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Reseach design iste 2013

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Academic research designs

Academic research designs

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  • 1. BY CE OCHONOGOR OCHONEC@UNISA.AC.ZA INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA, PRETORIA AT THE ISTE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, 24 OCTOBER, 2013
  • 2.      Meaning of Research Design Justification for research design in a research process Types of Research Designs Forms of Quasi-Experimental Designs Mixed methods designs
  • 3.   As the structural scaffold of a research Is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research problems and to control variance (Kerlinger)
  • 4.     A good research design enables the researcher to carry out research in a proper and systematic way It gives direction the course of the research It gives credibility to the results of a given research (increasing maximum efficiency and reliability) It acts as a firm foundation for the entire research
  • 5.     Reduces inaccuracy eliminates bias and marginal errors Determines the type of analysis and testing of hypothesis to be done with data collected Determines the type of statistical tools required to analyse the collected data.
  • 6.  R shows randomised group  O is observation or measure  N is Non-equivalent group  X is treatment or programme  C is for control group(s) where applicable
  • 7.   X O The One-Shot Case Study Design Multigroup Posttest-Only Design Experimental Group 1 X O1 Experimental Group 2 X O1 Experimental Group 3 X O1 Experimental Group 4 X O1
  • 8. • • • Longitudinal Case Study Design X O1 O2 O3 ….On One-Group Pretest Postest Design O1 X O2 Static-Group Comparison or Comparison Group Posttest-Only Design Experimental Group X O1 Comparison Group O1
  • 9. Randomised One-Group Posttest-Only Design R X O1 • Static-Group Comparison or Comparison Group Pretest Posttest Design O1 X O2 O1 O2 • Interrupted Time-Series Design O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6 *
  • 10.      Descriptive (e.g. case-study, naturalistic observation, survey Correlational (e.g. case-study , observational study) Semi-experimental (e.g. field experiment, quasiexperiment) Pre-experimental Designs (One-Shot or One Group Posttest-Only Design, Multigroup Posttest- Only Design, Longitutidinal Case Design, One-Group Pretest Posttest Design) Experimental (e.g. experiment with random assignment) – such as the Solomon Four-Group Design and Switching Replications Design.
  • 11.    Review (Literature review, Systematic review) Meta-analytic (Meta-analysis) Ex Post Facto Design
  • 12.   MIXED METHODS (QUAN and QUAL) as a methodology involves philosophical assumptions to guide the collection and analysis of data using QUAN and QUAL approaches. As a method, it focuses on collecting and analysing data using QUAN and QUAL approaches.
  • 13.  Merge the data QUAL DATA  Connect the data QUAL DATA Results QUAN DATA QUAN DATA Results Embed the data QUANT DATA QUAL DATA Results (Creswell & Clark, 2007)
  • 14.     Triangulation Design (Simple; Convergence Model; Data Transformation Model; Validating Quantitative Data Model; and Multilevel Model) Embedded Design (Garacelli & Greene, 1997) Explanatory Design Exploratory Design
  • 15.  Non-equivalent Groups Design  Pretest-Posttest Design   Interrupted Time-Series Design (with multiple pretests and multiple posttests- it provides greater confidence that the change in the dependent variable was caused by the manipulation and not just a random fluctuation. (Price and Oswald, 2006, 2008) Static Group Comparison Control Design
  • 16.  Designs may be generally classified into two: 1. Fixed designs 2. Flexible designs
  • 17.    Where the design of a study is fixed or determined before the main stage of data collection. It is normally theory driven to determine in advance which variables are to be measured. It is useful in quantitative and mixed methods researches.
  • 18.  where variables are not easily measured quantitatively such as culture
  • 19.   Pretest-Posttest Design: Cannot be completely sure that the observed change in the dependent variable was caused by the manipulation of the independent variable. The need for a control group.
  • 20.       History (between the 1st and 2nd second measurements) Maturation of participants with time Testing effects Instrumentation: disposition of the observers and scorers could produce changes in outcomes. Statistical regression (regression to the mean) – Bias in selection of participants
  • 21.  Experimental mortality  John Henry effect
  • 22.   Qualitative titles do not suggest a comparison of groups or a relationship among variables. Rather they EXPLORE one idea (the central phenomenon) for an in-depth understanding leading to formulation of theories. Quantitative titles compare groups or relate variables. They Test, Predict, Explain and Describe.
  • 23.   Title for mixed methods studies suggests a mixed methods approach and foreshadows the type of mixed methods design for the study. To think of non-equivalent groups design, the groups must be as similar as possible. This helps to minimise or control extraneous variables