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  • 1. RESPIRATION
  • 2. Respiration
    • Gas exchange- also called respiration
      • Uptake of molecular oxygen from the environment and the discharge of CO 2
      • Respiration is not only exclusive to this concept; presence of cellular respiration
        • Aerobic respiration
        • Anaerobic respiration
  • 3. Cellular respiration
    • Chemical breakdown of food to yield ATP
    • Is a catabolic process
    • Aerobic Respiration- presence of a complete redox process due to the presence of O 2
      • More ATP yield
    • Anaerobic Respiration- absence of O 2
      • Less ATP is produced
  • 4. Glycolysis
    • Glycolysis- process of breaking down sugar to yield ATP
    • Both an aerobic and anaerobic process
    • Anaerobic- less ATP is produced
      • Used by bacteria in producing energy; less efficient
    • Aerobic-more ATP is produced of more products that can be broken down through oxidative phosphorylation
  • 5. Aerobic Respiration
    • Present in mitochondria
  • 6. Anaerobic Respiration
    • Fermentation- a process that does not use oxygen to yield products
    • Two types
      • Lactic Acid Fermentation
      • Yeast Fermentation
  • 7. Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Present in muscles
      • Too much lactic acid can cause cramps
  • 8. Yeast Fermentation
    • Also called alcohol fermentation
    • Ethanol is a by-product of yeast fermentation
    • Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  • 9. Gas Exchange in Plants (Photosynthesis)
    • CO 2 is taken in while O 2 is released
    • Factors such as temperature, wind, humidity affect gas exchange in plants
    • Different plants employ different strategies in acquiring CO 2 from the environment
    • Presence of C3, C4 and CAM plants
  • 10. C3, C4 and CAM
    • Different group of plants have different strategies in acquiring CO 2 for photosynthesis
    • All pathways start from a single CO 2 from the environment
  • 11. C3 pathway
    • The most basic among the three
    • A basic 6-C compound is broken down into two 3-C compound
    • 3-C is more stable than the 6-C compound
  • 12. C4 pathway
    • C4 plants produce an intermediate 4-C compound before converting it to the 3-C
    • Special structure is present in producing the 4-C compound
      • Bundle sheath
    • Employs spatial adaptation
  • 13. CAM pathway
    • Crassulacean acid metabolic pathway
    • Common in plants under the family Crassulaceae
    • Difference to the C4 pathway is the used of temporal adaptation
    • CO 2 is taken at night when the temperature is low and the stomata are open
  • 14.  
  • 15. Animal Respiration
    • Respiration or gas exchange is necessary to support ATP production
    • May involve both respiratory system and circulatory system
  • 16.  
  • 17. Animal Respiration
    • Respiratory medium- oxygen source
      • Air for terrestrial animals
      • Water for aquatic animals
        • Oxygen in water is less concentrated compared to air
        • Oxygen exists in a dissolved form
        • Many factors affect oxygen concentration in water such as temperature
  • 18. Respiratory Surface
    • Respiratory Surface- part of an animal where gas exchange occurs
    • Gas exchange occurs entirely through diffusion
    • Diffusion rate- directly proportional to the SA where it occurs
      • Inversely proportional to the square to which molecules must move
  • 19. Respiratory Surface
    • Therefore, respiratory surface have thin walls and have a large SA
    • Also, water is needed by all living cells to maintain its plasma membrane
    • Thus, respiratory surfaces are moist, dissolving first CO 2 and O 2 in water
  • 20. Respiratory Surface
    • Respiratory surface structure:
      • Depends on the size of the organism
      • Depends on the organism’s habitat
      • Depends on its metabolic demands
        • Endotherm has a larger SA of respiratory surface than a similar-sized ectotherm
  • 21. Protists and Some Simple Animals
    • Gas exchange occurs at the entire length of unicellular organisms
    • Same for simple animals such as poriferans, cnidarians and flatworms
    • Cell in their body is close enough to the respiratory medium
  • 22. More Complex Animals
    • Respiratory Surface- does not have direct access to the respiratory medium
    • Respiratory surface- thin, moist epithelium
      • Separates the respiratory medium from blood and capillaries
  • 23. Cutaneous Respiration
    • Animals such as earthworms and amphibians use the entire length of their body to respire
    • Skin is the respiratory organ
    • Should always be moist, near bodies of water and/or damp
    • Why?
  • 24. Cutaneous Respiration
    • Animals that respire through the skin are usually small, long and thin, or flat
    • High SA to V ratio
  • 25. The Most Common Respiratory Organs
    • If an animal lacks sufficient body SA for exchange of gases the solution is an extensively folded respiratory organ
    • Most common are tracheal system, gills and lungs
  • 26. Gills: Respiratory adaptations of aquatic animals
    • Gills- outfolding of the body suspended in water
    • Can be internal or external
    • Shape varies
      • Sea stars- gills have simple shape and distributed all over the body
      • Annelids- flaplike gills that extended from each segment or long feathery gills found on the head or tail
      • Clams, fish- gills are found in one local region
  • 27. Gills
    • Total surface area is often larger than that of the body
  • 28. Water as a respiratory medium
    • Advantage
      • Cell membranes of respiratory surface are always moist
    • Disadvantage
      • Less concentration of O2
        • High temp, high salinity= low O2 conc
  • 29. Ventilation
    • Process of increasing contact between the respiratory medium and respiratory surface
    • Solution to the low O2 conc in water
    • Without ventilation a region of high O2 conc and high CO2 conc can occur
  • 30. Ventilation
    • Crayfish and lobster- use paddlelike appendages in driving water over the gills
    • Fish- gills are ventilated through the passage of water through the mouth and to the gills
      • May require large amount of energy
  • 31. Fish Ventilation
    • High volume of water is needed to ventilate the gills thereby increasing the energy used
    • Arrangement of gill capillaries decrease energy use
    • Blood moves opposite the direction of the water
    • The process is called countercurrent exchange
  • 32. Countercurrent exchange
    • There exists a diffusion gradient that favors the movement of O2 from water to blood in the capillaries
    • Very efficient: can remove up to 80% of O2 dissolved in water
    • Is also important in temperature regulation and other physiological processes
  • 33. Countercurrent exchange
  • 34. Countercurrent exchange Equilibrium is reached, Diffusion stops Equilibrium is not reached, Diffusion constantly occuring
  • 35. Terrestrial Respiratory Structures: Tracheal Systems and Lungs
    • Air as a respiratory medium
      • High concentration of O2
      • Diffusion of O2 and CO2 is faster, ventilation is not much needed
      • Partial pressure of gases dictates the rapid transfer of the two gases involve
  • 36. Air as a respiratory medium
      • When ventilation is needed, less energy is needed to pump air
        • Air is much lighter than water
        • Less volume of air is needed to obtain equal amount of O2 from H2O
      • Disadvantage: Respiratory epithelium should always be moist
        • Solution: highly folded respiratory structure
  • 37. Tracheal Systems
  • 38. Tracheal Systems
    • Made up of air tubes that branch throughout the body; not folded
    • Largest tubes: called tracheae; open to the outside
    • Spiracles- outside opening
    • Tracheoles: finer branch of tracheae, directly connected to cell surface
  • 39. Tracheal System
    • Gas exchange is through diffusion across the moist epithelium at the terminal ends of the system
    • Circulatory system is not involved
    • Diffusion is enough to support cellular respiration
    • Larger insects with higher energy demands ventilate through rhythmic body movements
  • 40. Tracheal System
    • Flying insect has high metabolic demand
    • Wings act as bellows in pumping air through the tracheal system
    • Flight muscle cells are packed with mitochondria, tracheal tubes supply ample amount of O2
  • 41. Lungs
    • Confined to one location
    • Gap between respiratory medium and transport tissue is bridged by the circulatory system
    • Have dense net of capillaries under the epithelium that forms the respiratory surface
    • Evolved in spiders, terrestrial snails, vertebrates
  • 42. Lungs
  • 43. Bronchiole
  • 44. Lungs
    • Amphibians small lungs, rely mainly through skin
    • Reptiles, birds, mammals rely mainly on their lungs
    • Turtles: exception: supplement lung breathing through epithelial surface through the mouth and anus
    • Some fish have lungs: lungfishes
    • Size and complexity of lungs: correlated to an animal’s metabolic rate
  • 45. African Lungfish
  • 46. Mammalian Respiration
    • Mammalian Lung Structure: spongy, honeycombed with moist epithelium
    • Branching ducts convey air to lungs
    • Air enters through the nostrils
    • Filtered by hairs and cilia
    • Air is warmed, humidified and sampled for odors
  • 47. Mammalian Respiration
    • Air moves from the nasal passage to the pharynx and then to the larynx
    • The act of swallowing moves the larynx upward tipping the epiglottis over the glottis
    • Glottis- opening of the windpipe
    • Larynx- adapted as voicebox
    • Syrinx- vocal organ of birds
      • Found at the base of the trachea
      • Produce sound without the vocal chords found in mammals
  • 48. Mammalian Respiration
    • Sound: produced when voluntary muscles stretch and vibrate during the process
    • High-pitched sound: tight, rapid vibration
    • Low-pitched sound: less tense, slow vibration
  • 49. Mammalian Respiration
    • From the trachea: forks into two bronchi
    • Shaped like an inverted tree
    • Finer branches are called bronchioles
    • Epithelial lining is covered with mucus and beating cilia
    • Mucus traps contaminant, while, the cilia moves this to the pharynx where it can be swallowed
  • 50. Mammalian Respiration
    • Bronchioles: dead-end into cluster of air sac called alveolus
    • Gas exchange occurs through the thin epithelium of alveoli
    • SA: 100 M 2 in humans
  • 51. Ventilating the Lungs
    • Terrestrial organisms also rely on ventilation
      • Maintains high O2 and low CO2 at the gas exchange surface
    • Process of ventilating the lungs is called breathing
      • Breathing- alternate process of inhalation and exhalation
    • Two types
      • Positive pressure breathing
      • Negative pressure breathing
  • 52. Positive pressure breathing
    • Frogs ventilate their lungs through positive pressure breathing
    • In a breathing cycle:
      • Muscles lower the oral cavity floor (becomes enlarge and draws air through the nostrils)
      • Closing of the mouth and nostril (oral cavity floor rises and forces air into the trachea)
      • Air is force out/exhaled (elastic recoil of lungs and muscular contraction of chest)
  • 53. Negative Pressure Breathing
    • Works like a suction pump (air is pulled rather than pushed)
    • Negative pressure is produced due to action of chest muscle
      • Relaxation of chest muscle pushes air; contraction pulls air in
    • Expansion of lungs is possible due to its double-walled sac
      • Inner sac adheres to the lungs
      • Outer sac adheres to the chest cavity walls
      • Space in between is filled with fluid
  • 54. Surface Tension
    • Surface tension- responsible for the behavior of the lungs
    • The lungs slide past each other but cannot be pulled separately
    • The surface tension couples the movement of the lungs to the movement of the rib cage
  • 55. Breathing
    • Inhalation- Contraction of muscles (rib muscles and diaphragm)
      • Increases volume of chest cavity
      • Decreases alveolar air pressure
      • Rib cage expands (ribs pulled upward; breastbone pushed forward)
    • Gas moves from an area of higher partial pressure to low partial pressure
    • Air moves from the URT to alveoli of LRT
  • 56. Breathing
    • Exhalation- relaxation of muscles
      • Rib muscles and diaphragm relax
      • Lung volume is reduced
      • Inc in alveolar air pressure
    • Shallow breathing- rib muscle and diaphragm are responsible
    • Deep breathing- muscles of the back, neck and chest are responsible
    • Some animals employ visceral pump- adds to the piston like action of the diaphragm
  • 57. Breathing
    • Tidal volume- volume of air inhaled and exhaled in each breath
      • Ave human tidal volume is 500 ml
    • Vital capacity- max tidal volume during forced breathing
      • 3.4 L female; 4.8 L male
    • Residual volume- air left in the lungs during exhalation
      • Lungs hold more air than the vital capacity
  • 58. Breathing
    • Age or disease decrease the elasticity of the lungs
      • Residual volume increases at the expense of vital capacity
      • Max O2 conc in the alveoli decreases
      • Gas exchange efficiency is decreased
  • 59. Ventilation in birds
    • More complex than mammals
    • Presence of air sacs
    • Do not function directly in gas exchange; acts as bellows
    • Lungs and air sacs- ventilated during breathing
    • Presence of parabronchi rather than alveoli
      • Air moves in one direction
      • Air is completely exchanged
      • Max O2 conc is higher in birds than in mammals
  • 60. Regulation of Breathing
    • Breathing – controlled by the medulla oblonagata and the pons
    • This ensures that respiration is coordinated with circulation
    • Medulla oblongata- major control center of breathing
    • Control center in the pons works synergistic with the control center of the medulla oblongata
  • 61. Regulation of Breathing
    • Negative feedback- helps maintain breathing
    • Stretch sensors- found in the lungs send impulses to the medulla (inhibits the breathing control center)
    • Medulla- monitors CO2 level of the blood
      • CO2 conc is detected through slight change in blood and tissue fluid pH
      • Carbonic acid lowers pH
      • Drop in pH increases rate of rate and depth of breathing
  • 62. Oxygen Concentration
    • Oxygen Concentration- have little effect to breathing control center
    • Severe depression of O2 conc stimulates O2 sensors in the aorta and carotid arteries to send alarm signals
    • Breathing rate is increased by the control centers
    • Increase in CO2 conc is a good indicator of decrease in O2 conc
  • 63. Hyperventilation
    • Excessive deep, rapid breathing inc CO2 conc in the blood
    • Breathing centers temporarily stops working
    • Impulses to the rib muscles and diaphragm are inhibited
    • Breathing resumes when CO2 conc inc
  • 64. Different Factors Affect Breathing
    • Nervous and chemical signals affects rate and depth of breathing
    • Most efficient if it works in tandem with the circulatory system
    • E.g. Exercise: inc cardiac output-inc breathing rate
      • Enhances O2 uptake and CO2 removal
  • 65. Respiratory pigments: transports gases and buffers the blood
    • Low solubility of O2- problem if O2 is transported via the circulatory system
      • E.g. Normal human consume 2L of O2 per minute
      • Only 4.5 ml of O2 can dissolve into a L of blood in the lungs
      • If 80% dissolved O2 would be delivered, 500 L of blood should be pumped per minute (a ton per 2 mins)
      • Unrealistic!!!!
      • Special respiratory pigments are used
  • 66. Respiratory Pigments
    • Transports O2 instead of dissolving into a solution
    • Inc O2 that can be carried in the blood (~200 mL O2 per L in mammalian blood)
    • Decreases cardiac output (20-25 L per min)
  • 67. Respiratory Pigments
    • Binds O2 reversibly
      • Loads O2 from respiratory organ; unloads in other parts of the body
    • Hemocyanin- found in hemolymph of arthropods and many mollusks
    • Copper- acts as the oxygen-binding component
    • Hemoglobin- respiratory pigment of all vertebrates
  • 68. Hemoglobin
    • Consists of four heme subunits
    • Iron acts as the binding site of O2
    • Loading and unloading of O2 depends on the property of each subunits called cooperativity
    • Affinity is dependent to the conformation of each subunit
      • Binding of one O2 molecule to one subunit induces the inc in affinity of other subunits
      • Unloading of one O2 molecule decreases the affinity of other subunits
  • 69. Dissociation Curves of Gases
    • Cooperativity of heme subunits is shown in a dissociation curve
    • Steep slope- slight change in Po 2 causes substantial loading or unloading of O2
    • Because of cooperativity, slight drop in Po 2 causes a relatively large inc in O2 to be unloaded
  • 70.  
  • 71. The Bohr Shift
    • A shift to the right of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve
    • Brought about by increase CO2 or low blood pH
    • Decrease in affinity of hemoglobin to O2
    • Greater efficiency of O2 unloading
  • 72. Carbon Dioxide transport
    • Hemoglobin- also transports CO2 not only O2
      • Assists in buffering the blood
    • Blood released by respiring cells:
      • 7%- transported in the solution of blood plasma
      • 23% - bind to amino group of hemoglobin
      • 70% - transported in the blood in the form of carbonic acid
  • 73. Carbon Dioxide Transport
    • CO2- converted in the red blood cells into bicarbonate
      • Reacts first with water to form carbonic acid (carbonic anhydrase)
      • Dissociates into H + and bicarbonate
      • H ions- attach to different sites in the Hb and other proteins
      • Bicarbonate ions- diffuse into the plasma
      • Movement of blood through the lungs reverses the process favoring the conversion of bicarbonate to CO2
  • 74. Deep-diving air breathers
    • Stockpile oxygen- O2 is reserved in the blood and muscles (e.g. Weddell seal)
    • High percentage of myoglobin
    • Dec heart rate and O2 consumption
    • 20-min dive- O2 in myoglobin is used up
      • Energy is erived from fermentation rather than respiration