Final botany powerpoint2.1


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Final botany powerpoint2.1

  1. 1. Plant tissues
  2. 2. Plant Organization <ul><li>Root system- growth toward gravity; generally below ground; consists of roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Root – epidermis; cortex; stele (vascular tissue); pith </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Shoot system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth away from gravity along the axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally above the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the stem and the leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers are modified shoot system </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Plant Tissues <ul><li>Meristems </li></ul><ul><li>Surface or dermal tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Vascular tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Ground or fundamental tissues </li></ul>
  5. 5. Meristems <ul><li>Responsible for increase in number of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Meristems do not specialize </li></ul><ul><li>Plant tissues are derived from the meristems </li></ul><ul><li>Three types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercalary </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Meristems <ul><li>Intercalary Meristem- plants without vascular cambium (grasses) </li></ul><ul><li>Growth regions that occur at the </li></ul><ul><li>base of nodes </li></ul>
  7. 8. Growth <ul><li>Primary growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc in length of plants (apical meristem) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc in plant girth (lateral meristem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select plants only (woody plants such as dicot and gymnosperms) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product: wood and cork </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Plant growth patterns and regions <ul><li>Primary growth- growth in length; primary meristems </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary growth- growth which increases the girth or circumference of the plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular cambium- bet wood and bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cork cambium-found in the outer bark </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Primary meristems <ul><li>At tips </li></ul><ul><li>Shoot tip meristems (shoot system) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem meristem; leaf primordia; bud primordia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Root tip meristems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary meristems are permanent and self perpetuating </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Derivative meristems <ul><li>Produced when meristem cells divide; forms the tissue systems of the plant </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protoderm- develops into surface or dermal tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procambium- develops into vascular tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground meristem- fundamental /ground tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary meristems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular cambium- produces wood (strength); produces part of bark (protection) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cork cambium- produces protective layer of bark called cork </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Plant Growth <ul><li>Primary Growth (roots and shoots) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Growth (roots and shoots) </li></ul>
  12. 14. Meristems from Cell Dedifferentiation <ul><li>Dedifferentiate-any plant cell has the ability to dedifferentiate </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral root formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitious growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wound healing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary cork cambium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Primary Growth of Roots <ul><li>Root cap </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protects the delicate meristems as the root elongates through the abrasive soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>secretes mucous that lubricates the soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Zones of cells at successive station </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of cell division </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of cell elongation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zone of cell differentiation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Simple Tissues
  15. 17. Ground or fundamental tissues <ul><li>Fibers- for support </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic cells </li></ul><ul><li>Storage cells </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in the spaces cells </li></ul>
  16. 18. Ground or Fundamental Tissues <ul><li>Parenchyma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic tissue type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collenchyma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supports young plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supports for mature plants </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Parenchyma <ul><li>Definition : a simple tissue composed of spherical-shaped cells; most common type of tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Have thin primary walls </li></ul><ul><li>Living, metabolizing tissue </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Chlorenchyma, Aerenchyma </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis & Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage (starch, oil droplets, air, water, and salts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wound healing & regeneration </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. Collenchyma <ul><li>Definition : a simple tissue found beneath the epidermis in young stems and in large veins of leaves (“strings” in celery). </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a flexible support system (like our skeletal system). </li></ul><ul><li>Found uniformly throughout the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Elongated cells that have unevenly thickened cell walls (especially in the corners) </li></ul><ul><li>Alive at maturity </li></ul>
  19. 24. Sclerenchyma <ul><li>Definition : a simple tissue specialized for structural support; occurs in many areas </li></ul><ul><li>Two types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sclereids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have both primary and secondary cell walls. </li></ul><ul><li>At functional maturity cells are often dead </li></ul>
  20. 25. Fibers <ul><li>L ong, tapered cells that often occur in groups or clumps (abundant in the wood and bark of flowering plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in leaves & stems. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function is support </li></ul>
  21. 26. Sclereids <ul><li>S hort, cuboidal cells common in shells of nuts and pits of fruits (peaches, cherries) </li></ul><ul><li>Found in all plant parts, usually clustered. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function is for protection </li></ul>
  22. 27. Complex tissues Vascular Tissue System
  23. 28. Vascular tissues <ul><li>Functions: conduct water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>support and strength of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Types of vascular tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem- conducts water and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem- conducts solutes/food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues throughout the plant </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Xylem <ul><li>Conduction of H 2 O from roots to leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Made up the wood </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vessel Elements- elongated cells with secondary walls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dead at functional maturity; perforated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large diameter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracheids – elongated, narrow cells with secondary walls; dead at functional maturity; pitted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem fibers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem parenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem rays </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma cells and Fibers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 31. Tracheids <ul><li>Tracheids are typically found in gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants and aid in transporting water. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of water is only longitudinal </li></ul>
  26. 32. Vessel Elements <ul><li>Vessel elements are typically found in angiosperms and aid in transporting water. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of water can be transverse or longitudinal </li></ul>
  27. 33. Phloem <ul><li>Moves solutes (especially carbs) </li></ul><ul><li>Composed of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sieve tube cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elongated cells forming tubes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>End walls have pores forming sieve plates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alive at functional maturity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companion cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to the sieve tube through plasmodesmata </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma cells adjoining the sieve tube cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem fibers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem parenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Sclerenchyma fibers and parenchyma cells) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 35. Sieve tube members <ul><li>Sieve tube members can secrete a protein called callose to plug sieve plates to stop the flow of food if the phloem is damaged </li></ul>
  29. 36. Complex tissues Dermal Tissues
  30. 37. Surface or dermal tissues <ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents dessication </li></ul>
  31. 38. Dermal (surface) tissue <ul><li>Epidermis (herbaceous plants) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuticle (protective waxy layer)- prevents dessication (cuticle) and invasion of pathogens , absorption of water, control of gas exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Periderm or cork layer (woody plants) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produced from cork cambium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary epidermis or periderm of woody plants </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 39. Dermis <ul><li>Epidermis: Two types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenchyma cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guard cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NO Chloroplasts </li></ul>
  33. 40. Cuticle <ul><li>A waxy layer secreted by epidermal cells of stems and leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents water loss and diffusion of gases </li></ul>Cuticle Parenchyma cells
  34. 41. Guard cells <ul><li>Guard cells form the tiny opening called the stomata </li></ul>
  35. 42. Peridermis <ul><li>Woody plants initially produce an epidermis that splits as the plant grows. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These plants also have periderm, which is several cells thick and forms under the epidermis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periderm composes the outer bark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of two types of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cork cells- secrete suberin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cork parenchyma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 43. Dermal (surface) tissue <ul><li>Epidermal modifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hairs of trichomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Root hairs: absorption of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guard cells: form stomata for gas exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glands: modified cells containing oils or other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substances for secretion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 45. Transport in Plants <ul><li>Cellular level transport </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral transport </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance transport </li></ul>
  38. 46. Plant Nutrition <ul><li>Chemical composition of plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80%-85% of herbaceous plants is H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants grow mainly by accumulating water in the central vacuoles of their cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen are the most abundant elements in the dry weight of a plant </li></ul></ul>
  39. 47. Essential Nutrients <ul><li>Hydroponic structure- used to determine which of the mineral elements are actually essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients- elements required by plants in relatively large amounts </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients- elements needed by plants in small amounts </li></ul>