Final botany powerpoint2.1
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    Final botany powerpoint2.1 Final botany powerpoint2.1 Presentation Transcript

    • Plant tissues
    • Plant Organization
      • Root system- growth toward gravity; generally below ground; consists of roots
        • Root – epidermis; cortex; stele (vascular tissue); pith
      • Shoot system
        • Growth away from gravity along the axis
        • Generally above the ground
        • Consists of the stem and the leaves
        • Flowers are modified shoot system
    • Plant Tissues
      • Meristems
      • Surface or dermal tissues
      • Vascular tissues
      • Ground or fundamental tissues
    • Meristems
      • Responsible for increase in number of cells
      • Meristems do not specialize
      • Plant tissues are derived from the meristems
      • Three types:
        • Apical
        • Lateral
        • Intercalary
    • Meristems
      • Intercalary Meristem- plants without vascular cambium (grasses)
      • Growth regions that occur at the
      • base of nodes
    • Growth
      • Primary growth
        • Inc in length of plants (apical meristem)
      • Secondary growth
        • Inc in plant girth (lateral meristem)
        • Select plants only (woody plants such as dicot and gymnosperms)
        • Product: wood and cork
    • Plant growth patterns and regions
      • Primary growth- growth in length; primary meristems
      • Secondary growth- growth which increases the girth or circumference of the plant
        • Vascular cambium- bet wood and bark
        • Cork cambium-found in the outer bark
    • Primary meristems
      • At tips
      • Shoot tip meristems (shoot system)
        • Stem meristem; leaf primordia; bud primordia
      • Root tip meristems
        • Primary meristems are permanent and self perpetuating
    • Derivative meristems
      • Produced when meristem cells divide; forms the tissue systems of the plant
          • Protoderm- develops into surface or dermal tissues
          • Procambium- develops into vascular tissue
          • Ground meristem- fundamental /ground tissues
          • Secondary meristems
          • Vascular cambium- produces wood (strength); produces part of bark (protection)
          • Cork cambium- produces protective layer of bark called cork
    • Plant Growth
      • Primary Growth (roots and shoots)
      • Secondary Growth (roots and shoots)
    • Meristems from Cell Dedifferentiation
      • Dedifferentiate-any plant cell has the ability to dedifferentiate
          • Lateral root formation
          • Adventitious growth
          • Wound healing
          • Secondary cork cambium
    • Primary Growth of Roots
      • Root cap
          • protects the delicate meristems as the root elongates through the abrasive soil
          • secretes mucous that lubricates the soil
      • 3 Zones of cells at successive station
          • Zone of cell division
          • Zone of cell elongation
          • Zone of cell differentiation
    • Simple Tissues
    • Ground or fundamental tissues
      • Fibers- for support
      • Photosynthetic cells
      • Storage cells
      • Fill in the spaces cells
    • Ground or Fundamental Tissues
      • Parenchyma
        • basic tissue type
      • Collenchyma
        • supports young plants
      • Sclerenchyma
        • supports for mature plants
    • Parenchyma
      • Definition : a simple tissue composed of spherical-shaped cells; most common type of tissue
      • Have thin primary walls
      • Living, metabolizing tissue
      • E.g. Chlorenchyma, Aerenchyma
      • Functions:
        • Photosynthesis & Respiration
        • Storage (starch, oil droplets, air, water, and salts)
        • Wound healing & regeneration
    • Collenchyma
      • Definition : a simple tissue found beneath the epidermis in young stems and in large veins of leaves (“strings” in celery).
      • Provides a flexible support system (like our skeletal system).
      • Found uniformly throughout the plant.
      • Elongated cells that have unevenly thickened cell walls (especially in the corners)
      • Alive at maturity
    • Sclerenchyma
      • Definition : a simple tissue specialized for structural support; occurs in many areas
      • Two types:
        • Fibers
        • Sclereids
      • Have both primary and secondary cell walls.
      • At functional maturity cells are often dead
    • Fibers
      • L ong, tapered cells that often occur in groups or clumps (abundant in the wood and bark of flowering plants)
      • Found in leaves & stems.
      • Primary function is support
    • Sclereids
      • S hort, cuboidal cells common in shells of nuts and pits of fruits (peaches, cherries)
      • Found in all plant parts, usually clustered.
      • Primary function is for protection
    • Complex tissues Vascular Tissue System
    • Vascular tissues
      • Functions: conduct water and solutes
      • support and strength of the plant
      • Types of vascular tissues
        • Xylem- conducts water and minerals
        • Phloem- conducts solutes/food
        • Continues throughout the plant
    • Xylem
      • Conduction of H 2 O from roots to leaves
      • Made up the wood
      • Composed of:
          • Vessel Elements- elongated cells with secondary walls
            • Dead at functional maturity; perforated
            • Large diameter
          • Tracheids – elongated, narrow cells with secondary walls; dead at functional maturity; pitted
            • Xylem fibers
            • Xylem parenchyma
            • Xylem rays
          • Parenchyma cells and Fibers
    • Tracheids
      • Tracheids are typically found in gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants and aid in transporting water.
      • Movement of water is only longitudinal
    • Vessel Elements
      • Vessel elements are typically found in angiosperms and aid in transporting water.
      • Movement of water can be transverse or longitudinal
    • Phloem
      • Moves solutes (especially carbs)
      • Composed of:
        • Sieve tube cells
            • Elongated cells forming tubes
            • End walls have pores forming sieve plates
            • Alive at functional maturity
            • Carry food
        • Companion cells
            • Connected to the sieve tube through plasmodesmata
            • Parenchyma cells adjoining the sieve tube cells
            • Phloem fibers
            • Phloem parenchyma
            • (Sclerenchyma fibers and parenchyma cells)
    • Sieve tube members
      • Sieve tube members can secrete a protein called callose to plug sieve plates to stop the flow of food if the phloem is damaged
    • Complex tissues Dermal Tissues
    • Surface or dermal tissues
      • Protection
      • Prevents dessication
    • Dermal (surface) tissue
      • Epidermis (herbaceous plants)
          • Cuticle (protective waxy layer)- prevents dessication (cuticle) and invasion of pathogens , absorption of water, control of gas exchange
      • Periderm or cork layer (woody plants)
          • Produced from cork cambium
          • Secondary epidermis or periderm of woody plants
    • Dermis
      • Epidermis: Two types
        • Parenchyma cells
        • Guard cells
      • NO Chloroplasts
    • Cuticle
      • A waxy layer secreted by epidermal cells of stems and leaves
      • Prevents water loss and diffusion of gases
      Cuticle Parenchyma cells
    • Guard cells
      • Guard cells form the tiny opening called the stomata
    • Peridermis
      • Woody plants initially produce an epidermis that splits as the plant grows.
        • These plants also have periderm, which is several cells thick and forms under the epidermis.
        • Periderm composes the outer bark
        • Composed of two types of cells
          • Cork cells- secrete suberin
          • Cork parenchyma
    • Dermal (surface) tissue
      • Epidermal modifications
        • Hairs of trichomes
          • Root hairs: absorption of water
          • Guard cells: form stomata for gas exchange
          • Glands: modified cells containing oils or other
          • substances for secretion
    • Transport in Plants
      • Cellular level transport
      • Lateral transport
      • Long-distance transport
    • Plant Nutrition
      • Chemical composition of plants
        • 80%-85% of herbaceous plants is H 2 O
        • Plants grow mainly by accumulating water in the central vacuoles of their cells
        • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen are the most abundant elements in the dry weight of a plant
    • Essential Nutrients
      • Hydroponic structure- used to determine which of the mineral elements are actually essential nutrients
      • Macronutrients- elements required by plants in relatively large amounts
      • Micronutrients- elements needed by plants in small amounts