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Plant transport ppt

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Recall
    • Transport Mechanism
      • Passive vs. Active
    • Plant Transport Tissues
      • Xylem
      • Phloem
  • 3. Transport Mechanisms
    • Passive transport
      • Passive Diffusion
      • Facilitated Diffusion
      • Osmosis
    • Active transport
    • Bulk transport
  • 4. Plant Transport Tissues
    • Xylem
      • Vessel elements
      • Tracheids
    • Phloem
      • Sieve tube member
      • Companion cells
  • 5. Problem of Terrestrial Plants
    • Ancestral plants: transport is through diffusion
    • Modern plants: transport from roots to shoots
      • Long distance transport
    Figure 36.1
  • 6. Transport in Plants
    • Three scales of plant transport
      • Intracellular
        • Epidermal cells
      • Short distance: cell-to-cell
        • At the levels of tissues and organs
      • Long distance: xylem and phloem
  • 7.
    • A variety of physical processes
      • Are involved in the different types of transport
    Minerals H 2 O CO 2 O 2 CO 2 O 2 H 2 O Sugar Light Sugars are transported as phloem sap to roots and other parts of the plant. Figure 36.2 Sugars are produced by photosynthesis in the leaves. 5 6 Through stomata, leaves take in CO 2 and expel O 2 . The CO 2 provides carbon for photosynthesis. Some O 2 produced by photosynthesis is used in cellular respiration. 4 Transpiration, the loss of water from leaves (mostly through stomata), creates a force within leaves that pulls xylem sap upward. 3 Water and minerals are transported upward from roots to shoots as xylem sap. 2 Roots absorb water and dissolved minerals from the soil. 1 Roots exchange gases with the air spaces of soil, taking in O 2 and discharging CO 2 . In cellular respiration, O 2 supports the breakdown of sugars. 7
  • 8. Effects of Differences in Water Potential
    • To survive
      • Plants must balance water uptake and loss
    • Osmosis
      • Determines the net uptake or water loss by a cell
      • Is affected by solute concentration and pressure
  • 9.
    • Water potential
      • Is a measurement that combines the effects of solute concentration and pressure
      • Determines the direction of movement of water
    • Water
      • Flows from regions of high water potential to regions of low water potential
      • Both pressure and solute concentrations affect water potential
  • 10.
    • Water potential
      • Affects uptake and loss of water by plant cells
    • If a flaccid cell is placed in an environment with a higher solute concentration
      • The cell will lose water and become plasmolyzed
    Figure 36.6a 0.4 M sucrose solution: Initial flaccid cell: Plasmolyzed cell at osmotic equilibrium with its surroundings  P = 0  S = 0.7  P = 0  S = 0.9  P = 0  S = 0.9  =  0.9 MPa  = 0.7 MPa  =  0.9 MPa
  • 11.
    • If the same flaccid cell is placed in a solution with a lower solute concentration
      • The cell will gain water and become turgid
    Distilled water: Initial flaccid cell: Turgid cell at osmotic equilibrium with its surroundings  P = 0  S = 0.7  P = 0  S = 0  P = 0.7  S = 0.7 Figure 36.6b  = 0.7 MPa  = 0 MPa  = 0 MPa
  • 12. How water moves
    • Plasmodesmata
    • Symplast
    • apoplast
  • 13. Bulk Flow in Long-Distance Transport
    • In bulk flow
      • Movement of fluid in the xylem and phloem is driven by pressure differences at opposite ends of the xylem vessels and sieve tubes
  • 14. The xylem sap and phloem sap
    • Xylem sap
      • Root pressure
      • Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism
    • Phloem sap
      • Pressure Flow Theory
        • Translocation