process of East Asian countries: from imperial cartography to GIS The military cartography in WWII: A comparative study of the 1/50,000 topographic mapping between the U.S. and Japanese army in Taiwan, 1944-1945 Chun-Lin Kuo Assistant Professor, Department of Taiwan and Regional Studies, National Dong-Hwa University, Taiwan Hsiung-Ming Liao Assistant Research Specialist, Research Center of Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan
  • 1. Background- study area
  • 1.1 Background- the topographical survey in Taiwan • After the first Sino-Japanese War (Japan–Qing War, 1894-1895) Taiwan became the first colony of Japan. • During the colonial period, several important topographical survey were conducted by which 5 series of cartographic maps were produced. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1895 1895 1896-1904 1907-1916 1921-1928 1924-1945 1/50,000 Taiwan Provisional Surveyed Map 1/20,000 Taiwan Bao Map 1/50,000 Taiwan Banchi Cartographic Map 1/25,000 Taiwan Cartographic Map 1/50,000 Taiwan Cartographic Map 1914 1930 1944
  • 1.2 Background-the catalog published by Japanese army • The survey of the latest 1/50000 cartographic interrupted in 1938, the year Japanese army invaded China. • However, a large number of 1/50,000 topographic maps were reproduced or redrawn in 1944 -45. • Why the Japanese army redraw the maps in the end of the war? Did they finish the cartographical survey covering the whole island of Taiwan? The catalog of 1:50,000 maps, Published by the Japanese imperial Land survey institute in 1944
  • 1.3 Background- Maps produced by the AMS • After the Battle of Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on Japan in 1941. • The Japanese colony-Taiwan became the attack target for the U.S. army. the U.S. Army Map Serves (AMS) also produced several sets of color topographic map of Taiwan. – 1944 Formosa city maps (26 cities) – 1944 1:25,000 Cartographic maps – 1944-45 1:50,000 Cartographic maps
  • 1. Background –issues for Gaihozu studies • The Army Map Service (AMS) was the premier map making agency of the U.S. department of defense from 1941 to 1968. • The major task of AMS was the compilation, publication and distribution of military topographic maps required by the U.S. army. • How the AMS produced the 1:50,000 cartographic maps of Taiwan in 1944-45? What are the differences between the AMS cartographic maps and the Japanese maps. 1895 1914 1930 1944 1944
  • 1.4 Background- the usage of aerial photographs • Throughout the war, military cartographers used every means at their disposal to obtain the latest intelligence and to incorporate this information into their maps. But the most useful source was aerial photographs taken from an aircraft. • In the last two years of the War, both of Japanese and U.S. used aerial photograph to correct their map source. • How the aerial photographs were used in producing cartographic maps by U.S. and Japanese army?
  • 2. Objectives • This study aims to investigate the 1/50,000 topographic map sets produced by U.S. and Japanese military for their differences of mapping contents and survey methods in Taiwan. – Why the Japanese army redraw the maps in the end of the war? Did they finish the cartographical survey covering the whole island of Taiwan? – How the AMS produced the 1:50,000 cartographic maps of Taiwan in 1944-45? What are the differences between the AMS cartographic maps and the Japanese maps. – Furthermore, with the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS), we also introduce a web map service for representing the geospatial landscape of Taiwan before the end of WW2.
  • Part1 The 1:50,000 cartographic map produced by the Japanese Army (1924-1945)
  • 1.The 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced before the 2nd Sino-Japanese war (1924-1938)
  • 1. The 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced before the 2nd Sino-Japanese war (1924-1938) • 1. 2. 3. 4. The production of 1:50,000 cartographic maps can be divided to 4 stages: 1924-1926: compiled from 1:25,000 cartographic maps (western flat areas) 1927-1928: Field measurements by Triangulation networks (south Taiwan except the central mountain areas) 1929-1930: Field measurements by Triangulation networks ( mainly in Eastern Taiwan) 1931-1938: Ground photographic survey and field measurement by Triangulation networks (North central mountain areas)
  • 1. The 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced before the 2nd Sino-Japanese war (1924-1938) • For the following reason 7 sheets were redraw in 1930s: 1. Fill the blank of mountain area in the provisional version. 2. Resurvey the landscape changed by the earthquake in 1930.
  • <Boke-yama>,surveyed in 1929 Abstract of <Tosei> surveyed in 1925 <Noko-zan>,surveyed in 1933 Abstract of <Tosei> surveyed in 1938
  • 1. The 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced before the 2nd Sino-Japanese war (1924-1938) • Due to the outbreak of the second Sino-Japanese war, the survey of the 1/50000 cartographic maps was interrupted in 1938. • The incomplete area (mainly in the southern Central Mountain area) covered 6141 square kilometers, about 17% of Taiwan. • During the 14 years, among the published 108 sheets , 18 sheets had blank areas, and 5 sheets were not mapped.
  • 2.The urgent military reprinting in 1944 • In 1944, the war became unfavorable for the Japanese side. • The general staff headquarters of Japanese army reprint the catalogue of the 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 cartographic maps.
  • 2.The urgent military mapping in 1944 • The unmeasured mountain areas were compiled by the early 1:50,000 Ban-chi cartographic maps published by the police office of colonial government in 1910s.
  • <Choshu>,surveyed in 1928 <Shushu>,surveyed in 1929 <Choshu>, compiled in 1944 <Shushu>,compiled in 1944
  • 3.The Usage of cartographic maps in the end of WW2 • In the last few years of WW2, the cartographic maps were used for commanding the fortress placement. • The whole Taiwan island became a military fortress of Japanese army. • The 1:50,000 cartographic maps became the base map of military cartography.
  • • • The Ninth Division of fortress placement map was made up by 11 sheets of 1:50,000 cartographic maps. The military divisions covers almost the range of a prefecture including the mountain areas.
  • • The Tainan fortress placement map was made up by 6 sheets of 1:50,000 cartographic maps. • The information of the military arrangements were written by hands or pasted notes on it.
  • 4.The aerial photogrammetry in 1945 • In 1945, Japanese army applied aerial photogrammetry to revise the 1:50,000 cartographic maps. • With the reference of map archives in the world, only 9 sheets can be found. – Possible reason1: The Japanese army destroyed the maps after the war. – Possible reason2: The Japanese army did not have enough resource to finish the survey. • 6 sheets located in southern mountain areas, half of the sheets remain uncompleted (sketched map). • 3 sheets located in military zones near the port, one of the sheets remain uncompleted (sketched map).
  • 4.The aerial photogrammetry in 1945
  • <Ari-San> compiled in 1944 <Riran> compiled in 1944 <Ari-San> revised in 1945 <Rian> revised in 1944 (uncompleted)
  • 4.The aerial photogrammetry in 1945 Abstract of <Tainan S>,surveyed in 1927 Abstract of <Tainan S>,revised in 1945
  • The map of “Toko” was issused in 1945 has a red sketch with the reference of aerial photos (1944. Aug.) on the original cartographic map published in 1928.
  • 5. Summary • The production of 1:50,000 cartographic maps can be divided to 4 stages: – – – – 1924-1930 Surveyed by triangulation network in flat areas 1931-1938 completed the survey of north mountain areas 1944: compiled the early maps in southern mountain areas 1945: applied aerial photogrammetry in selected areas • In the last few years of WW2, Taiwan island became a military fortress of Japanese army, and the 1:50,000 cartographic maps were used for commanding the fortress placement. • In 1945, Japanese army applied aerial photogrammetry to revise the 1:50,000 cartographic maps, only few maps were completed.
  • Part2 The 1:50,000 cartographic map produced by U.S. AMS (1944-1945)
  • Between 1941 and 1945, the Army Map Service prepared 40.000 maps of all types, covering 400,000 square miles of the earth’s surfaces. Over 500 million copies were produced during the war,
  • 1.The 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced by AMS in 1944-1945 with 4 editions
  • Compare the AMS maps with the Japanese 1:50,000 cartographic maps
  • The features of the AMS’s 1:50,000 maps For use by War and Navy department agencies only Sheet name, translated from Japanese map Taihoku (Taipei city)revised by aerial photos Compiled or redraw from different Japanese maps Explanation of map sources Legend Explanation of Military grids Administration boundaries and compilation methods
  • Sample of the 1:50,000 Formosa maps, 1st edition Type1
  • Sample of the 1:50,000 Formosa maps, 1st edition Type2
  • Sample of the 1:50,000 Formosa maps, 2nd edition 67 sheets
  • Sample of the 1:50,000 Formosa maps, 3rd edition
  • Sample of the 1:50,000 Formosa maps, 4th ed. & F type
  • 2.Compilation methods and data sources of the 1:50,000 cartographic maps Compilation methods 1. Completely copied from a Japanese map 2. Simply compiled from different Japanese maps 3. Redraw or revised from aerial photos Data sources – J1- 1:50,000 Taiwan government general civil affair bureau, police office map, 1907-1914 – J2 -1:50,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1924-1938 – J3 -1:20,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904 – J4 -1:100,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904-1905 – J5 -1:25,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1921-1926 – J6- 1:200,000 Japanese imperial land survey 1930s – J7- Japanese Hydrographic Chart, 1930 – A1- Intelligence reports, 1943-1944 – A2- photo planimetric methods from photos dataed 1943-1944 – A3- photo stereogrammetric from photos dataed 1943-1944 – A4- other AMS maps or resources, 1944
  • Completely copied from a Japanese map 1st edition maps
  • J1- 1:50,000 Taiwan government general civil affair bureau, police office map, 1907-1914 J2 -1:50,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1924-1938
  • Simply compiled from different Japanese maps
  • Simply compiled from different Japanese maps J1- 1:50,000 Taiwan government general civil affair bureau, police office map, 1907-1914 J2 -1:50,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1924-1938 J3 -1:20,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904 J4 -1:100,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904-1905 J5 -1:25,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1921-1926 J6- 1:200,000 Japanese imperial land survey 1930s J7- Japanese Hydrographic Chart, 1930 A1- Intelligence reports, 1943-1944 A2- photo planimetric methods from photos dataed 1943-1944 A3- photo stereogrammetric from photos dataed 1943-1944 A4- other AMS maps or resources, 1944
  • Redraw or revised from aerial photos
  • J1- 1:50,000 Taiwan government general civil affair bureau, police office map, 1907-1914 J2 -1:50,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1924-1938 J3 -1:20,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904 J4 -1:100,000 Special Taiwan Land Investigation Office Map, 1904-1905 J5 -1:25,000 Japanese imperial Land survey 1921-1926 J6- 1:200,000 Japanese imperial land survey 1930s J7- Japanese Hydrographic Chart, 1930 A1- Intelligence reports, 1943-1944 A2- photo planimetric methods from photos dataed 1943-1944 A3- photo stereogrammetric from photos dataed 1943-1944 A4- other AMS maps or resources, 1944
  • 3.The Usage of the 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced by AMS during the war
  • 3.The Usage of the 1:50,000 cartographic maps produced by AMS during the war Frequency of air raids (gray bars) in Taiwan during WW2 and the count for each month (the black time series). Source: Chih-wen Hung (2012) Air Raids in Taiwan during World War II
  • The bombing locations in Taiwan for each month during WW2. Source: Chih-wen Hung (2012) Air Raids in Taiwan during World War II
  • 4. Summary • Four editions of the 1:50,000 cartographic maps were produced by AMS in 1944, only several sheets were revised in 1945. • Three compilation methods were used in AMS maps: – Completely copied from a Japanese map – Simply compiled from different Japanese maps – Redraw or revised from aerial photos • 11 kinds of data sources were used in producing the maps, and 81% of the maps were redrawn or revised from aerial photos. • During the war, these maps were used as a reference for air raids in Taiwan.
  • Part 3 The GIS-based web map service for representing these historical cartographic maps
  • Taiwan Century-old Maps System ( developed by GIS center ,Academia Sinica)
  • WMS services
  • Taiwan Century-old Maps System APP for mobile usage https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.rchss.twhgis
  • Conclusion-1 • This study investigated two sets of modern Taiwan’s 1/50,000 topographic map sets produced by Japanese and U.S. military for their differences of mapping contents and survey methods. • The Japanese 1/50,000 topographic maps were the most completed medium-scale topographic map in colonial Taiwan; the AMS’s maps were continuing used and revised by Taiwan government after the War. • Both of them has became valuable spatial information representing the geographic changes of Taiwan in the middle of 20 century.
  • Conclusion-2 • Studies of these maps are important research subjects for scholars who are interested in the intersection of modern history and the military cartography. • By considering the circumstances in which the maps were created, their limitations, or even their reliability, this study thus revealed the value of these spatial materials. • Since the related digital archives of historical maps and aerial photos are gradually released in recent years, we will also highlight the two 1/50,000 cartographic map sets’ research value -the key reference for the aerial photos taking by the U.S. army during the WWII- among the digital archives’ map collections.
  • Thank You