1.
BY
CE OCHONOGOR
OCHONEC@UNISA.AC.ZA
INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA, PRETORIA
AT THE
ISTE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION, 24 OCTOBER, 2013
2.
Meaning of Research Design
Justification for research design in a research
process
Types of Research Designs
Forms of Quasi-Experimental Designs
Mixed methods designs
3.
As the structural scaffold of a research
Is the plan, structure and strategy of
investigation conceived so as to obtain
answers to research problems and to control
variance (Kerlinger)
4.
A good research design enables the
researcher to carry out research in a proper
and systematic way
It gives direction the course of the research
It gives credibility to the results of a given
research (increasing maximum efficiency and
reliability)
It acts as a firm foundation for the entire
research
5.
Reduces inaccuracy
eliminates bias and marginal errors
Determines the type of analysis and testing of
hypothesis to be done with data collected
Determines the type of statistical tools
required to analyse the collected data.
6.
R shows randomised group
O is observation or measure
N is Non-equivalent group
X is treatment or programme
C is for control group(s) where applicable
7.
X
O The One-Shot Case Study Design
Multigroup Posttest-Only Design
Experimental Group 1 X O1
Experimental Group 2 X O1
Experimental Group 3 X O1
Experimental Group 4 X O1
8.
•
•
•
Longitudinal Case Study Design
X O1 O2 O3 ….On
One-Group Pretest Postest Design
O1 X O2
Static-Group Comparison or Comparison
Group Posttest-Only Design
Experimental Group X O1
Comparison Group
O1
9.
Randomised One-Group Posttest-Only Design
R X O1
• Static-Group Comparison or Comparison Group
Pretest Posttest Design
O1 X O2
O1
O2
• Interrupted Time-Series Design
O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6
*
10.
Descriptive (e.g. case-study, naturalistic
observation, survey
Correlational (e.g. case-study , observational
study)
Semi-experimental (e.g. field experiment, quasiexperiment)
Pre-experimental Designs (One-Shot or One
Group Posttest-Only Design, Multigroup
Posttest- Only Design, Longitutidinal Case
Design, One-Group Pretest Posttest Design)
Experimental (e.g. experiment with random
assignment) – such as the Solomon Four-Group
Design and Switching Replications Design.
11.
Review (Literature review, Systematic review)
Meta-analytic (Meta-analysis)
Ex Post Facto Design
12.
MIXED METHODS (QUAN and QUAL) as a
methodology involves philosophical
assumptions to guide the collection and
analysis of data using QUAN and QUAL
approaches.
As a method, it focuses on collecting and
analysing data using QUAN and QUAL
approaches.
13.
Merge the data
QUAL DATA
Connect the data
QUAL DATA
Results
QUAN DATA
QUAN DATA
Results
Embed the data
QUANT DATA
QUAL
DATA
Results
(Creswell & Clark, 2007)
14.
Triangulation Design (Simple; Convergence
Model; Data Transformation Model; Validating
Quantitative Data Model; and Multilevel
Model)
Embedded Design (Garacelli & Greene, 1997)
Explanatory Design
Exploratory Design
15.
Non-equivalent Groups Design
Pretest-Posttest Design
Interrupted Time-Series Design (with multiple
pretests and multiple posttests- it provides
greater confidence that the change in the
dependent variable was caused by the
manipulation and not just a random fluctuation.
(Price and Oswald, 2006, 2008)
Static Group Comparison Control Design
16.
Designs may be generally classified into two:
1. Fixed designs
2. Flexible designs
17.
Where the design of a study is fixed or
determined before the main stage of data
collection.
It is normally theory driven to determine in
advance which variables are to be measured.
It is useful in quantitative and mixed methods
researches.
18.
where variables are not easily measured
quantitatively such as culture
19.
Pretest-Posttest Design: Cannot be
completely sure that the observed change in
the dependent variable was caused by the
manipulation of the independent variable.
The need for a control group.
20.
History (between the 1st and 2nd second
measurements)
Maturation of participants with time
Testing effects
Instrumentation: disposition of the observers and
scorers could produce changes in outcomes.
Statistical regression (regression to the mean) –
Bias in selection of participants
22.
Qualitative titles do not suggest a comparison
of groups or a relationship among variables.
Rather they EXPLORE one idea (the central
phenomenon) for an in-depth understanding
leading to formulation of theories.
Quantitative titles compare groups or relate
variables. They Test, Predict, Explain and
Describe.
23.
Title for mixed methods studies suggests a
mixed methods approach and foreshadows
the type of mixed methods design for the
study.
To think of non-equivalent groups
design, the groups must be as similar as
possible. This helps to minimise or control
extraneous variables
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