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Skeletal System
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  • 1. (BAGO MUSCULAR) Skeletal System
  • 2. The Skeletal System
    • For protection of vital organs
    • Maintains shape
    • Supportive framework
    • Storage of minerals
    • Hemapoiesis (bone marrow)
    • For biochemical levers (where muscles act on)
      • locomotion
  • 3. Cytoskeleton
    • Microtubule- tubulin
    • Intermediate filament
    • Microfilament - actin
  • 4. Cell wall
    • Cellulose is a carbohydrate molecule that made up the skeletal structure of plant cell wall
    • Polysaccharide made up of several hundred to thousand d-glucose units joined together
  • 5. Different types of skeleton found in animals
    • Hydrostatic skeleton
    • Exoskeleton
    • Endoskeleton
  • 6. Hydrostatic skeleton
    • fluid held Under pressure in a closed compartment
    • Control form and movement through the use of muscles
    • Common in cnidarians, flatworms, nematodes and annelids
    • Advantageous in aquatic environment
      • Provides cushion for aquatic animals and support for crawling and burrowing animals
  • 7. Cnidarians
    • Hydra elongates by closing its mouth and constricting contractile cells at its gastro vascular cavity
    • incompressibility of water allows for inc. In length
  • 8. flatworms
    • Interstitial fluid is kept under pressure
    • movements result from localized forces against the hydrostatic pressure
  • 9. Roundworms
    • Fluid at the pseudocoelom is under pressure
    • contraction of longitudinal muscles result in thrashing movement
  • 10. Annelids
    • Coelom ic fluid acts as the hydrostatic skeleton
    • Use of both circular and longitudinal muscles in moving
    • each segment can change its shape
    • use of P eristaltic movement
  • 11.  
  • 12. Hydrostatic skeleton
    • Not suitable for terrestrial habitat
    • cannot support running or walking
  • 13. Exoskeleton
    • A hard encasement deposited on the surface of animals
      • mollusks-calcareous material
        • Mantle-produces the exoskeleton
        • increased in diameter of shell during growth
      • arthropods-chitin
        • Cuticle-secreted by epidermis
        • growth spurts causes shedding (molting)
  • 14. mollusks
  • 15. arthropods
  • 16. endoskeleton
    • Consists of hard supporting material within soft tissues
      • Ex. Bones, Pen, hard plates of echinoderms, spicules
  • 17. Sponges
      • spicules -made up of inorganic material or fibers of protein
  • 18. echinoderms
    • Ossicles- hard plates of echinoderms
    • made up of calcium carbonate crystals
    • each segment is held by protein fibers
  • 19. locomotion
    • Different modes of locomotion across different phyla
    • may be due to environmental factors
    • energy expended
      • against friction and gravity
  • 20. locomotion
    • energetic cost of movement varies
      • Mode of locomotion
      • type of environment
        • e.g. Energy in walking on land is diff. From walking at the bottom of a river
        • e.g. Running demands more energy than swimming
  • 21. swimming
    • Gravity is less of a problem
    • Resistance is greater
    • fusiform body is an adaptation
      • diverse form of swimming
        • insects-paddle
        • mollusks-jet-propelled
        • fishes-side-to-side
        • whales-up and down
  • 22. Locomotion on Land
    • Gravity is more of a problem than resistance
    • energy is expended by pushing the legs up and keeping it from falling
    • inertias overcome by moving a leg
    • strong muscles and skeleton are more important
  • 23. Locomotion on land
    • Balance is another factor
      • tail-acts as a counterbalance
        • acts also a tripod in kangaroos
        • the three feet of quadrupeds also act as a tripod
        • during running-momentum keeps the body upright rather than contact to land
  • 24. Hopping-as an adaptation
    • One of the most energy efficient mode of locomotion
    • energy is stored in every landing
    • higher the hop, the greater the energy
  • 25.
    • Considerable energy is expended against resistance to the ground
      • snakes-undulate side to side
        • body pushes against ground to move forward
  • 26. Flying
    • Gravity; is a major problem
    • shape of wings is the key to success
      • shape is airfoil
  • 27. The endoskeleton
    • Chordate skeleton is made up of bones, Cartilage or a combination of the two
    • Fused together or joined in a joint by a ligament
    • Cartilage- sharks and rays (chondroichthyes)
    • Bone- other vertebrates
    • divided into two
      • appendicular
      • axial
  • 28. the human skeleton
  • 29. The joints
    • Synarthroses or fibrous- barely movable or immovable
    • Amphiarthroses or cartilaginous- slightly movable
    • Diarthroses or synovial- freely movable
  • 30. The joints
    • Ball-and-socket
      • Enables to more limb in different plane
    • Hinge
      • Movement is restricted in one plane
    • Pivot
      • Allows rotation
  • 31. What kind of joint?
  • 32. What kind of joint?
  • 33. What kind of joint?
  • 34. The type of bones
    • Based on development:
        • Membranous- formation of flat bones
        • Cartilaginous- formation of long bones
    • Based on histological structure:
        • Compact or cortical
        • Spongy or cancellous
    • Based on morphology:
        • Long bones
        • Short bones
        • Flat bones
        • Sesamoid
        • Irregular
  • 35. Intramembranous
    • Mesenchyme cell in the membrane become osteochondral progenitor cell
    • osteochondral progenitor cell specialized to become osteoblast
    • Osteoblast produce bone matrix and surrounded collagen fiber and become osteocyte
    • As the result process trabeculae will develop
    • Osteoblast will trap trabeculae to produce bone
    • Trabeculae will join together to produce spongy cell
    • Cells in the spongy cell will specialize to produce red bone marrow
    • Cells surrounding the developing bone will produce periosteum
    • Osteoblasts from the Periosteum on the bone matrix will produce compact bone
  • 36. Endochondral
  • 37. Body proportion and posture
    • Physical law : strength is directly proportional to square of diameter
    • But, strain is directly proportional to weight (increases per height 3 )
    • Animals follow these laws
  • 38. Imagine. . . . .
  • 39. The physical laws are not complete....
    • Relative size of legs to body will not always support an animal
    • Position of the legs relative to the body should be considered
    • remember how to increase stability in a structure
    • muscles and tendons tend to hold most of the stress
  • 40. Bone tissue
    • Compact bone
        • Composed of series of Haversiancanals
        • New bone formed by osteocytes
    • Spongy bone
        • Ends of long bones
        • Less dense than compact
        • Contains red marrow and yellow marrow
    • Periosteum
        • Outer layer of bone
        • Rich in nerve endings, blood and lymphatic vessels
        • Inner portions forms new bone or modifies existing bone
  • 41.  
  • 42. Number of Bones
    • Adult human- 206
    • Baby human- 270
  • 43. The Appendicular and Axial
    • Axial (80)
      • Support and protect the organs of the head, neck and trunk
    • Appendicular (126)
      • Anchors appendages to the axial skeleton
  • 44. The bone cells
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoclasts
      • FYI- if a type of cell has a suffix –blast it is an immature cell;
      • -cyte is a mature cell
  • 45. Osteoblasts
    • Immature bone cells
    • Produce osteoid- a matric mainly made up of collagen type I
    • Also responsible for the mineralization of the osteoid matrix through hormones and enzymes
    • Tend to become lesser in number as a person ages
  • 46. Osteocytes
    • Mature osteoblasts
    • Found in lacunae
    • Connected to each other through cytoplasmic extension of their cell that occupies the canaliculi
    • Responsible for calcium homeostasis
  • 47. Osteoclasts
    • Type of bone cell that is responsible for the resorption and shaping of bone by removing the mineralized matrix
  • 48. Bone remodeling
    • Bone resorption and Bone ossification are involve
      • Resorption- the process of absorbing and assimilating materials in the bone (minerals)
      • Ossification – process of intrusion of minerals in the matrix of osteocytes
      • Responsible in reshaping during growth or injury (functional demands and muscle attachment)
  • 49. Hormones that affects the bone
    • Parathyroid hormone
      • Increases calcium in the blood
    • Calcitonin
      • Decreases calcium in the blood