Prokaryota

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Prokaryota

  1. 1. Prokaryota
  2. 2. Core Concepts  Prokaryotes are classified into two domains/kingdoms: Bacteria and Archaea  Presence of peptidogycan in bacteria  Some archaea have pseudopeptidoglycan  Diverse cell wall, some made up of proteins called S layer
  3. 3.  Bacteria are identified by their shapes, the chemical natures of their cell walls, the ways they move and the ways they obtain and use energy  Bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission. Through the process of conjugation, genes can move from one cell to another, thus increasing genetic diversity within bacterial populations
  4. 4.  Prokaryotes play a crucial role in the biosphere, such as taking part in nutrient cycles and in symbiotic relationships. Also, they have both harmful and beneficial impacts on humans
  5. 5. Keywords  Prokaryte bacteria archaea  Peptidoglycan coccus bacillus  Spirillum Gram-negative Gram-positive  Flagellumautotroph heterotroph  Phototroph chemotroph aerobe  Facultative anaerobe obligate/strict anaerobe  Binary fission conjugationendospore
  6. 6. Some things to remember  Basis for split- presence/absence of peptidoglycan, genetic differences  Eubacteria and archaebacteria are misleading  Archaeans are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria  Use of domain scheme suggests that the split between bacteria and archaea are more ancient than the split between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  7. 7. S layer and peptidoglycan
  8. 8. Archaea with an S layer
  9. 9. Representatives  Bacteria-cyanobacteria  Archaea- methanogens, thermophiles, halophiles
  10. 10. Identification of bacteria  Cell shape- coccus, bacillus, spirillum, strep/staph  Cell wall composition- gram-negative/positive  Motility- flagella  Nutrition and metabolism-  Auto/hetero  Photo/chemo  Aerobic/anaerobic/facultative
  11. 11. Bilog, streyt, paikot-ikot, sama samang bilog
  12. 12. Positive o negative
  13. 13. Growth and reproduction  Binary fission- no new combination of genes  Conjugation- increases genetic diversity  Endospore-formation- enebles survival in harsh conditions  Control of bacterial growth  Sterilization vs disinfection  refrigeration
  14. 14. Ecology of bacteria  Some bacteria take part in the recycling of elements  Some bacteria form symbiotic relationships with other organisms  Some bacteria are pathogens  Some bacteria play important roles in research and technology

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