Exercise 1.1 fb

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Exercise 1.1 fb

  1. 1. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands,Alaminos, Pangasinan, PhilippinesPurposeTo investigate and describe the island biogeography structure of Governor’s Island, Romulo Island andCagao Island of the Hundred Islands National Park, Alaminos, Pangasinan, Philippines.IntroductionThis activity is an island-based demonstration of the theory of Island Biogeography, an ecological ideanormally applied on a geographic scale. Your data analysis skills will be used to elucidate ecologicalpatterns in the data. Incidentally, you will become familiar with the diversity of plant species of the HundredIslands National Park. Finally, you will test the practical behavioral ecological principle that “the more youlook, the more you see.”What you need (per group):2 GPS5 Rulers2 zip locks/group plant and animal guides5 timersWhat you do:PrincipleWe are testing the hypothesis that species richness is a function of island size; larger islands supporthigher species richness. In addition, we may be able to test the hypothesis that population density (# ofindividuals of each species/area) decreases with island area.Sampling-GeneralYour team (4 people) is responsible for counting the number of individuals of all plant and animalmorphospecies living in each island (3 islands). You are also required to get the global position of the island(use GPS). Record your data in Ex. 1.1 data sheet Table 1-3.Sampling Guidelines1. Make sure one team member carefully records the actual counts of each morphospecies (Note: Use theactivity data sheet). It is important that you limit your total search time to the assigned duration.2. At least 3 people should search. Each person will be given 20 minutes of search time. Synchronize yourwatches to avoid errors in timing.3. The 4th person can be assigned as a timer and warns the searchers of the remaining time.4. When your time is up stop searching!5. When you have reached the end of your search time, organize your data in the data sheet Table 1-3.Rough Estimation of Island Size1|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  2. 2. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010You can ask the boatmen to roughly estimate the relative size of each island or you can make your ownguess. What is important is that you should be able distinguish which island is the biggest and the smallest.Make an estimate of its area. Also, qualitatively label the island as large-sized-island, medium-sized-islandor small-sized-island, respectively. Put your data in Ex. 1.1 Table 1-3.Identifying SpeciesYou are not expected to know the identity of every specimen. Consult the field guides provided for you orask your instructor for help. For closely-related species, you have to remember the basic rule: if it looksdifferent, consider it a different morphospecies. Make drawings if it helps you organize your classificationscheme.Plant Sampling Guidelines 1. When the searchers are ready and all timers are set, ask the searchers to start their collection. There should be no rush in collection, do not run or compete with other groups. Move and collect in your normal pace (i.e. as if walking normally). 2. Collect 1 leaf from every plant species you encounter. You can focus on one area or you can walk along while collecting. Do not worry if you have collected more than 1 leaf of a particular species, as long as those leaves were collected from different individuals of a particular species. 3. Put all your collections inside the zip locks provided. 4. Watch your collection time. Stop when the time is up. 5. Count and identify your leaves. Put all you data in Table 4.Animal Sampling Guidelines 1. When the searchers are ready and all timers are set, ask the searchers to start their collection. There should be no rush in collection, do not run or compete with other groups. Move and collect in your normal pace (i.e. as if walking normally). 2. Collect any land dwelling animal you encounter in the field (i.e. except those that are dangerous— simply count them). You can focus on one area or you can walk along while collecting. 3. Put all your collections inside the zip locks provided. 4. Watch your collection time. Stop when the time is up. 5. Count and identify all the small animals collected. Put all your data in Ex. 1.1 data sheet Table 5. 6. Return all the animals counted and identified to the ground of collection.Search EffortCalculate the search effort theoretically applied to each island in plants and in animals in units of person-hours per square foot. Put your data in Table 7a and 7b.2|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  3. 3. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010Individual DensityTo get a density figure, add up all the individuals of all morphospecies found on each island divide thisnumber by the number of square feet searched foreach island size. Put your data in Table 8a and 8b.Graphing 1Now generate a scatter plot (separate graph) showing richness as a function of area; each island is a point.This is a graphical way to check if there is a relationship between island area and number ofmorphospecies. Calculate the number of morphospecies for each island and then plot the number ofmorphospecies (dependent variable) against island area independent variable). Draw a trendline/ best-fitline on the scatter plot.Graphing 2Now test whether individual density (= abundance) is related to island area for the angiosperms only.Normalize the counts of angiosperms: that is, make sure all values are in terms of number per square foot.You can do this by dividing each count by the area of the island.Plot the data as a scatter plot (separategraph) with island areas as your independent variable and angiosperm morphospecies density as yourdependent variable. Draw a trendline/ best-fit line on the scatter plot.3|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  4. 4. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010 DATA SHEETName: Date:Group #: Table 1. Governor’s Island GPS Location Estimated Island Size Search Time (min) Table 2. Romulo Island GPS Location Estimated Island Size Search Time (min)4|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  5. 5. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010 Table 3. Cagao Island GPS Location Estimated Island Size Search Time (min) Plant Morphospecies Counts: each box should represent the count of a separate morphospecies;categories appear on the first two lines; morphospecies within each category below. You can add morecolumns and rows if necessary.Table 4. Plant morphospecies count. Bryophytes/ Mosses Ferns/ Fern Allies Gymnosperms Monocots Dicots Others Others Morphospecies No.123456789105|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  6. 6. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 20101112131415161718192021222324PLANT NOTES, SKETCHES:6|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  7. 7. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010 Animal Morphospecies Counts: each box should represent the count of a separate morphospecies;categories appear on the first two lines; morphospecies within each category below.Table 5. Animal morphospecies count.Classifiaction Crustaceans Vertebrates Myriapods Hexapods Arachnids Mollusks AnnelidsMorphospecies number salamanders millipedes centipede pillbugs spiders snakes insects worms snails slugs other other other mice12347|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  8. 8. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 20105678910111213141516171819202122ANIMAL NOTES, SKETCHES:8|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  9. 9. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010Table 7a. Plant DataIslands sampled Total Total Estimated Search Total Area Persons Sampling Island Size Effort: Sampled Sampling Time pers-hrs/ft2Governors IslandRomulo IslandCagao IslandTable 7b. Animal DataIslands sampled Total Total Estimated Search Total Area Persons Sampling Island Size Effort: Sampled Sampling Time pers-hrs/ft29|Page: FIRST STOP FB 2009-2010
  10. 10. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010Governors IslandRomulo IslandCagao IslandTable 8a. Plant Data Islands Sampled Total of Individuals Total area of the Density Sampled IslandGovernor’s IslandRomulo IslandCagao IslandTable 8b. Animal Data Islands Sampled Total of Individuals Total area of the Density Sampled IslandGovernor’s IslandRomulo IslandCagao IslandGRAPH 110 | P a g e : F I R S T S T O P F B 2 0 0 9 - 2 0 1 0
  11. 11. Exercise 1.1: Island Biogeography of Hundred Islands, Alaminos,Pangasinan, Philippines FB BATCH 2010GRAPH 211 | P a g e : F I R S T S T O P F B 2 0 0 9 - 2 0 1 0

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