WHAT TO LOOK FOR
The most common dislocations occur in the shoulder, elbow, finger, or thumb.
LOOK FOR THESE SIGNS:
2. deformed look
3. pain and tenderness
4. possible discoloration of the affected area
IF A DISLOCATION IS SUSPECTED...
1. Apply a splint to the joint to keep it from moving.
2. Try to keep joint elevated to slow blood flow to the area
3. A doctor should be contacted to have the bone set back into its socket
DIFFERENCE IN SPRAINS AND STRAINS:
SPRAIN--involves injury to the ligaments around a joint
STRAIN--involves injury to a muscle or tendon
1. At the time of the injury, begin the RICE treatment.
2. For lower back strain, rest will often bring relief to the strained muscle. If
not, alternate cold compresses with moist heat, allowing a time of rest
between the treatments.
REST - Avoid using the affected part to avoid further discomfort or injury.
Gradually rebuild your exercise program once the injury has healed.
ICE - Apply ice (bags with crushed ice, cold packs, etc.) to the injured area for
the first 24 to 48 hours to prevent or reduce swelling.
COMPRESSION - Wrap an elastic bandage around the injured area to secure the
ice in place. Do not wrap it so tightly that the circulation is cut off. After 10-15
minutes, loosen the bandage and remove the ice. Ice may be reapplied for 15-20
minutes every one or two hours for the first six hours after the injury. As long as
the injury is swelling, continue to apply ice 3-4 times a day.
ELEVATION - Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart to slow the
blood flow to the injury.
SIGNS OF A STRAIN:
1. affected joint begins to swell immediately
2. joint may also turn black and blue due to the escaped blood from torn
3. victim will experience excruciating, shooting pains at the time of the injury
because many nerves are injured in a sprain
1. RICE treatment
2. Thermotherapy (applying moist heat) promotes healing, but should not be
applied to a muscle or ligament injury for at least 24 hours because heat
will increase the swelling. After the swelling has gone, you should alternate
applying cold compresses and moist heat to the injury.
3. To treat the injury with warm, wet packs, place a water-dampened towel
in a microwave oven for about 30 seconds. Check to make sure the towel is
not too hot before placing it on the skin. If a microwave oven is not
available, run a towel under very hot tap water, wring it out, and apply it
to the injury.
4. A sprained arm should be placed in a sling.
Most sprains take at least 6-8 weeks to heal.
1. Wash it carefully with soap and water
2. Apply an antiseptic (i.e. hydrogen peroxide)
3. Apply an antibiotic cream
PUNCTURE WOUND OR LARGE GASH
1. Clean the bite to rid it of infection
2. Victim should be treated by a doctor
Whether the bite is large or small, a doctor should be contacted if swelling,
increasing redness, or drainage occurs, or if there are flu like symptoms, fever, or
1. Remove the stinger by scraping with your fingernail or the blade of a knife
2. Wash the area thoroughly with soap and water
3. Apply ice, calamine lotion, or baking soda-and-water mixture to relieve the
swelling and pain
A stinger that is not removed continues to release venom into the body for as long
as 20 minutes.
Do not remove a stinger with tweezers. Squeezing releases more of the poison into
The swelling should be gone within 24 hours.
SIGNS OF AN ALLERGIC REACTION:
1. Difficulty breathing
2. Begin to cough
3. Complain of headache
4. Possibly become unconscious
Immediate medical attention is needed if an allergic reaction develops.
1. Get the victim away from the snake.
2. Check the snakebite for puncture wounds. If one or two fang markings are
visible, the bite is from a poisonous pit viper.
3. Remember what the snake looks like. The doctor will need to know this to
provide the proper treatment.
4. Keep the victim calm, lying down, and with the bitten arm or leg below the
level of his heart to slow the blood flowing from the wound to the heart.
The more the victim moves, the faster the venom spreads through the
5. Clean the wound. Be sure to wipe away from the bite. This keeps any
venom on the unbroken skin around the bite from being wiped into the
6. Watch for general symptom (i.e. sharp pain, bruising, swelling around the
bite, weakness, shortness of breath, blurred vision, drowsiness, or
7. Get the victim to the hospital as soon as possible.
If any of the above mentioned symptoms occur within 30 minutes from the time of
the bite, and you are over two hours away from medical help, tie a constricting
band (3/4 to 1 1/2 inches wide) two inches above the bite or above the swelling.
The band needs to be loose enough to slip a finger underneath it. The band slows
blood flow away from the bite, keeping the venom from reaching the heart. The
band must be applied within 30 minutes after the time of the bite to be effective.
If the swelling spreads, move the band so that it is two inches above the swelling.
KNOW THE SYMPTOMS AND WHAT TO DO
Before losing consciousness, the victim may complain of...
4. skin may be pale and clammy
5. If a person begins to feel faint, he should...
1. lean forward
2. lower head toward knees
As the head is lowered below the heart, blood will flow to the brain.
What to do if someone becomes unconscious:
THE RECOVERY POSITION
1. keep the victim lying down with head lowered and legs elevated
2. loosen any tight clothing
3. apply cool, damp cloths to face and neck
In most cases, the victim will regain consciousness shortly after being placed in
this position. After the victim regains consciousness, do not let him get up until
you have questioned him (Who are you? Where are you?, Do you know what day
it is?) to be sure he has completely recovered.